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Business analysis thinking methodology

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A quick guide to business process analysis and system functional design

Publié dans : Technologie
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Business analysis thinking methodology

  1. 1. Business Analysis Thinking Methodology A quick guideline for business process analysis and system functionality design By Albert Pratama J. Oscar
  2. 2. Use the following points as a starting point in conducting business and requirement analysis Who is the client and what is its business ? What are the varieties of product your client sell ? Who is the customer of your client ? How do their run the business and get in touch with their customer ? 2 First Thing First – Understand Your Client
  3. 3. 3 Who is the client and what is its business ? What are the varieties of product your client sell ? Who is the customer of your client ? The Easiest way to do it, is by researching your client through its Company Website Find out its core business, its product / service varieties, major customers, even financial statements
  4. 4. 4 How do their run the business and get in touch with their customer ? Use 5W1H to understand clients business process, and to design the system
  5. 5. 5w1H as tools for BA 5W 1H Can help as tools to understand the client business process, and to design system functionality What Why Who When Where How 5
  6. 6. What – Understand the Entities Entity = is something that exists in itself, actually or potentially, concretely or abstractly, physically or not Common type of entities in a business process: Main Entity Transaction Validation User System Attributes 6
  7. 7. What – Understand the Entities Keyword in understanding entities: Created / Modified / Terminated in Main Entity Transaction For which a set of Validation must be applied Which executed by User (s) And its all happen inside one or several System (s) As a result, the output of a process might become the predecessor for another Transaction Attributes Information needed by a Main Entity / Transaction 7
  8. 8. What – Understand the Entities Use Case Example: A Telco Company would like to develop CRM system for its corporate customer. One of the objective is to help integrating Sales process, and service provisioning process, and after sales service into one integrated system. The Telco company itself provide several main services: 1. Mobile telecommunication (Postpaid and Prepaid) 2. Fix Phone (PSTN) Services 3. Connectivity Services Customer of the Telco Company : 1. Corporate Customer (Can have all services) 2. Retail Customer (Can have mobile services only) 8
  9. 9. What – Understand the Entities Use Case Example: Generally, The way they run its business (to sell mobile services) is by conducting the following activities: 1. Sales executive Create an Opportunity to Track its sales activities 2. After a deal is closed with prospective customer, Sales handover the provisioning activities to Sales Operation 3. Sales Admin Create a Sales Order to complete the provisioning . Mobile Phone number (MSISDN) and GSM Card number (ICCID) is a mandatory information in a sales order 4. Once a Sales order is submitted, the mobile services must be registered to Several systems: 1. Billing System 2. Charging System 3. Network Related System 5. Once the mobile service information is registered to these system, the sales order will be completed, and customer will have the subscription, and can use the service. 6. Customer with active subscription can submit a complain, update its information, or submit a request to enhance its services. These kind of request will be handled by customer care through a service request. 9
  10. 10. What – Understand the Entities Use Case Example: Important Information to be extracted from the case: 1. Sales executive Create an Opportunity to Track its sales activities 2. After a deal is closed with prospective customer, Sales handover the provisioning activities to Sales admin 3. Sales Admin Create a Sales Order to complete the provisioning . Mobile Phone number (MSISDN) and GSM Card number (ICCID) is a mandatory information in a sales order 4. Once a Sales order is submitted, the mobile services must be registered to Several systems: 1. Billing System 2. Charging System 3. Network Related System 5. Once the mobile service information is registered to these system, the sales order will be completed, and customer will have the subscription, and can use the service. 6. Customer with active subscription can submit a complain, update its information, or submit a request to enhance its services. These kind of request will be handled by customer care through a service request. 10
  11. 11. What – Understand the Entities Based on the use case, there are entities that can be identified, as follows: Main Entity Customer Represent a person or a corporate using the service Subscription Represent the services subscribed by the customer Transaction Opportunity Transaction to track and record sales activities Sales Order Transaction to activate the service for the customer Service Request Transaction to handle complaint / request from the customer User Sales executive User responsible to initiate sales activities Sales Admin User responsible to conduct service provisioning Customer Care User responsible to do customer care activities 11
  12. 12. What – Understand the Entities Based on the use case, there are entities that can be identified, as follows: Related system CRM System System to handle the sales, provisioning and customer care Billing System System to handle billing and invoicing Charging system System to handle the charging management Network related system System to handle the network operation Attributes MSISDN Number Mobile Phone number is required in Sales Order transaction ICCID number GSM Card Number is required in Sales Order transaction 12
  13. 13. Why – Understand the Reason There is always a reason for why the entities are exist. Understand the reason as a basis to design the following action What information required to build the main entities. Main Entities Transaction How and when a transaction should be executed What are the lifecycle of the main entity When and Where to build and to terminate the main entities Validation What are the validation need to be applied in an entity When to applied the validation to an entity What information required to execute a transaction. What are the lifecycle of the main entity 13
  14. 14. Why – Understand the Reason There is always a reason for why the entities are exist. Understand the reason as a basis to design the following action Which user is (are) allowed to execute a transaction User (s) Systems What are the systems exist to support the transaction execution When the user is allowed to execute the transaction Which user is (are) allowed to access a specific information In which system a transaction should be executed How a system communicate to its surrounding environment 14
  15. 15. Why – Understand the Reason 15 Use Case Example (cont.): From the previous example, let’s understand why entities / transaction is exist. Take an example of why “Opportunity” transaction is exist: 1. To track the Sales activity progress for each prospective client 2. As early information keeper of who is the prospective customer 3. As early information keeper of what are the prospective product to be offered to customer 4. For the sales manager to monitor the sales progress of his / her team member
  16. 16. Why – Understand the Reason 16 Use Case Example (cont.): Based on that information, design of the system must consider the following: 1. Opportunity is a transaction act as starting point of sales activity (No predecessor activity) 2. Opportunity must keep the information of prospective customer. It means that Entity “Customer” act as attribute of Opportunity. In this case, “customer” may have status “prospect”, because it is not yet become a real customer 3. Opportunity will have several stages / lifecycle to accommodate the need of tracking the progress of winning probability. The higher the stages, the higher the probability of a sales executive can close the deal
  17. 17. Why – Understand the Reason 17 Use Case Example (cont.): 4. Opportunity will have set of activities (can be predefined activities) to help sales executive record its sales activities. Predefined activities should be considered where it is necessary, to set the standard on what sales must do. 5. Opportunity should contain the information of prospective product to be offered to prospective customer. Changing in offer history should be captured for analytical / reporting purpose. 6. Manager should be able to access / view the opportunities of his team, in order to track the sales activities of his team
  18. 18. Who – Understand the user / system behind the transaction A Transaction is always started and executed by the following entities: User System or 18
  19. 19. Who – Understand the user / system behind the transaction A Transaction is started and /or executed by the user under the one of the following condition: • When there is no predecessor input • When a decision must be given by human A Transaction is started and /or executed by the system under the following condition: • When there is a clear rule of when and how the system should start and run the transaction • When the input for the transaction is available prior the transaction • When there is a clear rule of when and how the system should stop the execution 19
  20. 20. Who – Understand the user / system behind the transaction Use Case Example (cont.): Continuing from the previous example, the designed will follow the following things: 1. Transaction “Opportunity” is created and executed by Sales executive 2. Transaction “Sales Order” is created and executed by Sales Admin 3. Transaction “Service Request” is created and executed by Customer Care. 20
  21. 21. Who – Understand the user / system behind the transaction Use Case Example (cont.): Another example (transaction executed by system). For postpaid customer, if they do not pay their bill (invoice) for 3 consecutive months (90 days), their mobile services should be blocked. After analysis, it is found out that Billing system is the in charge system to authorize the blocking process. Hence, billing system act as the initiator of the blocking process, and the blocking process will be executed via an order in CRM system 21
  22. 22. Who – Understand the user / system behind the transaction Use Case Example (cont.): Generate Invoice Check Invoice Age Age > 90 days? Inform CRM to create Block Order Create Block Order END STA RT yes no BillingsystemCRMsystem Notes: The process in this flowchart is simplified. The purpose of this flowchart is only to show that a transaction (in this case, block order) can be initiated and executed by system(s). In reality, a block process follow more complex procedures. 22
  23. 23. When – Understand the timing To Understand when a main entity or a transaction must exist, BA should pay attention to the following point : Main Entity Or Transaction What are the predecessor main entity should exist What are the predecessor transaction should be executed Is there any transaction need to be executed after it? Is there any entity resulted (exist) as a result of the transaction ? 23
  24. 24. When – Understand the timing Use Case Example: Taking Example from Telco company use case, a BA should understand that “Sales Order” transaction will follow the following condition: Sales Order Transaction Predecessor Entity: Customer (with status prospect} Predecessor transaction: Opportunity Possible transaction to be executed after order complete : Service Request Entity resulted (exist) from a sales order transaction: Subscription 24
  25. 25. Where – Understand the venue To Understand where a main entity or a transaction should be executed, BA should pay attention to the following point : • Core capabilities of each system • In which system an entity / transaction information should be stored • What are the system that accessible by the user • What are the system accessible by the IT operation / admin only • Capability of each system to communicate to the other system 25
  26. 26. Where – Understand the venue Use Case Example (cont.): Taking from previous example, the following diagram describe which system generate invoice, and execute the blocking order Notes: The process in this flowchart is simplified. The purpose of this flowchart is only to show that a transaction (in this case, block order) can be initiated and executed by system(s). In reality, a block process follow more complex procedures. 26 Generate Invoice Check Invoice Age Age > 90 days? Inform CRM to create Block Order Create Block Order END STA RT yes no BillingsystemCRMSystem
  27. 27. How – Understand the process In order to design a process, please keep in mind the following things: • Main Entity always have lifecycle New Active Inactive Main Entity Lifecycle Example Initial lifecycle Main lifecycle End lifecycle Note : There is always possibility of having another lifecycle in the middle 27
  28. 28. How – Understand the process In order to design a process, please keep in mind the following things: • Because main entity has lifecycle, main entity can be created. Under certain circumstance, it might be able to be modified, and terminated • System should always provide a way to track a creation / modification / termination of a main entity Created Modified Terminated Main Entity 28
  29. 29. How – Understand the process Use case example (cont.) • Entity such as “Customer” may have the following lifecyle: – Prospect : When a prospective is not yet subscribe any service – Active: If a customer already subscribe and currently use the service – Inactive: If a customer is no longer using a service • Depend on the rule of the client, an inactive customer may become an active customer again once is subscribe another service Prospect Active Inactive Customer 29
  30. 30. How – Understand the process In order to design a process, please keep in mind the following things: • A transaction always have status Created In progress Completed Transaction status example Initial status Work in progress Transaction is finish Note : There is always possibility of having another status 30
  31. 31. How – Understand the process Use case example (cont.) • A Sales order transaction have the following status: Created In progress Completed Sales Order status When Sales admin create the transaction When Sales admin submit the transaction When System complete the transaction Note : There is always possibility of having another status 31
  32. 32. How – Understand the process In order to design a process, please keep in mind the following things: • Transaction information can only be modified / cancelled when it is created and when it is in progress, depending on the condition • Once a transaction is completed, it cannot be modified • Main entity status is changed by using transaction New Active Inactive Main Entity Lifecycle Transaction 1 Transaction 2 Transaction 3 32
  33. 33. How – Understand the process Use case example (cont.): • A customer lifecycle changed as a result of transactions Prospect Active Inactive Customer Lifecycle Opportunity Sales Order Termination order 33
  34. 34. Now, Apply it in SDLC 34 DEFINE DISCOVER DESIGN CONFIGURE VALIDATE DEPLOY Understand the Client What Why When Where Who How Validate ALL
  35. 35. 35 “ Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish” -- Steve Job Thank You

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