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A project for Marine biology

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  1. 1. Bioluminescence Dinoflagellates Trinidad
  2. 2. Ocean Zones What color/wavelength of light will animals use? dysphotic
  3. 3. <ul><li>Types of light production: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>incandescence – light bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>luminescence- fluorescence bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between these types of light? </li></ul><ul><li>Bioluminescence: a chemical reaction </li></ul>Light
  4. 4. What organisms that you know of have bioluminescence? Bioluminescence evolved in several kingdoms. Evolution: In early evolution, O 2 was toxic. Some organisms were able to convert it to a nontoxic substance, which had the tendency to produce photons of light. This may have had a selective advantage to some organisms. Not found in freshwater organisms.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Bacterial </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic </li></ul>Photobacterium Types of Bioluminescence
  6. 6. (bacterial) Light emitting organ Photophore
  7. 7. <ul><li>Examples of Bacterial Photophores: </li></ul><ul><li>fish, few squid, Pyrosoma (tunicate) </li></ul><ul><li>How do they get bacteria? </li></ul><ul><li>organ open to exterior (provide entrance for bacteria to enter) </li></ul><ul><li>potentially continuous luminescence </li></ul>Pyrosoma
  8. 8. <ul><li>Bacterial photophores- 3 genera </li></ul><ul><li>Photobacterium (symbiotic relationship) </li></ul><ul><li>Achromabacteria (2 types of squid use bacteria, the rest (17) have make their own luminescence) </li></ul><ul><li>Beneckea (not associated with symbiotic relationship) </li></ul>Squid Euprymna- squid hatches w/out bacteria; w/in hours it is infected w/natural populations of bacteria
  9. 9. <ul><li>Tunicate - Pyrosoma - bacterial symbiont (intracellular) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of fish that have bacterial photophores: </li></ul><ul><li>Anglerfish (ceratioids) </li></ul><ul><li>Pinecone fish (Monocentrids) </li></ul><ul><li>Lantern eyes/flashlightfish (Anomalopids) </li></ul><ul><li>Ponyfishes/slipmouths (Leiognathids) </li></ul><ul><li>Ichthyococcus </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Intrinsic photophores: </li></ul><ul><li>Widely distributed, ex. Cookie cutter shark </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous photophores 1000’s </li></ul><ul><li>Make own luminescence </li></ul><ul><li>Control output of light (on and off) </li></ul>                                                       
  11. 11. <ul><li>Control of Bioluminescence : </li></ul><ul><li>They can control biolum intensity by controlling blood supply to light organ (i.e., control the amt of O 2 -- O 2 decreases light intensity decreases) </li></ul><ul><li>Light control using a shield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation of organ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What are the advantages of using bioluminescence?
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Reproductive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countershading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape and avoid predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In evolution </li></ul></ul>Function of Bioluminescence
  14. 14. Countershading
  15. 15. Camouflage
  16. 16. Some mesopelagic copepod species are red/black in color. Why?
  17. 17. Malacosteus (dragonfish)
  18. 18. Some predators can lure prey by mimicking signals of prey. Other predators dangle a lure to attract prey. Predation
  19. 19. mid-water squid releases a bioluminescent cloud to startle and confuse predators. Photoblepharon- blink and run method. Defense
  20. 20. Other bioluminescent animals Duncecap or helmet jelly Periphylla periphylla
  21. 21. Bamboo coral Keratoisis flexibilis
  22. 22. ostracod Dinoflagellate Ctenophore
  23. 23. pterapods
  24. 24. Firefly squid Deep sea squid
  25. 25. Deep sea glass squid Teuthowenia pellucida
  26. 26. Deep sea gulper Photophores on ventral surface
  27. 27. Deep sea viper fish & deep sea shrimp
  28. 28. Black Devil Angler Fish lure
  29. 29. angler fish
  30. 30. Shrimps
  31. 31. More Jellyfish
  32. 32. <ul><li>Define bioluminescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Who produces bioluminescence? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between intrinsic and bacterial bioluminescence? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the blink and run method? </li></ul><ul><li>What is countershading? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the evolutionary advantage of bioluminescence in bacteria? </li></ul>Inquiry