2. Different sources of listening
a) Teacher talk
∙ T in complete control.
∙ Planned input
∙ Spontaneous input: words of
b) Student talk
“To experiment with new language”
c) Guest speaker
d) textbook recordings
+ Listening sequences
3. Different sources of listening
+ Real-world information
+ Visual aspect
+ People in their natural habitat
- Creativity from T
+ pronunciation: stress
+ contain stories
+ accents, voices,
cultures and ideas in the
4. Pre-listening 1. Activate schemata: What do I know?
2. Reason: Why listen?
3. Prediction: What can I expect to hear?
While-listening 1. Monitor (1): Are my expectations
2. Monitor (2): Am I succeeding in the
Post-listening 1. Feedback. Did I fulfill the task?
2. Response: How can I respond?
The listening sequence
5. Pre-listening skills and activities
1. Activate schemata
6. Pre-listening skills and activities
2. Give students a
purpose for listening
Setting questions beforehand is the most common way of
establishing a reason for the students to listen.
E.g. from title to question, KWL charts, …
3. Pre teaching
Gives students confidence as well as potentially useful
information about the topic.
# of words to pre-teach?
7. Pre-listening skills and activities
The idea of pre-listening is to introduce the topic rather than to give
all the answers.
Don’t ‘do a listening before the listening’.
During the pre-listening phase, let the students do as much speaking
Keep in mind Christine Nuttall’s axiom, ‘Never say anything yourself if
a student could say it for you.’
Don’t just talk about the general topic; if the idea is to introduce the
listening passage, the conversation should stick, more or less, to the
content of the passage. The pre-listening activity must be entirely
relevant to what the students will hear.
8. While listening skills and activities
Why use while-listening activities?
a) well-designed activities can help students to understand the listening
b) we want our students to show evidence of understanding or non-
9. While listening skills and activities
Listening for gist
Listening for detail
Inferring (Making deductions)
10. While listening skills and activities
Note-taking (improving listening)
Dictation (intensive listening)
12. Post-skills and activities
pose a problem and use a listening passage to help solve it.
6. Solving moral
13. Post-skills and activities (Other ideas)
Deconstructing the listening text
Reconstructing the listening text
If we want to examine listening texts for their salient features - grammar, vocabulary,
cohesive devices, discourse markers, pronunciation, etc - to a certain extent we need to
pull them apart.
The teacher’s role is to provide fragments of the text or a damaged or abbreviated form of it. By
putting it back together, students have to deal with many aspects of language: grammar,
vocabulary and discourse features of spoken English, for example.
14. In summary
Prepares the students, primarily by getting them interested in
the topic, activating schemata and working with top-down
ideas. At this stage we also give the students a listening task.
The students are now ‘on-task’, engaged in real-time processing
of the input.
Besides checking the answers, we go into detail, looking at
both top-down features such as the exact setting of
the passage or information about the speakers, and bottom-up
features such as individual words or phrases.