2. THE TRANSITION FROM MONARCHY
TO REPUBLIC (1902-1936)
In 1902, Alfonso XIII had all the power of a king, but conflict
increased. General Primo de Rivera led a military coup in
1923 and established a dictatorship.
He closed Parliament and suspended elections.
Primo de Rivera resigned in 1930 and elections were held
in 1931. The Republicans won the elections and established a
democratic system. They implemented economic, social and
politic reforms. Conservatives were not happy with the
reforms and supported a military coup that began on
18 July 1936. This marked the beginning of the Civil War,
led by generals Sanjurjo, Mola and Franco.
3. The Civil War divided the Spanish people
(Republicans and Nationalist) and devasted
the country. In 1936, General Franco ended
democracy and established a dictatorship,
which lasted almost 40 years.
Franco had absolute power.
He abolished the Republican Constitution and anyone who
opposed the regime was persecuted and imprisoned, or
forced to exile.
THE FRANCO DICTATORSHIP
4. The Transition to Democracy
Juan Carlos I become
king of Spain and Adolfo
Suárez became Prime
The Constitution establishes
Spain as a parliamentary
monarchy and guarantees the
fundamental rights of its
After Franco died in 1975,
Spain changed to a
The first democratic elections
on 15 June
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1978