1. University of Gujrat Lahore Campus
Assignment of ICT
Instructor Name: Sir Waqar
Ali Raza (BSCS 14-12)
Umar Hassan (BSCS 14-02)
Nauman Sarfraz (BSCS 14-03)
Imran Ali (BSCS 14-29)
Talal Mir (BSCS 14-36)
What is Robotics?
History of Robotics
What is Robots?
Laws of Robots
Purpose of Robots
Components of Robots
Type of Robots
Advantages and disadvantages of Robots
Future of Robots
2. Topic: Robotics
What is Robotics?
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design,
construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as
computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and
The design of a given robotic system will often contain principles
of mechanical and electronic engineering and computer science.
History of Robotics :
The word robot was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel
Capek(1890-1938) in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots),
published in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial
people called robots . Capek was reportedly several times a candidate
for the Nobel prize for his works .
The word "robotics", used to describe this field of study, was coined
accidentally by the Russian –born , American scientist and science
fiction writer, Isaac Asimov(1920-1992) in 1940s.
Da Vinci sketched the first humanoid robot in 1495
George Devol and Joseph Engelberger formed the world’s first robot
company in 1956 .
3. What are Robots?
Robot is a programmable machine that takes the actions or
appearance of an intelligent creature which is usually a human.
The Robotics Institute of America defines a robot as a "re-
programmable multi-functional manipulator designed to move
materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable
programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks
The Laws of Robots:
There are four Laws of Robots.
Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added a “zeroth
Zeroth Law:A robot may not injurehumanity, or, through inaction, allow
humanity to come to harm
First Law: A robotmay not injurea human being, or, through inaction, allow a
human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law
Second Law:A robot mustobey orders given it by human beings, except
wheresuch orders would conflict with a higher order law
Third Law:A robot mustprotect its own existence as long as such protection
does not conflict with a higher order law.
4. PURPOSE OF ROBOTS:
Robots can operate equipment to much higher precision than humans.
Robots can work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, withoutgetting tired or
Robots may be cheaper to use over a long period.
Robots can work in environments which may be too dirty or dangerous
Robots may be able to do work that is impossiblefor humans to
Componentsof a robotic system:
Most industrialrobots have at least the following five parts:
1. Sensors: Most robots of today are nearly deaf and blind. Sensors
can providesome limited feedback to the robot so it can do its job. The sensor
sends information, in the formof electronic signals back to the controller.
Sensors also give the robot controller information about its surroundings and
lets it know the exact position of the arm, or the state of the world around it.
2. Effectors: An effectors is any device that affects the environment.
Robots control their effectors, which are also known as end effectors. Effectors
5. include legs, wheels, arms, fingers, wings and fins. Controllers cause the
effectors to produce desired effects on the environment.
3. Actuators:Actuators, also known as drives, are mechanisms for
getting robots to move. Most actuators are powered by pneumatics (air
pressure), hydraulics (fluid pressure), or motors (electric current). Most
actuation uses electromagnetic motors and gears but there have been
frequent uses of other forms of actuation including NiTinOL"muscle-wires" and
inexpensive Radio Control servos.
4. Controllers: The robotconnects to a computer, which keeps the
pieces of the arm working together. This computer is the controller. The
controller functions as the "brain" of the robot. The controller can also
network to other systems, so that the robot may work together with other
machines, processes, or robots.
5.Arms: The robot armcomes in all shapes and sizes and is the single
most importantpart in robotic architecture. The arm is the part of the
robotthat positions the End Effectors and Sensors to do their pre-
programmed business. Many (butnot all) resemble human arms, and have
shoulders, elbows, wrists, even fingers. This gives the robota lot of ways to
position itself in its environment.
6. Types Of Robots :
There are many types of Robots:
1. Mobile Robots
2. Rolling Robots
3. Walking Robots
4. Stationary Robots
5. Autonomous Robots
6. Remote Controlled Robots
7. Virtual Robots
8. Beam Robots
1- Mobile Robots
Mobile robots areable to move, usually they performtask such as search areas. A
prime example is the Mars Explorer, specifically designed to roam the mars
surface. Mobile robots are a great help to such collapsed building for survivors
Mobile robots areused for task where people cannot go. Either because it is too
dangerous of because people cannot reach the area that needs to be searched.
2- Rolling Robots
Rolling robots havewheels to move around. These are the type of robots that can
quickly and easily search move around. However they are only usefulin flat
areas, rocky terrains givethem a hard time. Flat terrains are their territory.
Robots on legs are usually broughtin when the terrain is rocky and difficult to
enter with wheels. Robots have a hard time shifting balance and keep them from
7. tumbling. That’s why most robots with haveat least 4 of them, usually they have
6 legs or more
4- Stationary Robot
Robots are not only used to explore areas or imitate a human being. Most robots
performrepeating tasks withoutever moving an inch. Most robots are ‘working’
in industry settings and are stationary
5- Autonomous Robot
Autonomous robots areself supporting or in other words self contained. In a way
they rely on their own ‘brains’.
Autonomous robots run a programthat give them the opportunity to decide on
the action to performdepending on their surroundings. Attimes these robots
even learn new behavior.
6- Remote Controlled Robot
An autonomous robotis despite its autonomous not a very clever or intelligent
unit. The memory and brain capacity is usually limited, an autonomous robotcan
be compared to an insect in that respect. In casea robotneeds to performmore
complicated yet undetermined tasks an autonomous robotis not the right choice.
7- Virtual Robot
Virtual robots don’t exist in real life. Virtual robots are justprograms, building
blocks of softwareinsidea computer. A virtual robotcan simulate a real robotor
justperforma repeating task. A special kind of robotis a robot that searches the
world wide web.
8. 8- Beam Robot
BEAM is shortfor Biology, Electronics, Aesthetics and Mechanics. BEAM robots
are made by hobbyists. BEAMrobots can be simple and very suitable for starters.
The Advantages of Robots :
Performthe defined tasks with speed and accuracy
Give us information that we can’t
Work at any time withoutsalary or food
Can work in dangerous environment
Can do many tasks at the sametime
The Disadvantages of Robots :
Can’t respond in emergencies
Cost a lot of money
Replace human workers
Need a huge power supply
9. Future of Robotics :
Every person will have a robot at home
Robots will do all the household tasks
Robots will take care of children and elderly
Nanorobots will be made
The whole army will be composed of robots
Robots will performsurgeries
Robot brains that arebased on computers can be ordered 100 trillion
instructions per second will be made.
Introduction to AI Robotics
(Robin R. Murphy)