1. COMSATS UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD
SIR MUHAMMAD RIAZ KHAN
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY [HUM220]
ALI RAZA [SP20-BBA-004]
AHMED MUSTAFA [SP20-BBA-003]
M. OWAIS HAMID [SP18-BBA-009]
JUNE 28TH ,2021
2. WHAT IS AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER?
Autism is a lifelong, non-progressive neurological disorder typically appearing
before the age of three years. The word “autism” manner a developmental incapacity
substantially affecting verbal and non-verbal conversation and social interactio n.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complicated developmental situation that
includes chronic demanding situations in social interaction, speech and nonverbal
conversation, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. The outcomes of ASD and the
severity of signs are distinctive in every person
ASD is commonly first recognized in formative years with a number of the most-apparent
symptoms and symptoms offering round 2-three years old, however a few youngsters with autism
expand usually till toddlerhood once they prevent obtaining or lose formerly won skills. According
to the CDC, one in fifty nine youngsters is envisioned to have autism. Autism spectrum disease is
likewise 3 to 4 instances extra not unusual place in boys than in women, and plenty of women with
ASD show off much less apparent symptoms and symptoms as compared to boys. Autism is a
lifelong condition. However, many youngsters recognized with ASD cross directly to stay
independent, productive, and gratifying lives. The statistics right here focuses by and large on
youngsters and adolescents.
CharacteristicsofAutism Spectrum Disorders
Autism differs person to person in severity and combos of symptoms. There is a awesome variety
of talents and traits of youngsters with autism spectrum disorder — no youngsters seem or behave
the identical way. Symptoms can variety from slight to intense and frequently extrude over time.
Characteristicsofautism spectrum disorder fall into two categories.
o Social interaction and communication problems: inclusive of problems in regular back-
and-forth conversation, decreased sharing of hobbies or emotions, demanding situations in
know-how or responding to social cues along with eye touch and facial expressions,
deficits in developing/maintaining/know-how relationships (problem making friends), and
3. o Restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests or activities:
Hand-flapping and toe-walking, gambling with toys in an unusual way (together with
lining up motors or flipping objects), speak me in a completely unique way (together with
the use of ordinary styles or pitches in speak me or “scripting” from favored shows),
having considerable want for a predictable habitual or structure, showing excessive
pursuits in sports which are unusual for a further elderly child, experiencing the sensory
elements of the sector in an uncommon or excessive way (together with indifference to
pain/temperature, immoderate smelling/touching of objects, fascination with lighting and
movement, being beaten with loud noises, etc.), and others.
Also, at the same time as many human beings with autism have everyday intelligence, many others
have moderate or extensive highbrow delays. Additionally, human beings with ASD are at extra
hazard for a few scientific situations consisting of sleep problems, seizures and intellectual
Diagnosis andRisk Factors
Early prognosis and remedy are crucial to decreasing the signs of autism and enhancing
the first-rate of lifestyles for humans with autism and their families. There isn't anyt any
clinical take a look at for autism. It is identified primarily based totally on looking at how
the kid talks and acts in assessment to different youngsters of the identical age. Trained
experts commonly diagnose autism with the aid of using speaking with the kid and asking
questions of mother and father and different caregivers.
o Not responding to his/her name by 12 months of age
o Not pointing at objects to show interest by 14 months
o Not playing "pretend" games by 18 months
o Avoiding eye contact or preferring to be alone
4. o Getting upset by minor changes
o Flapping their hands, rocking their body or spinning in circles
o Having unusual and sometimes intense reactions to the way things smell, taste, feel
If there's a robust challenge that your infant is displaying feasible symptoms and symptoms
of autism, then a diagnostic assessment ought to be performed. This generally includes an
interview and play-primarily based totally trying out together along with your infant
performed via way of means of a psychologist, developmental-behavioral pediatrician,
infant psychiatrist or different providers.
Scientists do now no longer definitely recognize what reasons autism spectrum disorder.
Several elements likely make contributions to autism, consisting of genes a infant is born
with or environmental elements. A infant is at extra chance of autism if there's a member
of the family with autism. Research has proven that it isn't resulting from terrible parenting,
and it isn't resulting from vaccines.
Tips for Parents
o Learn as much as possible about autism spectrum disorder
o Provide consistent structure and routine
o Connect with other parents of children with autism
o Seek professional help for specific concerns
o Take time for yourself and other family members
Having a toddler with autism influences the entire own circle of relatives. It may be stressful, time-
ingesting and expensive. Paying interest to the bodily and emotional fitness of the entire own circle
of relatives is important. Many country wide and neighborhood advocacy companies offer
information, assets and help to people with autism spectrum disease and their families. A few are
indexed withinside the Resources section.
5. WHAT CAUSES AUTISM?
There isn't any any uncomplicated reason of ASD. Some reasons which can be supported via
way of means of studies consist of genetic and a few environmental factors. Specific genetic
reasons can simplest be diagnosed in 10% to 20% of instances. These instances consist of precise
genetic syndromes related to ASD and uncommon modifications with inside the genetic code.
The actual reason of ASD is unknown. The maximum contemporary studies demonstrates that
there’s no unmarried reason.
Some of the suspected risk factors for autism include:
having an immediate family member with autism
fragile X syndrome and other genetic disorders
being born to older parents
low birth weight
exposure to heavy metals and environmental toxins
a history of viral infections
fetal exposure to the medications valproic acid (Depakene) or thalidomide (Thalomid)
According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), both genetics
and environment may determine whether a person develops autism.
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENTS FOR AUTISM?
Even in case your baby hasn’t formally been recognized with autism spectrum disease, they will
nonetheless gain from positive remedies. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
6. makes the ones remedies viable for youngsters below age three who can be at chance for
The sort of remedy your baby gets for autism spectrum disease relies upon on their man or woman
needs. Because ASD is a spectrum disease (which means a few youngsters have slight signs and
others have intense signs) and every baby who has its miles unique, there are a whole lot of
They can consist of extraordinary types of treatment plans to enhance speech and behavior, and
now and again medicines to assist manipulate any clinical situations associated with autism.
The remedies your baby can gain from maximum relies upon on their state of affairs and needs,
however the aim is the same: to lessen their signs and enhance their getting to know and
Behavior and Communication Treatments
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). ABA is frequently utilized in faculties and clinics to assist
your infant research high-quality behaviors and decrease terrible ones. This method may be used
to enhance a huge variety of skills, and there are differing types for extraordinary situations,
Discrete trial training (DTT) uses simple lessons and positive reinforcement.
Pivotal response training (PRT) helps develop motivation to learn and communicate.
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is best for children under age 5.
Verbal behavior intervention (VBI) focuses on language skills.
Developmental, Individual Differences, Relationship-Based Approach (DIR).
This form of remedy is higher called Floor time. That’s as it includes you getting at the ground
together along with your toddler to play and do the sports they like.
It’s supposed to help emotional and highbrow boom through assisting them analyze abilties round
verbal exchange and emotions
7. Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-handicapped Children
This remedy makes use of visible cues which includes photo playing cards to assist your baby
examine regular talents like getting dressed. Information is damaged down into small steps for you
to examine it greater easily.
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). This is every other visual-primarily
based totally treatment, however it makes use of symbols rather than photograph cards. Your
toddler learns to invite questions and speak via unique symbols.
This form of remedy allows your toddler examine lifestyles competencies like feeding and dressing
themselves, bathing, and know-how how to narrate to different people. The competencies they
examine are intended to assist them stay as independently as they can.
Sensory Integration Therapy.
If your infant is without problems dissatisfied through such things as vibrant lights, sure sounds,
or the sensation of being touched, this remedy can assist them discover ways to address that sort
of sensory information.
There isn't any treatment for autism spectrum disorder, and there’s presently no medicinal drug to
deal with it. But a few drug treatments can assist with associated signs and symptoms like
depression, seizures, insomnia, and hassle focusing.
Studies have proven that medicinal drug is handiest whilst it’s mixed with behavioral therapies.
Resperidone (Risperdal) is the simplest drug accredited via way of means of the FDA for kids with
autism spectrum disorder. It may be prescribed for kids among five and sixteen years vintage to
assist with irritability.
8. Some docs will prescribe different capsules in positive cases, such as selective serotonin reuptake
inhibitors (SSRIs), anti-tension medications, or stimulants, however they’re now no longer FDA-
accredited for autism spectrum disorder.
Talk together along with your child’s physician approximately whether or not there are drug
treatments that deal with their signs and symptoms.
Experts don’t advise any unique diets for youngsters with autism spectrum sickness, however
getting right vitamins is important. Sometimes children with ASD limitation their meals or dad
and mom strive casting off such things as gluten to look if it facilitates signs and symptoms
However, there may be no studies that has verified that eliminating gluten or casein (proteins in
wheat and milk products) from their weight-reduction plan is a beneficial remedy for ASD, and
restricting ingredients like dairy can save you right bone development.
Kids with autism spectrum sickness have a tendency to have thinner bones than children without
it, so bone-constructing ingredients are important. You may need to paintings with a nutritionist
or registered dietitian to increase a wholesome ingesting plan.