Whether teachers are entering their first year in the classroom, or they are
classroom experts, educators are always searching for new ways to improve
the learning experience for students.
By learning new strategies and teaching methods, educators can promote
learning and actively stimulate children‘s natural thirst for knowledge.
The impact of an effective elementary school teacher can remain with a child
for the rest of his or her life.
3. LECTURE METHOD
The lecture is defined as the method of instruction in which the instructor has
full responsibility for presenting facts and principles orally. Lectures may be
formal or informal.
Formal Lectures: The formal lecture method is primarily used when
presenting information to large groups. Communication is virtually a one way
communication from instructor to students.
Informal Lectures: The informal lecture includes active student
participation. Learning is best achieved if students participate actively in a
relaxed atmosphere, therefore, the informal lecture is encouraged over the
4. Advantages of Lecture Method
It provides an economical and efficient method for delivering substantial
amounts of information to large numbers of student.
It affords a necessary framework or overview for subsequent learning, e.g.,
reading assignments, small group activities, discussion.
It offers current information (more up to date than most texts) from many
It provides a summary or synthesis of information from different sources. It
creates interest in a subject as lecturers transmit enthusiasm about their
5. Disadvantages of Lecture Method
It does not afford the instructor with ways to provide students with individual
It is difficult to adapt to individual learning differences.
It may fail to promote active learning unless other teaching strategies, such
as questioning and problem-solving activities, are incorporated into the
6. DEMONSTRATION METHOD
Demonstration involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making
clear by use of examples or experiments.
Demonstrations often occur when students have a hard time connecting
theories to actual practice or when students are unable to understand
application of theories.
7. MAJOR PURPOSE OF DEMONSTRATION
When practical, allow trainees to repeat the procedure in a ―hands on‖
practice session to reinforce the learning process.
By immediately correcting the trainees‘ mistakes and reinforcing proper
procedures, you can help them learn the task more quickly.
The direct demonstration approach is a very effective method of
instruction, especially when trainees have the opportunity to repeat the
8. ADVANTAGES OF DEMONSTRATION
Saves time in presenting
Concentrates attention of learners on relationships to be understood
Makes efficient use of "power of observation
Is a means of strong motivation, and
Can be used in training groups or individuals.
9. DRILL METHOD
The term drill and practice is defined as a method of instruction
characterized by systematic repetition of concepts, examples, and practice
Drill and practice is a disciplined and repetitious exercise, used as a mean of
teaching and perfecting a skill or procedure.
To develop or maintain one‘s specific skills, the sub skills built through drill
and practice should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning.
Effective use of drill and practice depends on the recognition of the type of
skill being developed, and the use of appropriate strategies to develop these
10. Limitations of Drill and Practice
Teachers need to make sure that when having students practice, there is a
clear link between concept and action.
Students must be able to relate what they are doing to what they are
learning. Similarly, drills are not effective when students are not prepared
enough; they will not be able to maintain a pace if they are still unclear
about a concept
11. PROJECT METHOD
Project method is of American origin and is an outcome of Dewey‘s philosophy
of pragmatism. Oxford learners‘ dictionary define project method as a ‘plan
According to Dr. Kilpatrick , A project is a unit of wholehearted purposeful
activity carried on preferably in its natural setting‘ and J. A. Stevenson ,A
project is a problematic act carried to completion in its most natural setting‘.
12. Concept of Project Method
The project method, also discussed under headings like project work, project
approach, and project-based learning, is one of the standard teaching
It is a sub-form of action-centered and student-directed learning and an
enterprise in which children engage in practical problem solving for a certain
period of time.
In project method, teaching and learning are considered from the child‘s
point of view and in this method knowledge and skills are learnt by pupils
through practical handling of problem in their natural setting.
13. Advantages of Project Method
The project method is based on sound psychological principles and laws of
teaching which provide scope for independent work and individual
It promotes habits of critical thinking and encourages the students to adopt
problem solving methods.
It helps in enhancing social interaction, inculcates spirit of co-operation and
exchanges of experiences among the students
14. Disadvantages of Project Method
The project is uneconomical in terms of time and is not possible to fit in to
the regular timetable.
It does not provide any training in mathematical thinking and reasoning.
The learning is incomplete and uniform learning or balanced learning is not
possible for all students as each student performs a different activity.
Textbooks and instructional materials are hardly available.
It is an expensive method as it makes use of a lot of resources which are not
immediately available in the school.
Syllabus cannot be completed on time using this method.
15. Phases of Project Method
Project method teaching involves three phases.
In phase one, the teacher builds an interest in the topic by encouraging
students to share personal relevant stories that act as guidelines to help
formulate questions to investigate.
In phase two, the teacher enables students to go on field trips; interview
experts such as waiters, farmers or nurses, depending on the topic of study;
and share the new knowledge with their classmates.
In phase three, the teacher guides the study to its conclusions and helps the
children review their achievements.
16. PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH/INQUIRY
The use of, and evidence behind, two related student-centred approaches to
teaching has grown significantly over the past decades - problem solving
approach and inquiry method.
Each of these terms define a type of learning environment that is similar to
one another, but has over time been defined slightly differently.
17. Role of a Teacher
Give suggestions not answers
Offer a problem solving heuristic approach
Teach a variety of problem solving strategies
Allow time for the students to struggle with the problem
Choose problems that require time to think through a solution
Provide a variety of problems
Allow students time to practice a heuristic and strategies
Give similar or the same problem in different ways
18. ROLE-PLAYING---GAMES AND SIMULATION
Purpose of Role-Playing
Role play involves imagination, and … ―Imagination is more important than
knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand,
while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to
know and understand. Albert Einstein
19. Principles for Effective Role Playing
As a teaching technique, role playing is based on the philosophy that
meanings are in people, not in words or symbols. If that philosophy is
accurate, we must first of all share the meanings, then clarify our
understandings of each other‘s meanings, and finally, if necessary, change our