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Soil and its types

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Soil and its types

  2. 2. CONTENT LIST  Introduction of soil and sandy soil (Aqsa Mubarik 18)  Loam soil and peat soil (Alishba 46)  Clay soil (Amreen SHAZIA 44)  Chalk soil (Alishba Ghafar 25)  Silt soil (Iqra shahzad 22)
  4. 4. SOIL:- Soil is a thin layer of material covering the earth’s surface and is formed from the weathering of rocks. It is mainly made up of particles, organic material, Air , water and living organism.
  5. 5. TYPES OF SOIL:-  Sand soil  Clay soil  Silt soil  Peat soil  Chalk soil  Loam soil
  6. 6. SANDY SOIL:- What is sandy soil:- Sandy soil is found in watershed areas below mountain or hills. It is created by erosion of rocks and minerals.
  7. 7. Sandy soil  Texture :- Sand being the larger size of particles feel gritty or grainy.  Colour:- Sandy soil is lighter in color than other soil. It can looked like light brown, white or light grey depending on minerals in it. It may have some other color in it like red……if it has oxidized iron in it.  Structure:- No structure because it is loosely packed and lacks the ability to stick together.
  9. 9. BENEFITS FOR PLANTS GROWTH  Little chance of overwatering  Easy to dig up and add fertilizer to  Easier for the roots of plants to grow  Warms quickly  Ideal medium for hydroponics
  10. 10. Which plants can grow in sandy soil:-  Vegetables:- Carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, papers and corns.  Fruit:-.  Peeches, sweet cherries and apricots  Herbs:-  Dry pants:-  Wild flowers:-
  11. 11. Loam Soil:  What is Loam Soil? This is any soil sample that contain both clay and sand particles in moderate proportion with organic matter.
  12. 12. Composition:  Mineral (50%)  Water (20-30%)  Organic matter (5%)  Air (20-30%)
  13. 13. Characteristics  It is dark brown in color.  The texture is gritty and retains water easily.  The particle size are moderate.  It has moderate water holding capacity.  Rich in plant nutrients.  It also contain humus.  It usually well drained and well aerated.
  14. 14. Benefits for Plants Growth  Better drainage  Infiltration  Hold nutrients and making soil fertilie.  Faster to warm up.  Drought resistant due to water holding capacity
  15. 15. Which plants can grow in Loam soil  Crops: wheat, sugarcane,cotton,pulses,oil seeds.  Vegetables: tomatoes,cucumber,onions, green beans.
  16. 16. Peat Soil:  What is peat soil? Peat is the surface organic layer of a soil that consist of partially decomposed organic matter.
  17. 17. Composition  Water content (88-92%)  Carbon(50-60%)  Hydrogen (5-7%)  Nitrogen (2-3%)
  18. 18. Characteristics  Soil color is dark brown.  High content water and water holding capacity.  High of soil porousity.  Low of bulk density.  Bad drainage  Easy drying  Rich humus and organic content
  19. 19. Benefits of Plant Growth  Sterile medium  Stimulate plant growth  Buffering capacity  Slightly acidic
  20. 20. Which Plants can grow in peat soil  Vegetable: potatoes, sugarcane,onion,carrot  Fruits: Blueberries and strawberries
  21. 21. Clay soil What is clay soil?  Clay soil is made of a relatively higher proportion of fine particles. These soils have very less space between particles.  Clay soils are heavy and hold more water.  Because the particles are smaller in size, water can be trapped in the tiny gaps between them.
  22. 22. Properties of clay soil  Texture: Small clay particles, feels sticky. If suspended in water will not settle  Color: Depend on the chemical composition of the clay. Clay soil can be any shade of yellow to brown to red depending on the dominant minerals.
  23. 23. Characteristics Particle Size:  Less than 0.002mm Other characteristics:  Fine particles with few air spaces  Smooth when dry and sticky when wet  Contains 40-100% clay  Rich in nutrients  Good water holding capacity
  24. 24. Plants grow in clay soil  Lettuce  Snap beans  Cabbage  Ideal for crops like leafy vegetables  Peas, Tomatoes and peppers  Ideal for plants like Roses, Asters
  25. 25. Benefit to plants  Excellent Foundation for healthy plant growth  Provide rich nutrients to plants  Greater capacity to hold water  Help the plants to survive in extreme temperature and moisture that plant
  26. 26. Silt Soil
  27. 27. What is silt soil?  Silt is a sediment material with an intermediate size between sand and clay  Silt Soil is a light and moisture retentive soil type with a high fertility rating.  As silt soils compromise of medium sized particles they are well drained and hold moisture well.  As the particles are fine, they can be easily compacted and are prone to washing away with rain  By adding organic matter, the silt particles can be bound into more stable clumps.
  28. 28. Cont..  Silt is a non plastic or low plasticity material due to its fineness.  Due to its fineness, when wet it becomes a smooth mud that you can form easily into balls or other shapes in your hand and when silt soil is very wet, it blends seamlessly with water to form fine, runny puddles of mud.
  29. 29. Silt in wet condition
  30. 30. Color of silt soil  Silt soils are beige to black  Silt particles are smaller than sand particles and bigger than clay particles.
  31. 31. Properties of silt soil  Silt tends to have a spherical shape, giving a high silt soil a soapy or slippery feeling when rubbed be- tween the fingers when wet and is more difficult to form into a string than clays.  Because of the spherical shape, silt also retains a large amount of water, but it releases the water readily to plants.
  32. 32. Uses of Silt soil  It promotes water retention and air circulation.  The black silt soil is good for cultivation, but too much clay can make soil too stiff for plants to thrive,  Therefore farmers using silt should ensure proportionate input of sand, silt and clay.
  33. 33. Chalky Soil :
  34. 34. Chalky Soil :  Chalky soil is comprised of calcium carbonates from sediments that has built up over time .  It is usually shallow , stony and dries out quickly .  The soil is alkaline with PH levels between 7.1 and 10 .  It added contain organic matter that can decompose rapidly , making them difficult to keep fertile .  It is usually called basic soil and light brown in colour .  Have not ability to hold water and usually drain out .
  35. 35. Composition of chalky soil :  Large amount of calcium carbonate  Minor amount of silt and clay .
  36. 36.  Lime rich soil  Stony  Severly dry in summer  Poor in nutrients  Warms quickly in summer  Porous Defining factors :
  37. 37. Chalky soil and plant growth :  The chalky soil is such soil that causes nutrient deficiency in plant .  As a result poor growth and chlorosis caused and plants not being able to absorbs iron and manganese by their roots .  Chalky soil can be very dry for plants in summer .
  38. 38. Is chalky soil is fertile ?  Chalky soil is fertile , but many of the nutrients are not available to plant because of high alkalinity of the soil , which prevent the absorption of iron by plants root .  We also made it more feryile by adding fertilizers .
  39. 39. Ideal for plants like :  Honey suckle  Jasminum  Rosa  Germanium