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By
Allah Dad Khan
Former Director General Agriculture
Extension KPK
allahdad52@gmail.com
Dated 29th April 2014
TO
PPAF
3
COUNTRY INTRODUCTION
This domain aims at strengthening and diversifying livelihood options by
increasing income through creating economic optio...
Agriculture is the largest sector of Pakistan’s
economy as it contributes 21 % share in the GDP
and directly or indirectly...
Out of the total 47.58 million acre farm area of
Pakistan, 30.5 million acre area is occupied by
the farms not exceeding 1...
Pakistan is struggling with low social development indicators,
ranking 146 out of 186 countries in the United Nation’s
Hum...
1. Those who suffer most acutely from rural poverty are
small farmers with limited land and livestock, landless
farmers an...
1. KPK is sheltering a population of more than 20 million
people , 83% is dwelling in rural areas
2. The province possesse...
6. 94% farms are now below the range of 12.5 acres, which
is a subsistence farm level.
7. The land tenure system in the KP...
1) Livestock farming is also a dominant occupation of the
farming community with more than 15 million animal
heads and abo...
Poverty incidence and trends in NWFP reflecting 44% rural
population living below poverty line shows disappointing
results...
1. Focusing on small-farm agriculture fulfils the
2. objectives of economic growth and improved equity. In terms of
rural ...
1. To improve the livelihoods and economic security of
rural communities through in-kind support to restore
and/or protect...
S.No Problem Suggestion
1 Rainfed cultivated Land (50%) Irrigation to be developed through building of reservoirs through ...
S.No Problem Suggestion
5 Ecological Zones not notified and Wide-spread
ecological impacts
Zones to be established and not...
S.No Problem Suggestion
11 absence of rural based agricultural processing
unit
Small processing units to be established at...
S.No Problem Suggestion
17 Less preference to Organic farming
and Biopesticides IPM ,ICM,IFM and
Sustainable Agriculture
G...
S.No Problem Suggestion
23 Energy crisis Development of alternate sources , plant Ethanol,
biodiesel , wind , solar , biog...
S.No Problem Suggestion
27 lack of gender mainstreaming, 1. These should be proper quota system for female in
the agricult...
S.No Problem Suggestion
1 Lack of female
staff in LDD
Female officer, in the live stock extension their should be at least...
Problem Suggestion
Lack of Fisheries information
And production technology
And lack of ponds
Fisheries extension service s...
AGRICULTURE IS the bread and butter for small landholders. They face numerous
problems which have not been resolved by app...
Sustainable agriculture was addressed by Congress in the Food, Agriculture, Conservation,
and Trade Act of 1990. Under tha...
 Biotechnology
 Organic Agriculture
 Biodynamic
 Afforestation
 Development of water resources
 Waste use as compost...
 A. Crop rotation keeps the soil healthy.
 B. Mixed farms allows the uses of livestock manure.
 C. Conserving natural a...
Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of
soils, ecosystems and people.
It relies on ecologic...
Agro-ecology
Diversity
Recycling
Healthy soil
Healthy crops
Healthy livestock
Healthy people
The four basic principles of ...
Is organic environmentally friendly?
Answer: Yes
Soil OM increased
Carbon sequestered
Water quality improved
Biodiversity ...
Integrated Farm Management is a whole farm system providing efficient and profitable
production that is environmentally re...
There are many variants of IPM philosophy. These differences form a continuum from
simply using knowledge of pest biology ...
There is an inclination towards FFS because the extension
service is perceived having a much broader coverage
That goes be...
The Farmer Field School is a form of adult education, which evolved from
the concept that farmers learn optimally from fie...
Farmer Field School is a school without walls. Farmers and
extension workers are students. The Farmers Field is the class
...
1. Skill Development
2. Empowerment
3. Will power
4. Capacity of Decision Making
 1. Ground working activities
 2. Training of Facilitators
 3. Establishment and running of FFS
 4. Evaluating PTDs
 ...
Agro-Ecosystem Training
Cucumber Cropping Calendar
Ismailia, Winter Season
October November December January February
Prep...
FarmerField
Schools Give a man a fish
…...and feed him for a
day
Teach him how to fish
…..and feed him for
life
Suggestions
1. Improved on-farm productivity through rehabilitation and development
of small scale irrigation and the desi...
47
Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan
Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan
Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan
Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan
Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan
Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan
Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan
Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan
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Farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province By Allah Dad Khan

  1. 1. By Allah Dad Khan Former Director General Agriculture Extension KPK allahdad52@gmail.com Dated 29th April 2014 TO PPAF
  2. 2. 3 COUNTRY INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. This domain aims at strengthening and diversifying livelihood options by increasing income through creating economic options, adapting productive systems to climate change and rebuilding basic rural infrastructure, which was partly or completely damaged by natural disasters.
  4. 4. Agriculture is the largest sector of Pakistan’s economy as it contributes 21 % share in the GDP and directly or indirectly supports 75 % of total population. It is also absorbs, directly or indirectly, 45 percent of the total workforce of the country and provides food for its population, original products for export, and raw materials for Agro-allied industries.
  5. 5. Out of the total 47.58 million acre farm area of Pakistan, 30.5 million acre area is occupied by the farms not exceeding 12.5 acres in size. Small farmers (<12.5 acres) constitute 93.12 percent of the total farms and account for 61.4 percent of total farm area. Most of the land is arid, semi-arid or rugged, and not easily cultivated.
  6. 6. Pakistan is struggling with low social development indicators, ranking 146 out of 186 countries in the United Nation’s Human Development Index and with a Gender Development Index ranking of 123 out of 160 countries of the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) 2013 Human Development Report. In 2008, it was estimated that 45 million people are severely food insecure and almost 40 percent of children are underweight
  7. 7. 1. Those who suffer most acutely from rural poverty are small farmers with limited land and livestock, landless farmers and especially women, who – as a result of systemic gender discrimination – have little access to resources, services or assets of their own. 2. A major cause of rural poverty in Pakistan is the highly unequal distribution of assets, particularly land and access to water. As a result, the direct gains in income from crop production tend to accrue to a small fraction of the population.
  8. 8. 1. KPK is sheltering a population of more than 20 million people , 83% is dwelling in rural areas 2. The province possesses 10.17 million hectares of land. 3. The cultivable area is 2.75 million hectare. Out of cultivable area only 1.8 million hectare is cultivated where a 4. 1.08 million hectare is cultivable waste. 5. The major chunk of cultivated land is rain fed which constitute 49% of the cultivated area.
  9. 9. 6. 94% farms are now below the range of 12.5 acres, which is a subsistence farm level. 7. The land tenure system in the KPK can be classified into three categories, i.e. 58% farm area is operated by owners while 27% and 15% farms area is cultivated by owners-cum-tenants and tenants respectively 8 Due to great diversity in climate and soils, KPK grows over 42 crops; the major ones being wheat, rice, barley, maize, sugarcane, tobacco, rape & mustard, groundnut, pulses, vegetables and fruits. 9 The major crops occupy nearly 90% of the total cropped area and play an important role in sustaining the living of the rural population.
  10. 10. 1) Livestock farming is also a dominant occupation of the farming community with more than 15 million animal heads and about 22 million poultry birds’ habituating the province. 2) However, this occupation is mostly to supplement family nutritional and cash requirement. 3) The capitalist trend in this sector is still lacking resulting in weak & non-descriptive breeds with low level of milk and meat productivity.
  11. 11. Poverty incidence and trends in NWFP reflecting 44% rural population living below poverty line shows disappointing results of recent economic growth, declining job opportunities and a range of natural resource problems.  Small farmers have an area = 41% with 87% of the total farms  Medium Farms have an are = 17% With 8% of the total farms  Large Farmers have an area =42% with 5 % of the Toal farms
  12. 12. 1. Focusing on small-farm agriculture fulfils the 2. objectives of economic growth and improved equity. In terms of rural development, the small-farm first model led to a focus on projects that provide some form of assistance, such as new technologies, inputs, credit, etc. to small farmers in order to improve their productivity. 3. The livelihoods approach, while similar to the bottom-up approach of the small-farm first paradigm, takes as a starting point the importance of households assets and the diversity of households activities and is therefore fundamentally different from the small- farm paradigm 4. A number of livelihood sources were available to the rural households. These include both farm and non farm sources. Most of the householdss were resorting to both types of sources for their livelihood. Among the farm Muhammad Israr and Humayun Khan et al. An analysis of livelihood sources in hilly areas households’s income from crops, livestock, forest, and rental land was important, while the non-farm householdss were dependent on small scale businesses, public/private sector services, to some extent on remittances, and working as daily wage laborers.
  13. 13. 1. To improve the livelihoods and economic security of rural communities through in-kind support to restore and/or protect the farm production capacities and off- farm income generating activities of vulnerable peasant families and well-targeted progressive landlords – which, in turn, would have a positive impact on their disaster reliance, 2. To enhance the skills and knowledge base of men and women peasant farmers, landless people and unemployed youth through technical support in GAPs, post-harvest management and vocational skills, 3. To empower peasant organisations, farmers organisations, WUAs, farmers and women groups, etc and their constituent hari members to enhance their natural resource base (land, water, vegetation, etc) while strengthening their resilience to future shocks.
  14. 14. S.No Problem Suggestion 1 Rainfed cultivated Land (50%) Irrigation to be developed through building of reservoirs through out province 2 Cultivable waste land ( 1.08 Million Hectare Fragmented and un- economical land holdings hectares) Precision land leveling through different projects and department Public private partnership 3 non-availability of good quality inputs high cost of fertilizers and pesticides, Subsidized cost for small farmers and provision of agriculture credit to farmers through a simplified procedure Strengthening of FSC , Legislation implementation 4 inadequate technical capacity of Agriculture Research and Agriculture Extension Systems Lack of information to farmers Revitalization of agriculture Departments , the previous reports to be revisited .Strengthening of service delivery system. Streamlining soil testing labs in FSC . Strengthening of Agriculture information and Outreach of ARS along with all other stake holder, establishment of Farm Radio at suitable place .
  15. 15. S.No Problem Suggestion 5 Ecological Zones not notified and Wide-spread ecological impacts Zones to be established and notified on basis of ecology and topography . 6 in-efficient utilization of water resources Conservation of water resources through improvement and lining of water courses with community participation , Water management project to be strengthened 7 Quick Rise in Population and increase in Urbanizaion From34m million to 200 million in Pakistan 8 Duplication in agriculture services, mandate to be specified. Mandate to be revisited and amendment in mandate of all agriculture departments 9 lack of agricultural marketing infrastructure, Regularized marketing system and implementation of market laws 10 Absence of gender mainstreaming Gender mainstreaming and WID projects as 50 % population is female
  16. 16. S.No Problem Suggestion 11 absence of rural based agricultural processing unit Small processing units to be established at villages with the concept one village on product. 12 Low Productivity of Livestock lack of health & management coverage for animals Change in breed through artificial insemination 13 Absence of an enabling environment for private sector investment. Private sector to be encouraged through provision of facilities. 14 Small Farmers are the major portion in kPK and Farmer Organization not properly functioning Small farmers to be organized through department to frame farmers organizations , and steps to revitalize the vo already framed. 15 Climate change Research in the field keeping in mind climate change 16 Disasters (Reduced biodiversity Habitat destruction Deforestation Water, air and soil pollution Salinisation, desertification Decline in water resourceand land subsidence Preparedness for disasters
  17. 17. S.No Problem Suggestion 17 Less preference to Organic farming and Biopesticides IPM ,ICM,IFM and Sustainable Agriculture Good Agriculture Practices . through FFS. Establishment of biological control labs , Biopesticides , promotion of organic farming 18 Post harvest losses Study to be conducted and cold storage and cool chain facilities be provided 19 Lack of capacity of farmers and Lack of Awareness Training to farmers , Awareness through mass media 20 Less Export of agriculture products Arrangement to encourage exporters through SMEDA and Export Promotion Bureau 21 Less attention to Olive and tea crops Committee to be framed to look the problems faced in promotion of theses special crops. 22 Acts not implemented Updating and strengthening of existing legislation Seed Act, Pesticides Act, Fertililizer Act, breeders Act, Tobacco Cess , Sugarcane Cess, Sugarcane Factories Act
  18. 18. S.No Problem Suggestion 23 Energy crisis Development of alternate sources , plant Ethanol, biodiesel , wind , solar , biogas , coal 24 Ailment of soil diseases,soil erosion Schemes for control of salinity and alkalinity 25 Defunct Projects Revival of defunct Projects, PODB, CMPII , Water management Projects , LDDB 26 Agriculture Machinery Latest machinery should be provided to the farmers to increase the per acre yield. This provision should be on easy installments so that the farmers can avoid the burden of loans. If possible subsidy should be given by the government of modern m.-
  19. 19. S.No Problem Suggestion 27 lack of gender mainstreaming, 1. These should be proper quota system for female in the agriculture department, especially at filed level and they should work closely with women farmers. 2. Government needs to promote Kitchen gardening to ensure the contribution of women farmers in food security and other relatedtraining in agriculture 3. Micro credit program, agriculture department needs to design special program for the credit provision (interest free) to enable women farmers for agriculture interventions 28 Lack of Credit Facilities to Small Farmers Provision of credit on priority
  20. 20. S.No Problem Suggestion 1 Lack of female staff in LDD Female officer, in the live stock extension their should be at least two officers who can visit the field and provide technical inputs to women as the majority of women in KP are committed directly with live stock management. 2 Feed Management Government needs special attention on Feed management Lack of Budget to LDD Budget allocation, government needs to allocate 30% of its budget to live stock management Lack of Devt Project Government needs to design special program on breed improvement Constrainr Back Yard Poultry Promotion Back yard poultry farming, Government should promote poultry farming with back yard support in the rural areas of the province Less Compost promotion Compost promotion, Government needs to capacitate the women farmers on compost making to ensure proper utilization of natural resource management. Less Chilling Plants Chilling plants and other infrastructure facilities needs to be created to handle storage and marketing of milk and other livestock products. No Feed Mills Feed mill should be developed for easy availability of animal feed Weak VES Veternary extension service needs to be strengthened HRD  Trainings on livestock management for men and women  Trainings on poultry farming with back yard support especially for women  Live stock vaccination  Trainings on compost making and effective storage of animal waste
  21. 21. Problem Suggestion Lack of Fisheries information And production technology And lack of ponds Fisheries extension service should be revamped and strengthened so that technology available can be properly disseminated to farmers. Production of fish seed especially to meet the demand of private fish farmers There is scope to develop sizeable area from cultivale wasteland and part of which shouldbe taken up for fishery farming Development of fish ponds
  22. 22. AGRICULTURE IS the bread and butter for small landholders. They face numerous problems which have not been resolved by approaches pursued so far. It is a dire need to shift to sustainable agriculture approach, changing the priority from farms to farmers development. The suggested approach relies on three fundamental components of extension activities — dialogue with stakeholders, organisational development and knowledge management. In addition, capacity building and awareness raising, monitoring and evaluation are the additional building blocks.Sustainable Agriculture is the main tool for success which we must remember .
  23. 23. Sustainable agriculture was addressed by Congress in the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. Under that law, the term sustainable agriculture means “an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term: 1. Satisfy human food and fiber needs 2. Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends 3. Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls 4. Sustain the economic viability of farm operations 5. Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole."
  24. 24.  Biotechnology  Organic Agriculture  Biodynamic  Afforestation  Development of water resources  Waste use as compost  Perm culture  Soil Amendment  Integrated Farm System  Integrated Crop Management  Integrated Pest Management  Integrated Weed Management  Integrated Nutrient Management  Alternate Energy sources
  25. 25.  A. Crop rotation keeps the soil healthy.  B. Mixed farms allows the uses of livestock manure.  C. Conserving natural areas protects our environment.  D. Small changes in practices can help, rather than harm, the environment.  E. Grass-fed livestock control weeds without chemicals or mowing.  F. Science can determine the right amount of fertilizers and pesticides.  G. Farming removes nutrients and fertilizers or manures replace them.  H. Farming multiple crops allows farmers to reduce their financial risks by having multiple products to sell.
  26. 26. Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. www.ifoam.org Definition of Organic Agriculture IFOAM, 2008
  27. 27. Agro-ecology Diversity Recycling Healthy soil Healthy crops Healthy livestock Healthy people The four basic principles of organic agriculture Endorsed by IFOAM, September 2005 Ecological and social justice Fari Trade? Precaution
  28. 28. Is organic environmentally friendly? Answer: Yes Soil OM increased Carbon sequestered Water quality improved Biodiversity preserved Energy conserved
  29. 29. Integrated Farm Management is a whole farm system providing efficient and profitable production that is environmentally responsible. IFM works by integrating beneficial natural processes into modern farming techniques and ensures that high standards of stewardship and environmental care are practiced.
  30. 30. There are many variants of IPM philosophy. These differences form a continuum from simply using knowledge of pest biology to apply pesticides with timing that is optimal for managing pests, while minimizing applications of pesticides, to the total exclusion of "hard" pesticides in favor of "soft" or naturally derived materials that are less disruptive to nontarget organisms and the environment ("bio-intensive" or "bio-based" IPM). Tactics of Pest Management 1. Chemical Control 2. Biological Control 3. Cultural Control 4. Mechanical & Physical Controls 5. Host Plant Resistance 6. Genetic Control 7. Behavioral Control 8. Regulatory Control
  31. 31. There is an inclination towards FFS because the extension service is perceived having a much broader coverage That goes beyond the educational processes and action learning agenda of the FFS .
  32. 32. The Farmer Field School is a form of adult education, which evolved from the concept that farmers learn optimally from field observation and experimentation. It was developed to help farmers tailor their Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices to diverse and dynamic ecological conditions. The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a group-based learning process that has been used by a number of governments, NGOs and international agencies to promote Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
  33. 33. Farmer Field School is a school without walls. Farmers and extension workers are students. The Farmers Field is the class room and the plant is the teacher. As the plant grows the students gain knowledge in the light of their observations. The get together at a fixed time every week once and make their own decisions based on observations and data analysis for the health of the plants.
  34. 34. 1. Skill Development 2. Empowerment 3. Will power 4. Capacity of Decision Making
  35. 35.  1. Ground working activities  2. Training of Facilitators  3. Establishment and running of FFS  4. Evaluating PTDs  5. Field days  6. Graduations  7. Graduations  8. Follow up by facilitators
  36. 36. Agro-Ecosystem Training Cucumber Cropping Calendar Ismailia, Winter Season October November December January February Preplant Seedling Growth Flower Fruit-Set Harvest Climate protect young plants from strong winds preferred temperature: day 24o /night19o rH should not sink below40-50% preferred temperature: day 20o /night16o rH should not sink below40-50% preferred temperature: day 27o /night27° keep tunnels closed for germination only ventilate tunnels, particularly after sunrise to avoid water on the leaves at any time keep tunnels closed at night Soil  use fine-structured, well aerated organic soils  use 20-40m3 manure to increase organic matter  add 50-100 kg sulfur to lower alkalinity  plant 2-3 cm deep  keep soil warm to assist germination remove weeds Water use well drained soils with high water holding capacity irrigate lightly and regularly, preferably in the morning hours avoid water logging and periods of water stress Nutrients N 50 kg Ammon. Sulfate P 100 kg Super Phosphate K Ca 50 kg Calcium Nitrate Microelements Protection Favorable Conditions: Control Measures: Downy Mildew 20-25o C 90-95% rH Protective:Cu-oxichloride Curative: systemic Powd. Mildew 20-25o C 75-85% rH Micronized Sulfur/water Spider Mites warm and dry Micronized Sulfur Aphids K-soap Cultural Practices do not growcucumber repeatedly in the same field to avoid nematodes use 1.5 kg seeds/fd 6-8000plants/fd 1-2 plants/m2 clip tips to encourage side shoots cut out old, diseased leaves 50 kg Potassium Sulfate 50 kg Potassium Sulfate 50-100 kg Super Phosphate Use TX6 Nozzles for best coverage Crop Calendar L J Water Beneficials Cultural Practices Nutrients PestsWeathe r Soil Plant Ecosystem Analysis
  37. 37. FarmerField Schools Give a man a fish …...and feed him for a day Teach him how to fish …..and feed him for life
  38. 38. Suggestions 1. Improved on-farm productivity through rehabilitation and development of small scale irrigation and the design of improved agricultural practices 2. Improved food security in terms of availability of food crops and access to food 3. A broadened the range of income generating options particularly for vulnerable households 4. Reduced rate of land degradation, soil erosion and deforestation through sustainable use of the natural resource base 5. Emergence of self-sustaining communities and self help groups including women, and marginal farmers contributing to resource mobilization and capital formation 6. Improved well being of women through provision of income generating activities, employment and reduced labour demands 7. Strengthened capacities of rural community members and village extension workers
  39. 39. 47

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