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History of Sculpture

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Lesson 4 in Visual Arts 10 2nd Quarter

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History of Sculpture

  1. 1. SCULPTURE ABRIEFHISTORY La Salle University Integrated School Visual Arts 10 Mr. Al-lyn L. Vocal
  2. 2. Ifyoudon’tknowhistory, thenyoudon’tknowanything. Youarealeafthatdoesn’tknow itispartofatree. Michael Crichton
  3. 3. TimelineHistoryofSculpture Paleolithic Period 35,000 BCE Egyptian Sculpture 2500 BCE Greek Sculpture Early Classical 323 BCE – 31 CE Rise of Christianity 325 AD Gothic Sculpture 13th Century AD Renaissance Sculpture 15th Century AD The 19th and 20th Centuries Modernism
  4. 4. PALEOLITHIC PERIOD 35,000 BCE The löwenmensch statuette
  5. 5. THELÖWENMENSCHSTATUETTE - an ivory statuette from the Paleolithic period, dating back to around 35,000 BC - one of the oldest sculptures ever discovered in a cave in Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany in 1939 - carved out of mammoth tusk - called Löwenmensch (German for ‘lion human’) - about 12” tall and depicts a human figure with a feline face
  6. 6. THELÖWENMENSCHSTATUETTE - has been estimated that the carving, using primitive flint tools, likely took more than 350 hours to complete - because tribes of the time lived on the edge of subsistence, spending such an extended amount of time in making this statuette suggests it must have been an extremely important artifact - may have, perhaps, been intended for use in a shamanistic ritual, to curry protection for the tribe, or ensure a ‘good hunt’
  7. 7. EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 2500 BCE The great sphinx of giza
  8. 8. THEGREATSPHINXOFGIZA - one of the world’s most famous sculptures - the head of a human on the body of a lion - carved out of the limestone bedrock - measures 65’ high and 240’ long
  9. 9. THEGREATSPHINXOFGIZA - has since been restored using stone blocks - some historians believed the head is that of the pharaoh, Khafra - though generally thought to date back to about 2500 BC, evidence of water erosion suggests it might possibly be much older
  10. 10. GREEKSCULPTURE EARLYCLASSICAL 323 BCE – 31 CE Laocoön and his sons
  11. 11. LAOCOÖNANDHISSONS - distinction between the sacred and the secular - the Greek gods were thought to have human form thus, the human form was considered to be the most important subject in Greek art - in sculpture, the early Greeks followed the Egyptian format very closely, carving very stiff, blocky figures in stone
  12. 12. LAOCOÖNANDHISSONS - during the Early Classical period of the 4th and 5th centuries BC, and transitioning into the Hellenistic period, sculptors began to break away from the rigid, Egyptian influenced model - Sculpture began to take on a much more realistic, natural look, with marble or bronze, not stone, the favored medium - the subject matter depicting a greater sense of power and energy, became much less restricted to gods and nobles
  13. 13. Riseof Christianity 325 AD The colossus of constantine
  14. 14. THECOLOSSUSOFCONSTANTINE - the Roman Empire was largely polytheistic - Sculptured works were generally intended to honour a variety of different Gods or members of nobility - Emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion, and we start to see a shift in the subject matter of popular sculpture - Giant statues became less common, and portraiture began to dominate the field of Roman sculpture
  15. 15. Gothic Sculpture 13th Century AD Gargoyle : Notre Dame Cathedral, paris
  16. 16. GARGOYLE - Gothic era expanded on the religious sculptures of the early medieval period and the figures on churches became more elaborate - Prominent Biblical figures were shown in very high relief sculptures, which were often situated, free-standing, around the church
  17. 17. Renaissance Sculptures 15th Century AD Michelangelo’s PIETA
  18. 18. MICHELANGELO’SPIETA - by the beginning of the 15th century, the Renaissance ushered in an eclectic study of the humanities, including science, astronomy, and mathematics - artists began to revisit the thoughtful and dignified perfection of Classical times - the invention of the printing press propagated these ideas, and artists began to show more interest in a scientific approach to reality
  19. 19. MICHELANGELO’SPIETA - the Renaissance masters, including Donatello, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci, were figureheads of the times - Donatello was an Italian sculptor who worked in Florence in the mid 15th century - Leonardo da Vinci was a student of Donatello - one of the most famous artists of all time, Michelangelo, was born in 1475. A genius and true ‘Renaissance Man’, one of Michelangelo’s first sculptures was ‘Madonna and Child’, completed when he was only 16
  20. 20. MICHELANGELO’SPIETA - in 1497, he was commissioned to carve a Pieta - showing the Virgin Mary grieving over the body of her deceased son - completed when he was only 24 years old - only work of art that Michelangelo ever signed
  21. 21. MICHELANGELO’SPIETA - after it was unveiled, he heard spectators giving credit to others - so he snuck into the church in the middle of the night to make one last addition to his masterpiece - carved into the ribbon across the Virgin’s chest, it reads, “Michelangelo Buonarroti, Florentine, made this.”
  22. 22. The19th and 20th Centuries August rodin’s the thinker
  23. 23. AUGUSTRODIN’STHETHINKER - in the 19th and 20th centuries, the art world reflected the rapid-fire changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution - instead of focusing on perfect anatomy, details, and storytelling, artists began to pay more attention to what they perceived ‘below the surface’ - Personal expression and style took on greater importance in creating a truer rendition of reality
  24. 24. AUGUSTRODIN’STHETHINKER - Auguste Rodin is one of the more famous of the sculptors of the time, and is considered the father of modern sculpture
  25. 25. Modernism Picasso cubist sculpture
  26. 26. PICASSOCUBISTSCULPTURE - a variety of art movements occurred during the modernist movement of the early 20th century. Cubism, Dadaism, Surrealism, Pop Art, Minimalism, and Futurism all came about during this period - Marcel Duchamp was one artist of the time who challenged the notion of what art really is - Duchamp was part of the Dada movement, a reaction to WWI that was basically ‘anti- everything’ - Duchamp’s 1917 exhibit, entitled ‘Fountain‘, illustrates perfectly the pessimism, exasperation, and absurdity of the movement
  27. 27. PICASSOCUBISTSCULPTURE - although most famous as a painter, Pablo Picasso did also produce some sculptural pieces - in fact, his mixed media sculptures were especially influential in the beginning of the 20th century - these early sculpture creations employed a variety of unlikely objects, including cardboard, bike seats, plywood, tree branches, etc.
  28. 28. Philippine Sculpture
  29. 29. BonifacioMonument - Filipino sculptors came to be known in the middle of the 19th century - Classical Philippine sculpture reached its peak in the works of Guillermo Tolentino (1890-1976) - his best known masterpiece is the Bonifacio Monument, which is a group sculpture composed of numerous figures massed around a central obelisk
  30. 30. BonifacioMonument - the principal figure is Andres Bonifacio, leader of the revolution against Spain in 1896 - behind him stands Emilio Jacinto, the brains of the Katipunan - the Bonifacio Monument - completed in 1933 -- marked the apex of Tolentino'’s career
  31. 31. AllegoricalHarpoon, ArtPhilippines - Napoleon Abueva (born 1930), one of Tolentino'’s pupils, is one of the pioneering modernists in sculpture - He used various media - and his stylization bordered on the abstract as in Allegorical Harpoon, in which the dominant horizantal thrust of the figure evokes the vitality of primitive forms
  32. 32. Fredesvinda,TheAseanSculptures - Abueva'’s more famous work is Fredesvinda, which was included in the First ASEAN Sculpture Symposium held in Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, from March 27 to April 26, 1981
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