2. CLIMATE IN INDIA
India is home to an extraordinary
variety of climatic regions, ranging
from tropical in
the south to temperate and alpine in
Himalayan north, where elevated
regions receive sustained winter
snowfall. The nation's climate is
strongly influenced by the Himalayas
and the Thar Desert.
4. A hot-dry climate is generally defined as a
region that receives less than 20 in. (50 cm)
of annual precipitation and where the monthly
average outdoor temperature remains above
45°F (7°C) throughout the year.
- High daytime
- Low precipitation
- Short winter
- Humidity : 10-50 %
- Frequent dust storms
- High solar radiation
- Clear sky all round the
5. The main points:
-Orientation and placement, to minimize sun exposure in summer.
-Form, compact to reduce surface areas of heat gain.
-Shade, for maximum sun protection in summer.
-Allow adequate heat gain in winter by movable shading devices.
-Ventilation, for regulation of air movement.
- Colors that absorb less heat should be used to paint the external
- Darker shades should be avoided for surfaces exposed to direct
- The surface of the roof can be of white broken glazed tiles.-During
the day-time openings should be closed and shaded.
- Decreasing the surface of the building exposed to the outside.
- Using materials that take a longer time to heat up.-Providing buffer
spaces (lobbies, etc.) between the living areas and the outside.
6. The larger building dimension
should face north and south
Main walls and windows should face the
wind direction in order to allow maximum
cross-ventilation of the rooms.To reduce
the effect of hot dusty winds, the
leeward side of the house is better.
7. 1. Bedrooms-on the east side.
2. Living rooms-on the north or
Traditionally constructed with
thick walls and roofs and with
very small openings
Sun-dried earth brickis
one of the poorest
conductors of heat
8. More windows should be provided in the
north facade of the building as compared
to the east, west and south as it receives
lesser radiation throughout the year.
Openings and window
The size of the windows on the west
and east sides should be minimized in
order to reduce heat gains into the
house in the early morning and late
9. •The flat roof is a good reflector
and re-radiates heat efficiently,
especially if it consists of a solid,
white painted material.
•High solid parapet walls along
the edge of the roof can on the
one hand provide daytime shade
The principle involved is to catch an
unobstructed breeze at a high level and
channel it to areas in the bottom parts of
10. 1. The courtyard is provided with water
and plants, it acts as a cooling source.
2. Internal courtyards provides cross
ventilation & natural cooling.
3. Most openings are to the internal
courtyard rather than exterior surface.
Outlets at higher levels serve to
vent hot air. Ventilators are
preferred at higher levels as they
help in throwing out the hot air.
11. CASE STUDY
JAIPUR: PINK CITY
- CLIMATE : HOT AND SEMI ARID CLIMATE
- LONG SUMMER
- AVERAGE TEMPERATURE: 32 C
- AVERAGE RAINFALL: 74mm
- HUMIDITY: 55%
- WIND SPEED: 75 km/hr
- Located on the banks of River Banas
- The soil sustain xerophytic and mesophytic
- Major crops grown are: Barley,Wheat,Gram,
12. AMBER PALACE
LOCATION :Amer town from Jaipur district
BUILT IN : 967 BY RAJA MAN SINGH
MATERIAL USED : RED SANDSTONE AND MARBLE
ARCHITECTURAL STYLE : RAJPUTANA ARCHITECTURE
13. GREEN SPACES ARE
PROVIDED FOR KEEPING THE
COURTYARDS PROVIDED GOR
GOOD VENTILATION AND AIR
WATER BODIES PROVIDED IN
COURTYARDS, AND SMALL CANALS ARE
BUILT THROUGHOUT THE STRUCTURE
SHADING DEVICES PROVIDED
EVERWHERE AROUND THE FORT
19. Goa climate
• Goa has a tropical climate, with hot, humid weather
for most of the year. In summer the temperatures
can reach as high as 91°F (33°C) and there are
monsoon rains from June to September. Goa has a
short winter, lasting only from December to
February, with temperatures averaging around 77°F
• The best time to visit Goa is during the cooler
months between November and March, when the
weather is warm, there is no rain, and the seas are
calm and clear. The most popular time to visit Goa
is over December and January, partly because the
weather is ideal at this time, but also because Goa
is renowned for its Christmas and New Year's
celebrations. October, at the very start of the
tourist season, is a good month to visit in if you
want to avoid the worst of the crowds, but,
although the beaches will be lovely and empty,
many facilities will be closed and it'll be harder to
find open restaurants and shops. March or early
April are also good times to arrive, as it isn't quite
as busy and not yet very hot.
20. Characteristics of warm &
• TEMPERATURE RANGES FROM MAXIMUM TEMP
. 27°C – 32°C
. 21°C – 27°C IN SUMMERS • IN WINTERS, LITTLE
SEASONAL VARIATIONS BOTH ANNUAL AND DIURNAL RANGES OF
TEMPERATURE IS VERY NARROW. HUMIDITY REMAINS HIGH
AROUND 75% BUT VARIES FROM 55% - 100%.
23. • Goa is a state on the southwestern coast
of India within the region known as the Konkan, and
geographically separated from the Deccan
highlands by the Western Ghats. It is surrounded
by the Indian states of Maharashtra to the north
and Karnataka to the east and south, with
the Arabian Sea forming its western coast. It is
India's smallest state by area and its fourth-
smallest by population. Goa has the highest GDP
per capitaamong all Indian states,two and a half
times as high as the GDP per capita of the country
as a whole.The Eleventh Finance Commission of
India named Goa the best-placed state because of
its infrastructure, and India’s National Commission
on Population rated it as having the best quality of
life in India (based on the commission’s “12
Indicators”).It is the third-highest ranking among
Indian states in human development index.
24. Relative Humidity in Goa, India
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
67 69 71 71 71 85 88 89 86 80 70 64 75.9
°C ( °F)
Interpretation Humid Humid
25. Architectural Building
• Our Lady of Piety (Nossa Senhora da
Piedade), Divar – one of the earliest
true ‘Goan’ Churches
• The building of these new religious
structures employed local masons,
craftsmen, painters and sculptors,
many of whom were locals converted to
Christianity. In time, several European
priestly congregations began flocking
to the city of Goa along with their own
sets of architectural ideas. The
exposure to ideologies from Europe
permeated within the artistic
sensibilities of the artisans who worked
on these buildings, which gave rise to
new hybrid forms thereon. Likewise, the
vision of local patrons like priests and
religious were also moulded in a certain
way with the influx of ideas. As noted
historian Paulo Varela Gomes explains
in Whitewashed, Red Stone(2011) :
28. India is home to an extraordinary variety of
climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the
south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan
north, where elevated regions receive sustained
winter snowfall. The nation's climate is strongly
influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar
Regions that lie in the cold climate zone are
situated at high altitudes. The temperatures
range between 20-30 Degree C in summers ,
while in winters ,it can range from -3 to 8
Degree C ,making it quite chilly.
Ladakh is a region of India in the state of Jammu
and Kashmir, inhabited by people of Indo- Aryan
and Tibetan descent. It is one of the most
sparsely populated regions in Jammu and Kashmir
and its culture and history are closely related
to that of Tibet.Ladakh’s climate is a little
extreme –the summers can get a little harsh with
direct sunlight falling at such high altitude and
winters can be really cold with temperatures
dropping below freezing point.
29. Ladakh lies on the rain shadow
side of the Himalayan, where
dry monsoon winds reaches
Leh after being robbed of its
moisture in plains and the
Himalayan mountain. The
district combines the condition
of both arctic and desert
climate. Therefore Ladakh is
often called “Cold Desert”.
Cold and Dry Climate is a climate
that is very cold and the
precipitation is too low to sustain
any vegetation at all, or at most a
very scanty shrub. Found in
temperate zones, almost always in
the rain shadow of high mountains
which restrict precipitation from
the westerly winds, or in the case
of Central Asia, from the
Cold and Sunny type of Climate is experienced here
Temperature Variations *
Summer During Day : 17 – 24 Degree C During Night :
4 – 11 Degree c *
Winter During Day : 7 – 9 Degree C During Night : -14
– 0 Degree c
Relative Humidity – consistently low : 10-50%
Winds – occasionally Intense
Sky – fairly clear throughout the year
Cloud Cover – less than 50%
30. The month with the
highest average low
temperature is August
(-1.4°C). The coldest
month (with the lowest
The wettest month
(with the highest
rainfall) is June
(55mm). The driest
month (with the
least rainfall) is
Months with the
Months with the
humidity are August
The month with the
month with the
pressure is July
31. The windiest month (with the highest average wind speed) is February
(15.3km/h). The calmest month (with the lowest average wind speed) is August
The month with the highest number of rainy days is July (16.1 days). The
month with the least rainy days is October (5.7 days).
The month with the
highest snowfall is
April (301mm). The
month with the least
snowfall is December
The month with the highest number of snowfall days is March (20.3 days).
The month with the least snowfall days is September (10.2 days).
The month with the longest days is June (Average daylight: 14.4h). The month
with the shortest days is December (Average daylight: 9.9h).
32. THE SUN’S
Through the day and through the year is one
of the most crucial environmental factors to
understand when designing high performance
buildings. Altitude is the vertical angle the
sun makes with the ground plane (0° < alt <
90°). Azimuth is the horizontal angle between
the sun and true north (–180° < azi < 180°,
positive in a clockwise direction from north)
Resist heat loss
Decrease exposed surface area
Increase thermal resistance
Increase thermal capacity
Increase buffer spaces
Decrease air exchange rate
33. ❑Resist heat loss
➢Decrease exposed surface area
➢Increase thermal resistance
➢Increase thermal capacity
➢Increase buffer spaces
➢Decrease air exchange rate
34. ESSENTIAL FEATURE IN THE
DESIGNING OF HOUSE
BUILDING WILL HAVE SLOPING ROOF
WINDOWS WILL HAVE WOODEN PANNEL.
TIMBER PANNELED WALL WILL BE USED INSTEED OF
BRICK OR STONE MASONRY.
THICK WALL WILL BE USED WITH SOUND
BEDROOM WILL BE ON SOUTH WEST OF THE
KITCHEN WILL BE ON SOUTH EAST OF THE
DINNING WILL BE ON THE SOUTH.
BATHROOM WILL BE ON THE NORTH WEST OF THE
35. ESSENTIAL FEATURE IN THE
DESIGNING OF HOUSE
Natural light is important in the house. Flooring of
the house must be of timber . Noisy place is avoided
Living area should be in the north of the building.
Utility rooms [washing and domestic works] should be
in the south.
Cross ventilation is very important for healthy
Trees can be planted near windows to block cold air.
Topography of Landform plays a very important role in
deciding the vernacular architecture of any place. As
heat gain is desirable so buildings should be placed on
the south side of the hill or mountain.
36. Gable roofs are used in hilly areas, as
these roof types are able to shed snow in
The main used material for roofing in hilly
areas is timber, as it is locally available
Trees which are used for this purpose are:
ROOFING IN COLD AND DRY
Ladakh is a region where traditions are
preserved to a great extent.
This is also seen through the use of local
materials which both complements the
landscape as well as serve the purpose of
keeping the interior space warm during the low
Earth (sun-dried mud bricks), and timber made
from poplar wood are the primary building
materials which are obtained locally and have
high insulating properties.
Mud bricks and mud plaster store heat in the
day and radiate it during the cold nights.
Stones are also used for greater stability of
These local materials cause a lesser impact
on the environment.
The structures are usually built on
the slopes rather than on plains
which have various benefits. The
structures, according to the
mountains, face north-south
direction. The south façade gains
maximum solar heat whereas the
north, or the mountainside
safeguards the structures from the
harsh winds. Building on slopes
also helps to avoid shadows due to
The distinctive feature in the architecture
of Ladakh is the flat roof. Having a
gradual slope, the roof helps to get rid
of the accumulation of snow. In most
structures it is covered with hay for
additional insulation in the floors below,
whereas in some structures a parapet
wall is built making it a habitable terrace
floor that is covered with mud,
overlooking the valley below. These flat
roofs are traditionally designed for a
dry climate like Ladakh.
39. Spatial planning
The structures go up to three-story which allows maximum rooms to gain sunshine.
Also, the thick walls in the bottom allow for greater stability on the slopes. The
rooms which are the most used are positioned on the south side for heat whereas
the lesser-used rooms like storage and toilets are planned on the opposite sides.
The room sizes of most structures are
kept small (as small as 3x4m), so that
the heat remains trapped in rooms. The
upper floors are used as living, dining,
prayer halls, etc.
In the residential structures, the ground
floor is kept for the cattle which allow for
heat transfer from the cattle to the upper
floors, and also for collecting human waste
from the toilet room on the floor above.
Leh is the joint capital and largest town of the union territory of Ladakh in
India. Leh, located in the Leh district, was also the historical capital of the
Himalayan Kingdom of Ladakh, the seat of which was in the Leh Palace, the
former residence of the royal family of Ladakh, built in the same style and
about the same time as the Potala Palace in Tibet. Leh is at an altitude of
3,524 metres (11,562 ft), and is connected via National Highway 1 to
Srinagar in the southwest and to Manali in the south via the Leh-Manali
41. Leh has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk) with long, cold
winters from late November to early March, with minimum temperatures well below
freezing for most of the winter. The city gets occasional snowfall during winter. The
weather in the remaining months is generally fine and warm during the day. Average
annual rainfall is only 102 mm (4.02 inches).
CLIMATE AND VEGETATIION
Ladakh is rich repository of medicinal and
aromatic plants. It is estimated that the
Ladakh region may harbour close to 1,100
species of vascular plants and ferns. As
many as 23 species of flowering plants are
endemic to Ladakh. The western and
eastern region of Ladakh differs
significantly in terms of floral
As this region of Himalaya falls
under the rain shadow region,
therefore there isn't much of
rains. In the lower elevation, dry
forests of juniper, Populus -
Salix forests and subalpine dry
birch - fir, subalpine dry birch -
fir are featured.
44. Constructed in the 17th Century, the foundation of
this palace was laid down by the founder of the Namgyal
Dynasty, Tsewang Namgyal, but it was Sengge Namgyal
who completed its construction.
Altitude: Leh Palace is located at an altitude of 17582
Distance Between Leh and Leh Palace: Leh palace is
located at a distance of 2.2 km from Leh City Centre
Although smaller in size, this palace resembles Lhasa’s
Potala Palace and stands in the midst of the mountains
as an excellent example of medieval Tibetan architecture.
The jutted out wooden balconies and the huge buttressed wall are the primary features
of this architectural style.
45. The palace is built of
stones, wood, mud and
The walls of the palace
being constructed with
wood and mud helps in
insulating,thus creating a
soothing and pleasant
Less no. of openings for
windows and light to control
the air circulation and maintain
The materials used are
poor conductors of
heat to minimise the
Jutted out sloped shades which
help the snow too fall off
47. State such that have cold and
humid climate are:
Northern part of U.P
These are generally high land
regions having abundant
vegetation in summer.- Heat gain is
low in winter with a
high percentage of diffuse
48. The relative humidity is generally high and
ranges from 70 - 80% -
Annual total precipitation is about 1000mm
and its distributed evenly throughout the
This region experiences cold winds in the
winter season . Hence, protection from wind is
essential in this type of climate.
The sky is overcast for most of the year
except during the brief summer.
In winter , the value ranges between 4 and 8°C
during the day and 3 to 4°C at night , making
it quite chilly .
49. • Use of material which heat up fast but
release heat slowly.
• Decrease the exposed surface area of
• Decrease the rate of ventilation inside
• HEAT GAIN CAN BE PROMOTED BY :-
• Avoiding excessive shading –
• Utilizing the heat from appliances
• Trapping the heat from sun
50. • The lesser the surface area, the lower is the heat loss from the building.
• Windows should preferably face south to encourage direct gain.
• The north side of the building should be well-insulated.
• Living areas can be located on the southern side while utility areas such as stores can
be on the northern side.
• Air lock lobbies of the entrance and exit points of the building reduce heat loss.
• The heat generated by appliances in rooms such as kitchens may be recycled to heat the
other parts of the building.
ORIENTATION AND PLANFORM
51. • False ceilings are a regular roof feature
of houses in cold climates.
• One can also use internal insulation such
as polyurethane foam (PUF), thermocol,
wood wool, etc.
• A sloping roof enables quick drainage of
rain water and snow.
• Walls - Walls should be of low U-value to
resist heat loss. The south-facing walls
could be of high thermal capacity to
store day time heat for later use rest of
the walls should also be insulated.
• Hollow and lightweight concrete blocks
are also suitable. On the windward or
north side, a cavity wall can be adopted.
• A Trombe wall is a system for
indirect solar heat gain.
• Although not extremely common, is
a good example of thermal mass,
solar gain, and glazing properties
used together to achieve human
comfort goals passively.
• It consists of a dark coloured
wall of high thermal mass facing
the sun, with glazing spaced in
front to leave a small air space.
• The glazing traps solar radiation
like a small greenhouse.
Himachal Pradesh experiences of huge variations in its climatic conditions
(The variety of climatic conditions are divided according to altitude)
1. 450-900m- Hot and sub humid tropical-southern lower traces
2. 900-1800m- Warm and temperate 3. 1900-2400 m-cool and temperate
4. 2400-4800m- Cold glacial
5. 3000 m- Snowfall
• October - Very cold
• February-April- spring season June rainy season starts
1) It is situated in the laps of Himalayas surrounded by number of ranges
2) Main occupation: Agriculture - Wheat, Maize, Rice, potato, ginger, garlic, mushrooms, olives.
HIMACHAL PRADESH Also Known as: DEV BHOOMI-ABODE OF GODS
54. KATH KHUNI TECHNIQUE
Made of alternate courses of dry stone masonry and wood without cementing mortar.
• Layering and inter locking timber and stone provides strength, Stability and
flexibility (Earthquake resistant).
• These heavy walls allow a good thermal insulation by providing high time-lag of more
than 8 hours. This makes the interior of the house cooler in summer and warm in
winter for maximum part of the year.
• Above the plinth walls are strong with alternating stone layer, as the wall rises up
it is only the wood frame that is stacked above another wood frame. This distributes
• Interiors of wall are finished with mud plaster and lined with wood on account of
its good insulation and binding properties.
• Resist sliding or overturning during land movement.
• Dry masonry construction allows stones to undulate within a flexible wooden frame
work to allow energy of earthquake to disperse.
• In the ground level mud & cow-dung were
used for flooring above the plinth made of
random rubble masonry. The upper floors
are made of timber planks and timber joists.
• Kitchen made of mud, placed at center
which helps in keeping the indoor warm.
• Balconies: Provide a good sun-space or
solarium. Cantilevered balcony resting on
• Wooden members support it to provide
57. COURTYARD: Sunny
courtyard to perform various
activities during day time.
Pitched roof with locally
available timber. Slate used for
roof covering. Below the roof a
ceiling is constructed with timber.
The light weight roof
construction and the air between
the roofing and attic-floor
provided a very good thermal
insulation against the passage of
Low pitched roof provides a good
solution to drain off the rain-
water/snow from the dwellings.
• Multifunctional space
• Served as abode of god.
• Storage of grain.
• Windows - ventilates and
helps to dry the
• Protects from rain.
• Insulates the house
59. The Himurja building is a multi-storied office that
is located on a sharply sloping site and employs a
number of passive solar strategies well suited for
the Cold and Cloudy climate of Shimla. It is also
a good example of how to integrate renewable
energy systems into the design of a building.
Climate of Shimla
Solar Radiation: Low in winter with high
percentage of diffuse radiation
Temperature: Summer Midday-20-30 deg. C:
Summer night-17-21 deg. C. Winter Midday 48 deg.
C; Winter night: 3 to 4 de. C
Relative humidity: Varies between 70% to 80%
Precipitation: Moderate, distributed evenly
throughout year. Annual Total around 1000 mm
CASE STUDY: HIMURJA OFFICE
60. Winds: Generally intense,
especially during rainfall, Mainly
dependent on topography.
Sky Condition: Overcast for
most part of the year.
Vegetation: Highland regions with
abundant vegetation in summer
Rock beds are a means of
enlarging the thermal mass of
the building and thereby
increasing the ability to store
energy. Air is drawn from the
sunspace and through bed of
rocks. Heat is given off to the
rocks and air is recalculated
to a location in the hot space
to collect more heat.
At night when heat is needed,
air from the occupied space is
drawn through the rock bed,
where it picks up heat and
distributed back to the
occupied space. The rock bed
can be located under a
concrete slab that will be
heated by bed.
62. • The building is set into the slope of the site
and the orientation provides maximum exposure
to the south side
• Distribution of daylight in spaces is achieved
through careful integration of window and
• Light reflected off the light shelves is
distributed into the deep plan of the building
by designing a ceiling profile that provides
• Artificial lighting is seldom required in the
south oriented spaces, which are well-lit
during working hours.
• Good Insulation of 5cm thick
glass wool in RCC diaphragm
walls prevents heat loss.
• Infiltration losses are minimized
through weather proofed hard
• Double glazing helps control
heal loss from glazing without
creating any internal
64. Thermal Strategy:
• Coupling the ground and first floor
with the earth prevents heat loss to a
• With the openings on the south and west
facades, the building maximizes solar
• The plan of the building and its three
dimensional form allow maximum
penetration of sun, maximizing both solar
heat gain and daylight.
• The judiciously designed thermal mass
absorbs and provides heat in the spaces
throughout the day.
• Air heating panels designed as an
integral part of the southern well panels
provide effective heat gain. Distribution
of heat gain in the entire building is
achieved through a connective loop.
•To optimize ventilation during
summer, the contraceptive loop
is coupled with solar chimneys
designed as an integral part of
• A solarium or sunspace is built
as integral parts of the
southern wall maximizing heal
• The composite zone covers
the central part of India.
• Composite climate displays
the characteristics of hot &
dry, warm & humid as well as
The composite climate zone covers the central part of
India. This climatic zine is not normal as seen in hot and
dry or in any other climate zones.
For half a year it could display the following weather
1. HOT AND DRY
2. WARM AND HUMID
3. COLD CLIMATE
69. • Summer Temp. : 32-45°C (Day)
• Winter Temp: 10-25°C (Day)
• Precipitation: Varies between 500-1300
• Relative Humidity: 20-25% (Dry time). 55-
95% (Wet periods)
• Cloudy days: 8-10 days in a month
• Clear skies: 20-22 days in a month
• Average wind speed: 3-5 km/hr
Characteristics of Composite
• The intensity of solar radiation is
very high in summer.
• In monsoons, the intensity is low
with predominantly diffuse
• The region receives strong wind
during monsoons and cold winds
from south-east and north-east
• The sky is usually clear in the
winter and frequently hazy in
Deciduous trees, creepers and
vines provide shade when
needed and allow the sun rays
to penetrate inside in the cool
season when they loose their
• Two-three seasons, one similar to hot-
dry climate and another similar to
warm-wet climate and a third similar to
the cold-dry climate.
• Diurnal range large during dry
seasons, small during winter months.
Radiation and glare vary with
• Complex climate from designer's point of
view and buildings should make provisions
for the conflicting hot-dry and warm-wet
seasons. Building materials weaken rapidly
due to the high diurnal range.
• People get acclimatized to high
temperatures and so their tolerance of
cold conditions reduces.
• The objectives set out for warm humid and hot dry climates apply to the
respective seasons of the composite climates. Additional problems are
created by the third season.
• During the cold season, the temperatures are much lower than in the two
warmer seasons. Physical comfort during this season will depend on the
prevention of heat loss from the body, especially in the night.
• In the warmer seasons, the heat dissipation is inadequate.
73. Form and Planning:
• Moderately compact internal planning of houses will be of benefit for
most of the year. Courtyard types of building and terraced buildings
facing north south is suitable.
• The buildings should be grouped in such a way so as to take advantage
of the prevailing breeze during the short period when air movement is
74. Form and Planning:
• A moderately dense, low rise development is suitable for this climate which
will ensure protection of out-door spaces, mutual shading of external
walls, shelter from the wind in the cold season, shelter from the dust and
the reduction of the solar radiation of the exposed surfaces.
• Houses with separate day and night rooms are suggested for the hot, dry
regions are equally good for composite climates, except that these rooms
can be used in the hottest months only. Shading of the walls is desirable.
• Need for a double roof is not felt if the roof has a low transmittance value
and a good thermal capacity.
• External openings require shading during warm seasons.
75. CLIMATE CONSIDERATION
Orientation Water Bodies
Water absorbs relatively large amounts of
radiation. It also allows evaporative
cooling. As a result, during the daytime
areas around water bodies are generally
cooler. At night, however, water bodies
release relatively large amount of heat to
The orientation of house should be such
that, penetration of the sun rays maximum
in winter and minimum in summer. Proper
orientation also helps in receiving natural
light and ventilation.
76. Construction Techniques
and Design Criteria
• Large projecting eaves and wide
verandahs are needed in the warm
humid season as outdoor living
areas, to reduce the sky glare, keep
out the rain and to provide shade.
• Creepers, which would provide shade
in the hot season but allow sun
penetration during the winter.
Roofs and Walls
Roof and the external walls should
be constructed of solid masonry or
concrete to have a time lag in heat
transmission. This thermal capacity
will be of use both in the hot, dry
and the cold season.
77. Openings, Ventilation and Air
• The orientation of openings are decided by two factors:
1. towards the prevailing breeze in the warm humid season to
utilise its cooling effect.
.towards the sun in the cold season to utilize the heating . .
effect of the radiation entering through the windows.
• Medium sized window openings in the opposite walls are
desirable, with solid shutters, which can be opened when
cross ventilation is necessary.
80. Bioclimatic Chart:
Bioclimatic charts facilitate the analysis of the
climate characteristics of a given location from
the viewpoint of human comfort, as they present,
on a psychometric chart, the concurrent
combination of temperature and humidity at any
given time. They can also specify building design
guidelines to maximize indoor comfort conditions
when the building's interior is not mechanically
81. DESIGN STRATEGIES
• Courtyard type building are very suitable
• A moderate dense, low rise development
• Large projecting eves and wide verandahs
are needed in the warm humid season as
our door living ares, to reduce sly glare,
keep out the rain and provide shades
• Shading device should be of low thermal
• Courtyard with vegetation and water body
82. Exterior products:
• Roofs and walls are constructed of masonry and
• Resistance insulation are need and they are
placed at the exterior wall or on the roof.
• Large openings in opposite walls they are
preferred with solid shutters.
83. Form and
• Compact building type slowing down the
response to changing thermal
• The building plan should be reasonably
• Compact building type reduce heat gain
during the day and heat loss during the
• Windows and openings have to be protected from solar
• The longer walls should face north and
• major openings should be located in these
• Windows facing east would admit the sun
• If air temperature is still quite low.
Windows facing west should be avoided.
• This arrangement would reduce incident
solar radiation and would also minimise
the extent (and cost) of shading devices,
as north and south facing windows can be
shaded by the simplest of means.radiation.
In summer Well-shaded external
spaces should be provided:
The former can be achieved by
some form of canvas awning
• cantilevered or supported by a
• In some situations the same
external space may be shaded or
unshaded in different parts of
85. CASE STUDY - BIDANI
• Located in Faridabad.
• Faridabad is located in composite zone
with very hot and dry period of almost
two and half months.
• Hot dry period is followed by hot humid.
• Monsoon period of about 2 months.
• Colder period is of shorten time.
86. Planning in response to
• House form developed around courtyard.
• A courtyard facing and opening onto north east has designed as a heat sink.
• Main living spaces wrapping
around courtyard and have
maximum south east orientation
which is ideal exposure for this
• Buffer spaces like toilets and
stores are on the over heated
south-western exposure to
eliminate heat gain in summer.
87. Other aspects:
• The three dimensional form of building is generated to
eliminate or allow solar penetration according to the
• Local stone used as major construction material, which
provides thermal mass for attenuation of diurnal swings
• Large volume spaces and their coupling with the
courtyard also allow good ventilation
88. Courtyard as a moderator of
microclimate of the house:
• Louvers and pergolas cut off
Unwanted radiation during summer
• Heat gain by direct radiation during