1. Tribal Folk Art Management in Jharkhand:
An Interpretive Analysis
Dr. Ambrish Gautam, Assistant Professor, Amity University Jharkhand, Ranchi
• Jharkhand as a state is being called as state of tribe. Here altogether 32 types of tribal community live in the different
part of the state. All the tribals have their different story of origin, culture, ethnicity, political and economic
institution. Through these institutions, they guide themselves, motivate themselves and run the entire society.
• Dr. Ramdayal Munda once said that “Nachi se banchi” (Whomsoever will dance will survive). From the very
beginning, tribes have a relative relationship with nature and the earth. Despite economic poverty, their family social
life is very easy, simple, and attractive, always cheerful and worry-free.
• The tribes of Chhotanagpur, despite their poverty, they are so prosperous and wealthy in one area that even other
prosperous and developed castes cannot match them. That is their art and their inexhaustible and wonderful love for
it, their people passing and echoing across the hills under the shadow of the smiling moon and stars – folk songs,
their graceful instruments and dances are not only live examples of the culmination of art.
• Different types of dances are prescribed for all occasions and festivals like marriage, karma, maghi, sohrai and
vasantotsav and they are accompanied by songs and hymns of different tunes. They are not less rich and prosperous
even in musical instruments. Nagra, mandar, murli, flute, dholki etc. are their daily companions.
3. Meaning of Art
• Art, artistic, kalapaksha is used for beauty. Art originated from the search for beauty.
• According to the Brihat Hindi Kosh, Kala means the sixteenth part of the lunar circle. Sixteen Kalas - Amrita,
Manada, Pusha, Tushti, Pushti, Rati, Dhriti, Shashini, Chandrika, Kranti, Jyotsna, Shri, Preeti, Angada,
Poorna and Poornamrita - Which keeps decreasing and increasing according to the date.2 Beautiful
composition or its method, interest, sex of a woman, molecule, fetus, attachment, boat, deceit, trick, trick,
leela, quantity (verse), instrument, light, brightness, shade, beauty.
• Here the meaning of Kanchuk is necessary to understand the art. Kanchuk means cover. Maya makes Shiva a
living being only by wrapping them in these shells. When Supreme Shiva has the desire to create, then two
elements are generated from him, Shiva and Shakti. Param Shiva is Nirguna and Niranjan, Shiva Saguna
Shakti is the religion of Shiva. The root cause of the entire creation is Shakti.
• Art is the manifestation of Shakti or Vibhuti. The power of any deity is divided into sixteen arts. That form of
the deity, in which all the arts are present, is called Purnakala idol (like Krishna has sixteen arts and Ram 12
arts are considered) There are two forms of Shiva - Nirguna and Saguna Nirguna is artless and Saguna is
• The religion of Shiva is Shakti. The two cannot live apart. Without Shakti there is no Shiva and without Shiva
there is no Shakti. Powerless Shiva is like a dead body. Shiva is artless and Shakti is artful. There are arts in
the power element only. Energy elements are the source of origin of arts. From this, Nirvana Kala and Amrit
Kala arise. A total of 15 arts are mentioned in Mundakopanishad
• The skill of action can be called art. The relationship between art and humans is inseparable. Man is the
creator of art. Art has been established by humans only. Man's self-esteem has increased through art. The
animalism that is inside the human being, he removes that disorder through art. Literature, music, art have
contributed immensely to ending animalistic tendencies. Tenderness, sweetness, and beauty have been
included in life only through art.
• Sat, Chit and Anand are said to be the three qualities of nature. Similarly, life is complete in desire, action and
knowledge. Ananda is related to desire or emotion, mind to action, knowledge to truth. Art is born from desire
or emotion, religion from action and science and philosophy from knowledge. Art, business (karma) and
science are closely related to life. The aim of all these three is the beauty of art, the auspiciousness of action,
and the truth of science respectively.
• According to Richards, beauty is an object of emotional satisfaction.
Here art is seen in two forms, real and ideal. Realistic art is often
created out of despair, pain, defeat, sorrow etc. The rise of idealistic art
is obtained from the sweet dreams of life, hopes and aspirations,
victory wishes, beautiful, divine, and supernatural world. Life does not
run on mere imagination; it runs on solid ground. But there are some
moments in life when we are away from our family, environment,
loved ones, then the same imagination becomes its strength. Only then
the poetic art like Meghdoot is created by the imagination of the
6. Traditional Miscellaneous Arts of Jharkhand
• Giridhari Ram Gaujhu Giriraj Jharkhand' means if the plot of forests is forest, then there will be various trees
like Sal, Sesam, Semal, Teak, Asan, Peshar, Pandan, Karam, Gambhar etc. If there is a tree, then wood or
timber will be available. Jharkhand has as much stock of minerals as there is a pile of wood on top of
Jharkhand. In such a situation, when a beauty loving human being belongs to Jharkhand, then he will use
wood in his life in an artistic way.
Jharkhand's wood art can be divided into four parts for the convenience of study –
1. Materials for the use of children and adults - for small children to play, Lalauna, Jhunjhuna, Ghirni, Tiktiki,
Chakai, Latai, Kakai, Gulel, Raicha, Bheera, Lattu, Horse, Swing, Cradle, Banam, Mandar, Sarangi, Dhol, cover
2. Household Appliances Lakud, Khurpi, Chetuwa, Peedha, Machiya, Khatiya, Tangni, Mugra, Dheki, Kolhu
Pata or Chipa Kolhu, Okhal Musal, Gaureya Khunta, Tharki, Wooden pan, box etc.
3. Items used for house construction- Khunta, Dharna, Manirambh, Baranga, Kandi, Kand, Batta, Datia,
Achanga, Macha, Khunti, Darwaza, Jangala, Patin etc.
4. Agricultural implements: Plough, Juath, Sagad, Bullock cart, Pata, Kururpata, Belpasa, Laith Khunta,
Pavatha, Pana, Chigur, Bahinga, Chua Khol etc. Of these, an illustrated brief introduction of the main wood art
would be required, to know the traditional (historical) wood art of Jharkhand, these are primitive wood arts.
Therefore, there will be less darshan of the form of wood art developed in them. These are early wood crafts. It
will not be an exaggeration to say that their gradually developed form has been achieving the pinnacle of art. All
these things are made of wood, and they have an innate natural art-beauty.
8. Some Art craft of Jharkhand
1. Lalauna - It is made of light-strong wood by blunt or lathe. After that it is colored with red, green, blue, yellow
colors. This color does not leave. The child plays by holding it in his hand and puts it in his mouth.
2. Jhunjhuna - This is also made by lathe like a part of Lalauna but its roundness is bigger. It is made hollow by
dividing it into two parts in the middle. And both the parts are joined, filling some pebbles, and shaking them, there is a
sound of rattle in it. The child holds it and shakes it. It is painted and has a beautiful look.
3. Tick - It is made in the same way as a rattle. But instead of making it hollow in the middle, two ears are made, to
make it move, two small wooden balls are put in it with the help of a rope. It is also made in many forms. Sometimes it
is also made in the shape of a drum and is played like that.
4. Chakai - This is also made by turning 2 spheres flat and joined in the middle. Wrapping a strong thick thread in this
middle part and throwing it back. It turns around and comes into the hands.
5. Latai - At the time of flying this kite, the middle part made of two round wheels the thread is wrapped in it. A round long somewhat
thick wooden stick is fixed between the two wheels. A spring is made in both the wheels to wrap the yarn.
6. Kakai - It is made of light and strong wood. Thin flats are made artistically on the top and right-left of the wood. It has teeth like a
comb. It is used to make hair. Women wear it in their buns. The catchy parts look great on top of the hair because of their artistry. Men
with long hair also wear it.
7. Catapult It is made of wood. Sometimes it is made from a single wood with a pillar in the middle, and sometimes two round pieces
of wood are made in the shape of a multiplication sign. Sometimes they are also made from the pole part of the branch of the trees. By
tying rubber bands and skin on it, they play the game of slingshot, shoot targets or hunt birds etc.
8. Lakud This is used for cooking, making, and distributing vegetables. It is made of wood to remove and run on both sides. It is also
made separately; it is called Chatua and Khurpi.
9. Peedha It is made of a flat strip of thick wood. For its legs, wood is cut out from the middle part. Various carvings are done on the
upper flat part.
10. Folk paintings of Jharkhand
Rock Paintings Rock Painting Art
1. Rock paintings - Rock hills or Tangras in Jharkhand (approx.)
2. Pictures drawn on walls or other useful objects during Dev Uthan festival.
3. Marriage - On the occasion of marriage, the pictures made on the walls on the ground in the house-courtyard
4. Kohbar pictures (pictures made in the first night meeting room of the bride and groom) and Pictures of interior Pooja Ghar or Kotha
5. Sohrai pictures (pictures made when animal worship on the second day of Diwali)
6. Jado Patiya (The Magic Slab)
7. Other Paintings Paintings made on windows, doors, tools, earthenware, metal utensils, curtains, seal-ladder, crusher etc.
1. Tattoo pictures Women make tattoo pictures in the forehead, neck, shoulder, skill, arm, hand, leg. Men have
also been getting tattoos done to a limited extent.
2. Sohrai Chitra in Jharkhand, on the second day of Diwali, domestic animals, especially cows, bulls, buffaloes,
etc. are worshipped, which are especially helpful in agriculture. Their cowsheds are cleaned, and soil is filled in
the strongholds. The walls of the whole house along with the cowshed are plastered from 10-15 days after the
arrival of Sohrai.
3. Pictures of Dev Uthan At this time, pictures of Dev Uthan are made on walls, windows, doors, plough,
gambling, bullock cart etc. Dev Uthan festival is celebrated after nine days of Soirai.
4. Pictures of the walls of the marriage houses: The houses of the bride and groom to be married are painted and
whitewashed and whitewashed walls are decorated with Shiva-Parvati, bride-groom, flowers-leaves, litter,
elephant-horse, banana tree, Peacocks, swans, pigeons etc. are made in birds.
12. Relevance and existence of folk-art
• Art is a science that gives pleasure. The body, mind and soul become happy through art. World famous and
popular bamboo has a special place in tribal society. Its necessary from birth till death. Bamboo is full of one-
of-a-kind, traditional, and modern arts. The truth is that traditional arts are the mother of modern tomorrow.
Bamboo art is cheap, light, soft, durable, and strong, and unlike clay art, it is not prone to breaking even if it
stumbles. No need to save a lot. If it is also kept properly then it can be kept for more than 100 days. An
example of this is the Ranchi Museum, in which a 130-year-old vegetable basket is still intact.
• In this way, it can be said that the custom, which is coming from the tradition, is still there. No matter how
modern people become, its importance will remain the same. The bamboo soup that is offered in Chhath is
used equally by all, rich and poor, and its existence will continue in the future. Soup is considered a deity. The
Lakshmi of the house resides in this. Money-grains (paddy etc.) enter inside. New art is being born daily in
modern art works. There is no limit to this art, art is infinite. Bamboo and bamboo art are in the breath of
human beings. Its place and importance in society has always been, is and will remain paramount.
13. Status of Folk art management
• Present condition of such a unique traditional art is not good. Agreed that some change is natural, but the
degradation of tribal culture, art, language etc. in this way is worrisome. Right now, all the traditional arts are
neglected by their own people, they are not being respected. At present, due to modern mechanical
technology, traditional art is slowly moving towards. Today everything readymade is available in the market
in the blink of an eye, in such a situation art and artisans must face many problems to keep their art alive.
• As a result, the present generation is turning away from this art and is adopting other blessed jobs to make a
living. Today all the artisans who are associated with this, their standard of living is very low. They have to
think even about the bread. Their normal day and the day of festivals are all the same. They say that today
there is no market for it, the amount of capital invested is not earned. Sometimes even the moor (price) is not
returned in exchange for the benefit.
• Today their work has been reduced to just the fairs and big markets held in different places. Earlier, they used
to sell goods by going from house to house, from village to village, now things are sold instead of traveling.
That's why they are forced to go to hard work, wages, rickshaw pullers, matta etc. to take care of themselves
and their families. Despite living in so many privations, these craftsmen are keeping alive the ancient
technique of art craft in Jharkhand from the years of their descendants.
• The present situation of artisans or artists of tribal art craft is not good. They are fighting for their survival.
This has developed because of the development of the new era of global marketing system and availability of
cost effective more advanced artistic items. Most of the artisans get trapped in their clutches and fall into
• In this situation, they are sinking in the quagmire of poverty. If resources are made available to these artisans,
they will surely do their work. In this sequence, I went to a small village 'Karge' in Mandar. I saw there that
the Malars (an artistic tribal community) had twenty-five houses. Artists of almost all the houses are
associated with this art. That's what I noticed while working on tribal artcraft work they have started showing
less concern towards this work. Gradually they are turning away from their traditional art craft work.
• The canvas of tribal culture is fast changing because of the contact with outsiders and alien ways of life. This
process has been in existence for a very long time, and as facilities of communication have increased, the
isolation of the tribal villages has been broken. Hill paths and roads have taken alien people to the previously
inaccessible dense forests and hilly tracts of Chotanagpur.
• Today, from domestic use to decoration, metal objects are being used prominently in worship. Aluminum
items, such as deckchi, pan, kalbul, dibri, etc. are being used in the kitchen from home, while counting the
decorative items is like showing 'Diya to the sun'. In this, as much imagination as the artisan can enhance the
creativity, as many designs can be made. Along with this, the idols of various gods and goddesses have a
special place in the rituals of worship. These are considered symbols of purity and prosperity. Presently all
these items are being made not only by the traditional tribal artists, but also in the factory. These are being
manufactured anywhere but have become established in everyday life.
• Today the biggest advantage of old technology is in keeping the environment safe. No pollution of any kind
spreads in their art, nor does the artisan suffer any physical or mental harm. The second important thing is that
in this art the old metal articles can be converted into new shining articles. Due to this, the proverb 'The price
of mangoes is the price of mango kernels' is justified. Tribal art is a priceless gift of nature.