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Crops for Protected Cultivation

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Crops for Protected Cultivation

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Crops for Protected Cultivation

  1. 1. Dr. Parveen Sharma Associate Professor (Vegetable Science) Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur ops suitable for protected cultivation according rea, climate and maintenance of climate factors
  2. 2. POTENTIAL CROPS FOR PROTECTED CULTIVATION Capsicum Tomato Cucumber Lettuce/ French beans/ Peas (Filler crops) Vegetable nursery Flower crops Ornamental plants
  3. 3. Private Seed Companies
  4. 4. Advantages of Hybrids
  5. 5. Plastic low tunnel for nursery production
  6. 6. Hardening of seedlings
  7. 7. Removable Structures
  8. 8. Preparation of Sand, Soil and FYM mixture
  9. 9. Filled polybags Seedling emergence
  10. 10. Coco peat •Coco peat also known as coir pith, coir fibre pith, coir dust, or simply coir, is made from coconut husks, which are byproducts of other industries that use coconuts. • Raw coconuts are washed, heat-treated, screened and graded before being processed into coco peat products of various granularity and denseness, which are then used for horticultural and agricultural applications and as industrial absorbent.
  11. 11. Coco-Peat
  12. 12. Vermiculite • Vermiculite is a micacious mineral produced by heating to approximately 745oC. – Helps hold moisture. – Has neutral pH.
  13. 13. Vermiculite
  14. 14. Perlite
  15. 15. Perlite
  16. 16. Growing media and plug tray
  17. 17. Mixing of growing media
  18. 18. Sowing of seeds in plug-trays
  19. 19. Healthy nursery of potential crops for protected cultivation cucumber Tomato capsicum Fibrous root growth
  20. 20. TOMATO NURSERY IN SOILLESS MEDIA
  21. 21. Healthy cucumber Seedling Close view of root development in plug-trays
  22. 22. A View of Hi-Tech nursery at Namdhari Seeds
  23. 23. Potential Hybrids o Tomato For Greenhouse Cultivation • 1. Avtar (7711) • 2. Rakshita • 3. Naveen 2000+ • 4. BWT-3 • 5. Surya
  24. 24. Hybrids from Private Sector for protected cultivation
  25. 25. Promising Bacterial Wilt Resistant F1 Combinations
  26. 26. Cherry tomatoesCherry tomatoes  In this category fruits are very small in size and the average fruit weight is 15-20g depending upon the variety.  The cherry tomatoes have high TSS (6.5 to 7.5%).  Among the cherry tomatoes, BR-124 and H A-118 varieties from Israel are most popular.
  27. 27. Vine of cherry tomato
  28. 28. Factors affecting greenhouse tomato production 1. Temperature and humidity control Night temperature should not be allowed to drop below 15 0 C. 2. Carbon-dioxide level in the green house 350 ppm to 1000 ppm  3. Light Reducing light levels from 10,000 to 2,500 lux (approximately 100 to 25 W/m2 ) has been shown to delay flower initiation 4. Air movement 5. Disease and insect control 6. Nutritional management
  29. 29. Planting Time  In north Indian, the tomato crop is planted from first August to second week of September under polyhouse conditions.  This crop is continued up to June or July under climate controlled greenhouse.  If the greenhouse is naturally ventilated then the crop can be grown up to April or May months.  In H P we take two crops from naturally ventilated polyhouse.
  30. 30. BED PREPARATION IN TOMATO Spacing = 70x30cm Path=60cm Bed width= 90cm
  31. 31. Planting of tomato in the soil on raised beds (70x30)
  32. 32. Fertigation Basal doze of 50 kg NPK per hectare with straight fertilizers and fertigation at 150 kg NPK per ha with water soluble fertilizer (Polyfeed/Haileaf 19:19:19). Fertilizer application with irrigation in liquid form is called fertigation and it is done once or twice a week depending upon soil fertility, variety, and stage of crop growth. Generally drip system of irrigation is followed for green house tomato so as to maintain constant growth. Irrigation should be given at weekly or bi-weekly interval depending upon the season and location N : P : K solution in ratio of 19:19:19 is prepared and applied through drip starting from 3rd Week after transplanting or initiation of fruit set and terminating 15 days prior to harvest.
  33. 33. Training Single or two stems . In early stage the shoots should remove by snapping them off.  Plants are supported by plastic twine, loosely anchored on the base of plants . The twine is not wrapped around the growing tip otherwise the tip may break. The plants must be pruned regular basis for 10-11 months life cycle of the tomato crop. This will provide air circulation, which helps to reduce the incidence of the diseases .
  34. 34. Staking of tomatoes
  35. 35. Training method of tomato plants Plastic support clip being placed around a tomato stem.
  36. 36. PRUNNING These tomatoes require pruning of all lateral branches.  Pruning must be done on a frequent schedule (every 3 to 4 days) . Prunning is done early in the day when plants are turgid but dry. Care should be taken to remove only suckers and not the main terminal bud.  The pruning time should be used to inspect plants for obvious problems such as disease, nutritional deficiencies, insects etc. All pruned plant material should be placed in a container and removed from the greenhouse.
  37. 37. Flowering Flowering is a prerequisite to fruit development and delays in flowering generally result in delayed fruit production. The environment of the polyhouse can have a significant effect on the number of flowers that are initiated on an inflorescence .
  38. 38. Tomato flower with a bruise on the anther cone indicating that the flower has been visited by a bumble bee.
  39. 39. PLANT PROTECTION • Prefer biological control (yellow sticky traps, pheromone/light traps, predators/parasitoids • Grow resistant varieties only • Use safe insecticides • Keep strict and constant vigil against pest and diseases • Follow timely plant protection measures • Prefer biological control (yellow sticky traps, pheromone/light traps, predators/parasitoids • Grow resistant varieties only • Use safe insecticides • Keep strict and constant vigil against pest and diseases • Follow timely plant protection measures
  40. 40. Ooze test
  41. 41. Powdery mildew
  42. 42. Attack of white fly
  43. 43. Yellow sticky trap
  44. 44. Cucumber Production Under Hi- Tech Polyhouse
  45. 45. Type of Cucumber Varieties On the bases of flowering habit: 1.Gynoecious:- Which produces only female flowers. 2.Pre-dominantly gynoecious :-Also bears some male flowers. 3.Monoecious:- Which produces both male and female flowers. The first two types produce fruits parthenocarpically ,whereas, monoecious types require pollination
  46. 46. Monoecious varieties Monoecious varieties can be grown inside the greenhouses, but pollination is required for fruit setting which are: 1)Japnese Long Green 2)Pusa Sanyog 3)Priya 4)Poinsett 5)Malini Hybrid
  47. 47. Separate male and female flowers • Separate male and female flowers • Require bee pollination
  48. 48. Cucumber-greenhouse pollinations
  49. 49. Pollination and fruit setting in monoecious cucumbers under polyhouse conditions
  50. 50. Parthenocarpic cucumber The parthenocarpic cucumber is a type of cucumber vine that produces only female flowers and produces cucumbers without the need of pollination. The seed for parthenocarpic cucumbers costs more than ordinary cucumber seed but the germination or sprouting rate is higher and the chance for disease or pest problems is greatly less.  If pollination does occur, the fruit will form seeds, the shape ofthe fruit will be distorted and a bitter tasting fruit will develop. It is therefore essential to prevent bees and other pollinators from entering the greenhouse and carrying pollen from outdoor gardens
  51. 51. Parthenocarpic Varieties The important parthenocarpic varieties available in India are: i. Satis ii.HILLTON iii.Nun-9729 iv.Clodia v.Kian vi.Mansour A few important parthenocarpic varieties of cucumber from Europe and Israel are: Hasan and Sarig (for summer crop), Muhasan and Dinar (for winter season),  Mustang and Bronco (for spring crop),
  52. 52. Parthenocarpic Cucumber
  53. 53. Plant geometry •The cucumber seedlings are planted on the raised beds with two rows in a bed with row to row spacing of 70 cm and plant to plant spacing of 30 cm. •In single stem training , female flowers should be removed or pinched up to 5th node to ensure sufficient vegetative growth of the plants to sustain the fruit load.
  54. 54. BED PREPARATION IN CUCUMBER Spacing = 70x30cm Path=60cm Bed width= 90cm
  55. 55. Staking of parthenocarpic cucumber on single stem at 70x30cm spacing
  56. 56. Fertigation Basal doze of 50 kg NPK per hectare with straight fertilizers and fertigation at 450 kg NPK per ha with water soluble fertilizer (Polyfeed/Haileaf 19:19:19). Fertigation should be done once or twice a week depending upon soil fertility, variety, and stage of crop growth. Cucumber is heavy feeder crop. Irrigation should be given at weekly or bi-weekly interval depending upon the season and location N : P : K solution in ratio of 19:19:19 is prepared and applied through drip starting from 3rd Week after transplanting or initiation of fruit set and terminating 15 days prior to harvest.
  57. 57. Training of Cucumber • REMOVE FEMALE FLOWERS UPTO 5TH NODE • ONE OR TWO VINES • RETAIN ONE FRUIT PER NODE • DE-SHOOTING
  58. 58. Fig 1 (a) Fig 1 (b) Fig 1 (c) Training systems in cucumber
  59. 59. DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES OF CUCUMBER
  60. 60. To harvest cucumbers, cut (don't pull) them from the vine. Pulling or yanking can damage the brittle vines.
  61. 61. Day neutral More sensitive to changing environment than tomato. Optimum temperature for germination: 20-25 0 C. Optimum temperature for quality fruit production: 18-21 0 C( 20-21 C). Less than 18 0 C: adverse effect on growth and yield. Low night temperature: parthenocarpic fruits. Climatic Requirements
  62. 62. • Four lobed preferred for metropolitan cities and other high markets. • Others for local market • Red, yellow, orange and purple varieties Varieties
  63. 63. Red Yellow Green Nun-3019 Bombay Indira Heera Bharat Mahabharat Mekong Tanvi Plus Orobelle Tanvi Nun-3020 Angel US-26 Golden Summer Sawarna European & Israeli varieties, American varieties California Wonder(OP) Indra Bharat Mekong Potential varieties for green house cultivation
  64. 64. Red and Yellow capsicums in polyhouse
  65. 65. BED PREPARATION IN CAPSICUM Spacing = 45x30cm Path=60cm Bed width= 60cm
  66. 66. Training and Pruning • FOUR/TWO STEMS • PLASTIC CORD • PINCHING/DISBUDDING • RETAIN ONE FLOWER AND TWO LEAVES
  67. 67. Two branch training system in bell pepper
  68. 68. Diff. Between Four & Two Leaders
  69. 69. Crop Support in Capsicum
  70. 70. Staking in Polyhouses
  71. 71. Fertigation Basal doze of 50 kg NPK per hectare with straight fertilizers and fertigation at 150 kg NPK per ha with water soluble fertilizer (Polyfeed/Haileaf 19:19:19). Fertilizer application with irrigation in liquid form is called fertigation and it is done once or twice a week depending upon soil fertility, variety, and stage of crop growth. Capsicum is heavy feeder of macro and micro-nutrients Generally drip system of irrigation is followed for green house bell pepper so as to maintain constant growth. Irrigation should be given at weekly or bi-weekly interval depending upon the season and location N : P : K solution in ratio of 19:19:19 is prepared and applied through drip starting from 3rd Week after transplanting or initiation of fruit set and terminating 15 days prior to harvest.
  72. 72. Yield Coloured fruits 60-70 tonnes/ha Green fruits 120 tonnes/ha Although, yield directly depends upon the location, variety, climatic conditions and crop management practices(plant geometry, irrig and fertilizer mgmt). Average weight of quality colored four lobbed fruit is 180 to 220g.
  73. 73. Greenhouse production problems in Capsicum Bacterial wilt Powdery mildew Collar rot Aphid Mites? Caterpillars ?
  74. 74. Eco friendly techniques for control of greenhouse insect pests
  75. 75. THANKS

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