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o an intergovernmental organisation.
o Representatives of 30 industrialised countries in North
America, Europe, Pacific and the European Commission.
o To co-ordinate and harmonize policies, discuss issues of
mutual concern, and work together to respond to
o Environmental Health and Safety Division.
o The Principles of GLP have been developed to
promote the quality and validity of test data used for
determining the safety of chemicals and chemical
products (Schechtman, 2007)
Good Laboratory PracticeGood Laboratory Practice
o A quality system concerned with the organisational
process and the conditions under which non-clinical
health and environmental safety studies are planned,
performed, monitored, recorded, archived and
o Its principles are required to be followed by test
facilities carrying out studies to be submitted to
o Common principles for GLP
facilitate the exchange of
information and prevent the
emergence of non-tariff
barriers to trade.
o The issue of data quality has an important
o If regulatory authorities in countries can rely on safety
test data developed abroad, duplicative testing can be
o The GLP regulations for non-clinical laboratory studies
published by the US-FDA in 1976 (Baldeshwiler, 2003).
o The OECD Principles of GLP were first developed by an
Expert Group on GLP established in 1978 under the
Special Programme on the Control of Chemicals.
o Principles of GLP were adopted by the OECD in 1981.
o Expert Group was established in 1995 to develop a
proposal to revise the Principles of GLP.
o The Revised OECD Principles of GLP were reviewed in
the relevant policy bodies of the Organisation and were
adopted by Council on 26 November, 1997.
o Indian GLP Compliance Monitoring Authority - April,
Principles of GLP should be applied to the non-clinical
safety testing of test items contained in,
Food and feed additives
o Test items: synthetic chemicals, natural or biological
origin and, may be living organisms.
o Safety studies covered by the Principles of GLP include
work conducted in the laboratory, in greenhouses, and
in the field (Jena et al ., 2009)
o Principles of GLP apply to all non-clinical health and
environmental safety studies required by regulations for
the purpose of registration.
Test Facility Management
o The person(s) who has the authority and formal
responsibility for the organisation and functioning of the
o Maintenance of a record of the qualifications, training,
experience and job description for each professional and
o Appropriate and technically valid SOPs are established
o Quality Assurance Programme is being performed in
accordance with the Principles of GLP.
o Individual with the appropriate qualifications, training,
and experience is designated by the management as the
Study Director before the study is initiated.
o In the event of a multi-site study, a Principal Investigator
o Test Facility Management should ensure the
documented approval of the study plan by the Study
o Ensure that the SD has made the approved study plan
available to the QA personnel.
o An individual is identified as responsible for the
management of the archive(s).
o For a multi-site study clear lines of communication
should exist between the SD, Principal Investigator(s),
the QAP(s) and study personnel.
o Computerised systems should be validated, operated
and maintained in accordance with Principles of GLP
(Udaka and Horii, 1985)
o The individual responsible for the
overall conduct of the nonclinical
health and environmental safety
o The single point of study control.
o Approve the study plan and any amendments by dated
o SD should ensure that the QA personnel have a copy of
the study plan and any amendments.
o Study plans (and amendments) and SOPs are available
to study personnel.
Responsibilities of SD
o SD should ensure that all raw data generated are fully
documented and recorded.
o Computerised systems used in the study should be
validated (Taylor, 1984)
o SD should sign and date the final report to indicate
acceptance of responsibility for the validity of the data.
o SD should ensure that after
completion of the study,
the study plan
the final report
o an individual who, for a multi-
site study, acts on behalf of the
SD and has defined
responsibility for delegated
phases of the study.
o The PI should ensure that the
delegated phases of the study
are conducted in accordance
with the Principles of GLP.
Responsibilities of Study Personnel
o Knowledgeable in those parts of the Principles of GLP
which are applicable to their involvement in the study.
o Access to the study plan and appropriate SOPs.
o Any deviation from these instructions should be
documented and communicated directly to the SD, or
the Principal Investigator.
o Responsible for recording raw data
promptly and accurately and for the
quality of the data.
o Study personnel should exercise
health precautions to minimise risk
to themselves and to ensure the
integrity of the study
o "an internal control system designed to ascertain that
the study is in compliance" with the Principles of GLP.
o The test facility should have a documented QAP.
o An individual or individuals designated by
management, who are familiar with the test
procedures (Hughes, 1999)
o should not be involved in the conduct of the study
being assured (Becker et al., 2009)
o Maintain copies of all approved study plans and SOPs.
o Verify that the study plan contains the information
required for compliance with the Principles of GLP.
o Conduct inspections to determine that all studies are
conducted in accordance with the Principles of GLP.
Responsibilities of the QA-
o Inspect the final reports to confirm that,
the methods, procedures and observations are
accurately and completely described.
reported results accurately and completely reflect the
raw data of the studies.
o Promptly report any inspection results in writing to
management and to the SD, or Principal Investigator(s).
o Prepare and sign a statement, which specifies types of
inspections and their dates, including the phase(s) of the
o Suitable size, construction and location to meet the
requirements of the study.
o Adequate degree of separation of the different activities
to assure the proper conduct of each study
(Garner and Barge, 1989)
Facilities for Handling Test and
o Separate areas for receipt and storage of the test and
reference items, and mixing of the test items with a
o Storage areas for the test items should be separate from
areas containing the test systems.
o Storage areas should be adequate to preserve identity,
concentration, purity, and stability.
o Archive facilities should be provided for the secure
storage and retrieval of study plans, raw data, final
reports, samples of test items and specimens.
Archive design and archive
conditions should protect
contents from untimely
deterioration (Udaka and Horii,
o Handling and disposal of wastes
should be carried out in such a way
as not to jeopardize the integrity of
o Provision for appropriate
collection, storage and disposal
facilities, and decontamination and
Apparatus, Material and Reagents
o Apparatus should be suitably located and of
appropriate design and adequate capacity.
o Periodically inspected, cleaned, maintained, and
calibrated according to SOPs.
o Apparatus and materials used in a study should not
interfere adversely with the test systems
o Chemicals, reagents, and solutions should be labelled to
indicate identity, expiry date and specific storage
o Information concerning source, preparation date and
stability should be available.
Test SystemsTest Systems
o any biological, chemical or physical
system or a combination thereof
used in a study.
o Proper conditions should be established and maintained
for the storage, housing, handling and care of biological
o Newly received animal and plant test systems should be
isolated until their health status has been evaluated.
o Acclimatised to the test environment.
o A test facility should have written
SOPs approved by test facility
o Language interpretable to those who
are going to use them (Federick, 2006)
Documented procedures which
describe how to perform tests or
activities normally not specified in
detail in study plans or test guidelines.
o Deviations from SOPs should be
documented and acknowledged by the
SD or the Principal Investigator.
o Published text books, analytical methods,
articles and manuals -supplements to the
o Reviewed regularly.
o SOPs should be available for the following categories of
Test and Reference Items
Apparatus, Materials and Reagents
Record Keeping, Reporting, Storage, and Retrieval
Quality Assurance Procedures.
Content of the Study Plan
o Identification of the study, the test item and reference
o Information concerning the sponsor and the test
o Test Methods
Conduct of the Study
o A unique identification should be given to each study,
all items concerning this study should carry this
identification (Royal, 1994)
o Specimens from the study should be identified to
confirm their origin.
o Conducted in accordance with the study plan.
o Data generated should be recorded directly, promptly,
accurately and signed and dated.
o Any change in the raw data should indicate the reason
for change and should be dated and signed by the
individual making the change.
o Computerised system should always provide for the
retention of full audit trails to show all changes to the
data without obscuring the original data.
Reporting of Study
o The final report should be signed and dated by the SD
to indicate acceptance of responsibility for the validity
of the data.
o The extent of compliance with the principles of GLP
should be indicated.
o Amendments should clearly specify the reason for the
corrections or additions and should be signed and
dated by the SD
Content of the Final
o The final report should include,
Identification of the Study, the Test Item and
Information concerning the Sponsor and the Test
Description of Test Methods
Storage (study plan, test and reference items, specimens, raw
Mutual Acceptance of Data
o Testing of chemicals is labour-intensive and expensive,
and testing the same chemical in several countries adds
to the cost in time, resources and laboratory animals.
o To relieve some of this burden, the OECD Council
adopted the concept of MAD in 1981.
o Mutual Acceptance of Data:
“Data generated in a member country in accordance
with OECD Test Guidelines and Principles of GLP shall
be accepted in other member countries for assessment
purposes and other uses relating to the protection of
human health and the environment.”
(Turnheim , 2008)
o OECD Council sets out a step-wise procedure for non-
OECD countries with a major chemical industry to take
part in the work of OECD (Sasaki et al., 2009)
o This leads to full membership in the part of OECD
related to the MAD.
o South Africa was the first non-OECD country to have
completed this process and to have been invited to join
the system as a full member.
o Slovenia and Israel - full members.
o Argentina, Brazil, India (2003) , Malaysia and
Singapore are the provisional adherents.
o The provisional adherence procedures have begun for
National GLP Compliance Monitoring
o April, 2002
o Department of Science and Technology (DST).
o Provisional Member of the OECD for GLP.
o Head, National GLP Programme has been nominated
by the Department as an Observer to the OECD’s
Working Group on GLP.
o functions as per OECD Norms & Principles and efforts
are being made to achieve OECD recognition, so that
India acquires full-member status in OECD (Stanley, 2009)
There is still long way to go……………..!
o The purpose of GLP is to assure the quality and integrity
of data submitted in support of the safety of regulated
o Protocols, SOPs, adequate facilities, and equipments,
identification of test substance, proper animal care,
accurate recording of observations and adequate
reporting of results are basic necessities for the conduct
of high quality valid toxicity study.
o Test results obtained in compliance with GLP are to be
mutually accepted by the health authorities and
environment authorities of the OECD member states.
Therefore, multiple testing can be avoided.