2. Andrew Goodwin identifies 5 key aspects of music videos, we the audience should
- Genre Characteristics
- Visuals and Lyrics
- Visuals and Music
- Demands of the Record Label
- Notions of Looking
3. Music Video’s demonstrate genre characteristics
Genre characteristics (e.g. stage performance in rock video, dance routine for a pop song)
This means that music videos of the same genre often show similarities. This could be through shot
types, or settings. An example of this is of the British boy band One direction, wear similar clothes in
their music videos which shows they’re a union. Moreover their dance routine is a convention of a
4. Lyrics and Visuals
There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals (either illustrative, amplifying, contradicting).
The footage/shots and mise en scene should reflect the lyrics of the song in some way. This is effective as the link between lyrics and visuals
creates a narrative.
- Illustrate: Music videos use certain images & shots to illustrate/explain the meaning of lyrics to their song and the genre.
- Disjuncture: The meaning of the song is completely ignored in the music video.
- Amplify: repeatability – This is when the images and camera shots are manipulated and shown repeatedly throughout the music video and
is drummed into our vision like in most Coldplay music videos.
An example: Coldplay The scientist, the lyrics say ‘Go back in time’ and in the music video the whole video is reversed.
5. Music and Visuals
There is a relationship between music and visuals (either illustrative, amplifying,
For example the editing should mirror the music or beat of the song.
An example of this is The Black Keys Video uses transitions and fast paced editing to match
the beat of their song in their 'gold on the ceiling' music video
6. Demands of the Record Label
Goodwin referred to the star image as a vital aspect of the music video; he/she makes the music video look more
appealing to the audiences while bringing a unique style to the video in the way he/she is portrayed to the
The start image is always very unique in the way he/she is presented e.g. the costume, moves and appearance.
This helps to promote the star’s image in public and also helps to promote the video while creating a public
reputation for the artist. An example of this is the artist Sia, she always wears a wig below her eyes so it makes you
think who she is.
7. Notions of Looking
There is frequently reference to notion of looking (screens within screens, telescopes, etc) and
particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female or male body. This is drawing from the fact that
in a lot of music videos, women are portrayed as sexual objects. This may or may not be
relevant to every genre of music but it is the majority.
An example of this is In Beyoncé's 'Crazy in Love’. There is one point where the artist is on a
pedestal with lots of cameras flashing along with fragmented shots of different parts of her
This is usually where music videos refer to films, tv programs or other music videos etc. Bits of other
media, attract attention of people who already know and like the material being referenced.
Examples include calque, plagiarism, translation, pastiche and parody.
Calque example is when a word or phrase is borrowed from a foreign language or text. The example
I chose for this was Christina Aguilera, Lil' Kim, Mya and Pink's song, Lady Marmalade, where they
draw on the French burlesque show of Moulin Rouge which inspires the entire video.
Plagiarism in music videos is with Kid Ink - Show Me ft Chris Brown where the producer admits to
have taken the initial beat to the song and altered it slightly from Robin S - Show Me Love.
Parody is a piece of work which imitates another in order to
comment or trivialize. An example of this is with the One Direction-
What makes you beautiful and Bart Baker (who is known for doing
parody videos) with What makes you Beautiful
Pastiche is when a piece of work imitates another creative piece of work in more of a celebratory
rather than in a parody/mocking fashion. An example of pastiche is displayed in the Katy Perry - Last
Friday Night (T.G.I.F) music video, where the main character, is based on the television character
Betty Suarez, the television show, Ugly Betty.
Translation is when the message of a text is changed into another form but having drawn on the
message. An example of this is where Gym Class Heroes song, Clothes Off, which draws from
Jermaine Stewart's we don't have to take our clothes off, from 1986
12. Sound of the underground Genre Conventions
The genre of the music video is Pop
13. Goodwin’s Theory
Genre characteristics, it has the characteristics of a pop genre, it shows the explicit
dressing of women, and it shows that the people in the shot are happy.
Lyrics & Visuals, their lyrics illustrates their visuals, they look like how a girl going
to ‘’party’’ would look like.
Music and visuals: the relationship does illustrate what you see, the music is very
loud and expressive, and that shows the girls dancing very well.
17. Goodwin’s Theory
Genre characteristics: typical conventions, they portray the men as richer and higher
Lyrics and visuals: illustrates the music video
Music visuals: It shows what the music is saying, the way its portraying men and women.