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The human body

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The human body

  1. 1. SUMMARY .What is the nutrition? -Clasification of foods -Nutrients -Healthy diet -Pyramid nutritional -Nutritional systems and processes (digestion system, respiration system, excretion system and circulation system) - The senses - The motor system - The Movement
  2. 2. NUTRITION - When we are born, we drink milk. As we grow, we susbtitute other foods for milk. But in addition to eating, we also need to breathe the oxygen that is in the air.
  3. 3. NUTRITION .Nutrition is the process of absorbing the substances that we need from food and turning them into energy. We need these substances to grow and develop.
  4. 4. NUTRITION . Nutrition consists of: -Extracting nutrients from the food we eat and oxygen from the air we breathe. -Distributing the nutrients and air around our bodies: -Excreting what we do not need.
  5. 5. NUTRITION. CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS -We can classify foods according to their origin into three groups: animal, vegetable or mineral. -Foods of animal origin are food that come from animals. Examples: meat, fish, milk and eggs. -Foods of vegetable origin are food that come from plants. Examples: fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereales -Foods of mineral origin are food that come from living things. Examples: minerals in general, and salt and water
  7. 7. NUTRITION. NUTRIENTS - Feeding is the taking of food, but not everything we eat or drink is useful. Nutrients are the useful substances in the food we eat -Food is transformed inside our body into useful substances called nutrients. Each one of the foods that we eat contains different nutrients, The different nutrients contained in food are: Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamines.
  8. 8. NUTRITION. NUTRIENTS Proteins: Produce our body tissue and are essential for the functioning of our cells
  9. 9. NUTRITION NUTRIENTS -Carbohydrates: are the most important source of energy; they include starches, which are found in cerals and potatoes, and sugars which are abundant in fruit.
  10. 10. NUTRITION. NUTRIENTS -Fats give us energy. Our body stores them very well. There are both animal and vegetable fats
  11. 11. NUTRITION. NUTRIENTS -Minerals control growth and are important for the functioning of the nervous system, the contraction of muscles and the coagulation of blood.
  12. 12. NUTRITION. NUTRIENTS -Vitamins control the functioning of many of the organs in our body and help us stay healthy.
  13. 13. NUTRITION. NUTRIENTS Fibre: Is a complex carboydrate but does not supply energy or building material for the body. Although fibre is indigestible to humans, it is necessary to maintain a healthy digestive system Fibre is found in fruit, vegetables, whole grains and cereals.
  14. 14. HEALTHY DIET -After we are born, we drink our mother´s milk. Milk is a food that contains water, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins. That is why we say milk is complete food. -As we grow, we need to have a balanced diet that includes all of the different nutrients. Evey day our diet should include:
  15. 15. HEALTHY DIET -Energy foods, rich in carbohydrates, such as bread, potatoes, pasta, and sugar, or rich in fats, to give us energy. We find fats in butter, nuts, oil, ham, etc. -Body-building foods, rich in proteins like fish, meat, legumes, eggs, etc. -Body regulation food, rich in vitamines and minerals, like fruit, vegetables, etc -Water to dissolve and transport nutrients, and to compesate for the water we lose when we sweat or urinate.
  16. 16. HEALTHY DIET. OUR DIET -A diet is the amount and type of food that a person eats each day. -Our diet, is the quantity and variety of foos and water that we take. To maintain our mental and physical health, we follow a diet that contains all the different nutrients in the correct quantities. -A person´s diet varies according to cultural, religious, and geographical aspects. It also dependes on the age, weight and height of each individual. - We must folow a healthy and balanced diet
  17. 17. HEALTHY DIET. OUR DIET -A diet is a complete when it includes all of the types of nutrients. -Adiet is balanced when it has the correct quantity of each nutrient. -When a diet is not complete or balanced , we can develop disorders and deseases. For example, if a diet is too rich in carbohydrates and fats, energy intake is too high. When this happens, the body stores extra energy as fat. This causes obesity and other health problems. -We should eat five times a day:
  18. 18. HEALTHY DIET. OUR DIET Breakfast healthy
  19. 19. HEALTHY DIET. OUR DIET Mid-morning break
  20. 20. HEALTHY DIET. OUR DIET Lunch
  21. 21. HEALTHY DIET. OUR DIET Snack afternoon
  22. 22. HEALTHY DIET. OUR DIET Dinner healthy
  25. 25. LIVE HEALTHY
  26. 26. LIVE HEALTHY
  27. 27. LIVE HEALTHY
  28. 28. LIVE HEALTHY
  29. 29. NUTRITION FUNCTION. -Our bodies never stop working Even when we are sleeping, we breathe,our heart beats, and our brain is still active. -For all this activity to continue. We need energy - During childhood and adolescence we need building materials to make us grow. Even though adults no longer grow, they need to constantly repair damage that occurs in the body. For example, skin cells never stop being made to replace those that are damaged or lost
  30. 30. NUTRITION FUNCTION. - The function of nutrition is to supply the building materials and energy we need to live. -Nutrition is a long process.The first step is eating food. Food contains nutrients Nutrients are the substances that our bodies use for energy and building materials. To reléase the energy in nutrients, the cells of our body carry out chemical reactions. These reactions require oxygen. This is why we consume oxygene.
  31. 31. NUTRITION FUNCTION. The oxygen and nutrients are transported to the parts of the body where they are used. -The process of nutrition continually produces waste. To keep the body functioning correctly, it is necessary to eliminate waste products.
  32. 32. 3.1.NUTRITION FUNCTION. NUTRITIONAL SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES There are four processes involved in nutrition. Each one occurs in a different organ system of the body: -Digestion. This is the process of obtaining nutrients from food for our bodies to use. This occurs in the digestive system -Respiration. This is the process of acquiring the oxygen we need to live. It occurs in the respiratory system -Excretion. Helping to eliminate waste products produced in our body is carried out by the excretory system
  33. 33. NUTRITION FUNCTION. NUTRITIONAL SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES -Circulation: Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products around the body, occurs in the circulatory system.
  34. 34. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM -Digestion is part of the nutritional process. It turns food into the nutritional substances the body needs. -These organs are used in the digestive process: the mouth, the pharynx, the oesophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine, the liver and the anus.
  36. 36. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 1. Digestion begins in the mouth. The tongue and theeth are inside the mouth. 2. Food passes through tubes called the pharynx and the oesophagus. Food passes fron the mouth to the pharynx. Then it passes to he oexophagus and then to the stomach 3. The stomach is a bag-shaped organ. The opening to the stomach is called the cardia. The exit is called the pylorus
  37. 37. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 4. The small intestine is a tube leading rom the stomach. -Is divided into three parts: the duodenum (is the part closest to the stomach) the jejunum and the ileum (the last part). 5. The large intestine is a tube that comes after the small intestine. It also has three parts: the caecum, the colon and the rectum. The anus is at the end of the rectum.
  38. 38. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - Food goes through many changes in the digestive system. - Some of these changes are due to substances. These substances are produced whithin the digestive organs. For example: bile from the liver breaks down fats. -Other changes result from the movements of these organs. For example: the stomach movements mix food with gastric juices.
  39. 39. DIGESTION. DIGESTION PROCESS -There are five steps to the digestive process: 1. Chewing 2. Digestion in the stomach 3. Digestion in the Small intestine 4. Absorption. 5. Waste elimination
  40. 40. DIGESTIÓN. DIGESTION IN THE MOUTH 1- Chewing. Chewing is the process of crushing food in the mouth. This process uses the teeth, the tongue and saliva. The salivary glands make saliva. It initiates the digestive process.
  42. 42. DIGESTIÓN. DIGESTION IN THE STOMACH 2- Digestion in the stomach. Food mixes with the gastric juices in the stomach to produce chyme. The movements of the stomach and the gastric juices break down the food into simpler substances.
  44. 44. DIGESTIÓN. DIGESTION IN THE SMALL INTESTINE 3- Digestion in the small intestine. The chyme passes from the stomach to the small intestine. Chyme mixes with intestinal juices, pancreatitis juice and bile in the small intestine. The intestine produces intestinal juices. The pancreas produces pancreatic juices. The liver produces bile. These products and the movements of the small intestine form chyle and break down food.
  46. 46. DIGESTION. ABSORPTION IN THE SMALL INTESTINE - Absorption. Absorption takes place in the final portion of the small intestine. During absorption, the usable substances formed during digestión pass into the bloodtream.
  48. 48. DIGESTION. WASTE ELIMINATION -Waste Elinination. Wastes are substances that the body cannot use. After digestión, these wastes pass into the large intestine and form faeces. The faeces are eliminated through the anus.
  50. 50. RESPIRATION. The respiratory system: When we breathe, we get the oxigene the human body needs. We also eliminate carbón dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste substance. The respiratory system is responsible for respiration. The following organs form the respiratory system: nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs and alveoli.
  52. 52. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Air travels through the body in following way: -Air enters the nose. -It passes to the larynx and then to trachea. -The trachea is divided into two bronchi. Each bronchus enters a lung. -The bronchi are divided into bronchioles in the lungs. -The thinnest bronchioles end in alveoli
  54. 54. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM -The air that reaches the lungs has a lot of oxygen. This oxygen passses from the air to the blood in the alveoli. -The blood that reaches the alveoli has a lot of carbón dioxide. This gas passes from the blood in the alveoli to the air in the lungs. There is a lot of carbón dioxide in the air that leaves the lungs.
  56. 56. THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM Excretion eliminates waste substances from the blood. -The organism produces these substances when it functions. They have to be eliminated. If they accumulate, the cause damage. -The excretory system and the seat glands are responsible for excretion.
  57. 57. THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM -The following organs form excretory system: -The kidneys are two organs that filter the blood to separate waste substances. Blood is filtered as it passes through the kidneys. Urine forms. Urine contains wáter (95%) and waste substances (5%). -Ureters are two tubes that take the urine to the bladder. -The bladder is the organ that accumulates urine until is eliminated. -The Urethra is a duct. The urine passes through the urethra before it is eliminated. -Sweat glands are inside the skin. They make sweat. Sweat is simila to urine. Sweat is made up of wáter (99%) and waste substances (1%). Each sweat gand has a duct that ends in a pore. Sweat leaves the body through these pores.
  59. 59. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Nutrition lets up substances we need like oxygen. These substances have to be distributed throughtout the body. The blood carries these substances. Blood vessels and the heart are the organs of the circulatory system. They take part in circulation.
  60. 60. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. BLOOD VESSELS BLOOD VESSELS Blood vessels are tubes that carry blood to every part of the body. -Arteries: are the thickest blood vessels. They carry blood away from the heart -Veins: are thinner than arteries. They carry blood from tissues to he heart. -Capillaries: are the thinnest blood vessels. Capillaries carry blood to the inside of all the organs.
  63. 63. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. THE HEART -The heart is the organ that pumps blood to every part of the body. It beats constantly throughtout our whole life. - It is located between the lungs, more to he left tan in the middle. It is about the same size as a closed fist. Inside, it is divided into two halves, right and left, these halves are separated by the septum. The septum prevents the blood that circulates in each half of the heart from mixing. Each of these halves is also divided into two: the upper chambers are called atria
  65. 65. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. THE HEART The lower chambers are called ventricles. The atrium and the ventricle of each half are connected by a valve. This valve lets the blood pass from the atrium to the ventricle of the same half. Blood never passes from the ventricle to he atrium. The outside of the heart is dark red. It is covered with a very resistant tissue called pericardium.
  67. 67. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. BLOOD CIRCULATION Circulation is the route blood takes to reach every part of the body. The blood distributes oxygen and the substances we need to live. Blood also picks up waste substances during this route. The heart beats to pump the blood. It never stops. The heat makes two movements: systole and diastole. It fills with the blood that comes from the veins -Circulation has two phases: Pulmonary circulation and general circulation
  68. 68. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. PULMONARY CIRCULATION Pulmonary circulation is the route blood takes between the heart and the lungs. 1- The heart contracts (systole). The blood leaves the right ventricle of the heart. The pulmonary artery takes blood from the heart to the lungs. This blood is rich in carbón dioxide. 2- The blood reches the lungs. Gases are exchanged in the alveoli. The blood releases carbón dioxide and gets oygen. 3- The blood rich in oxigen goes back to he heart. It enters the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. The hearts relaxes (diastole). The blood is pumped from the lungs to he heart.
  72. 72. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. GENERAL CIRCULATION -General circulation is the route blood takes to reach every part of the body. 1. Blood with oxygen coming from the lungs passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The blood leaves the heart from this ventricle through the aorta. The aorta is an artery. 2. The blood travels from the aorta to thinner and thinner blood vessels. The blood reaches every organ in the body. The blood picks up nutritional sbstances when it travels through the small intestine. Then it carries these substances, as well as oxygen, to every part of the body. Waste substances are separated. 3. The veins pick up waste substances. The take the blood to the heart. This blood enters the right atrium through the venae cavae
  73. 73. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. GENERAL CIRCULATION 4-The blood goes from the right atrium to the right ventricle. The pulmonary circulation process starts again. During the pulmonary circulation process, the blood picks up oxygen in the lungs. It also removes carbón dioxide. During the general circulation process, the blood distributes oxygen and nutrients, it also picks up the waste substances.
  75. 75. THE SENSES. We use our senses to gather information about the world around us. We can perceive sounds, colours, tastes, etc…with our senses. The senses organs gather this information. They send it to the cerbrum though nerves. We have five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. The sense organs are the eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.
  76. 76. THE SENSES. SIGHT We can perceive shapes, colours, sizes, distances and positions with the senses of sight. The eyes are the organs of the sight. Eyelids, eyelashes and eyebrowns protect the eyes. Objetcts must be well lit so that we can see them.
  77. 77. THE SENSES. SIGHT The sense of sight works in the following way: Light enters the eye through the pupil. It crosses the lens and reaches the retina. The retina preceives light and colours. The retina sends this information to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries the information to the cerebrum. The cerebrum receives the information and interprets it. This is when we really see.
  78. 78. THE SENSES. HEARING We perceive sounds with the sense of hearing. We can distinguish different sounds. We can tell where they come from.We can tell where they come from. We also know if the sound comes from nearby or far away. Ours ears are the organs for hearing. Sounds enter the ear. They travel along the external auditory canal and reach the eardrum. The eardrum vibrates. The ossicles send this vibration to he cochlea. The auditory nerve begins at he cochlea. It sends the information to the cerebrum.
  80. 80. THE SENSES. SMELL We can perceive smells with the sense of smell. The nose is the organ for smell. Smells enter the nose with the air we breathe. They go to he olfactory region. The olfactory region is the part of the nose where we perceive smells. The olfactory nerve carries the information to the cerebrum.
  81. 81. THE SENSES. TASTE We perceive tastes with the senses of taste. The tongue is the organ of taste. Taste buds in the tongue perceive tastes and the substances that form food. This information goes from the taste buds to the gustary nerves. These nerves carry the information to the cerebrum
  83. 83. THE SENSES. TOUCH We perceive the temperature and texture of objects with the sense of touch. We also perceive pressure and pain. The skin is the organ for touch. The never endings in the skin perceive different sensation. When something touches us, this information is sent to the touch nerves. The nerves carry it to the cerebrum.
  84. 84. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. BRAIN The nervous system lets up perceive what happens around us. It also lets us form responses, like movements. The nervous system co-ordinates all the organs and systems in the human body. The brain, the spinal cord and nerves form the nervous system.
  85. 85. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. BRAIN The brain is in the head. The bone of the skull protect it. Several organs form the brain: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.
  86. 86. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. BRAIN The cerebrum: is the biggest organ. The cerebrum controlls all voluntary actions. For example , riding a bicycle and speaking. It also stores data and experiencies. It is related to feelings, like fear and happiness. The cerebellum: is located below the cerebrum. The cerebellum co-ordinates movements. It controls balance. The brain stem comunicates the brain with the spinal cord. The brain stem controls many organs in the human body. For example, it controls heartbeats and the movements we make when we breathe.
  87. 87. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. THE SPINAL CORD The spinal cord is in the back. It goes from the top to the botton. It is protected by the vertebrae of the spinal column. It is shaped like a cylinder. It is attached to the brain stem. Many nerves leave the spinal cord. They go to the organs of the trunk and extremities, like the stomach and the bíceps muscles. The spinal cord controls involuntary movements called reflexes. An example of a réflex is when you take your hand away quickly because you have burnt yourself.
  89. 89. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. NERVES Nerves are shaped like long fibres. They comunícate the brain and the spinal cord with the rest of the organs in the human body. There are two types of nerves, depending on the type of information they carry: sensitive nerves and motor nerves. -Sensitive nerves carry information from the organs to the cerebrum and the spinal cord. For example, the auditory nerve carries information about sounds from the ear to the cerebrum. - Motor nerves carry information from the brain and the spinal cord to other organs. For example, there are nerves that leave the spinal cord and tell the quadriceps muscle in the leg to move. The nerves co-ordinate the function of the whole body.
  90. 90. THE MOTOR SYSTEM. THE SKELETON The motor system is related to behaviour. It is responsable for all movements. The skeleton and muscle system form the motor system All the bones in the human body form the skeleton. It has three important fucntions: - It supports and gives shape to the body. -It protects internal organs. For example, the vertebrae protect the spinal cord. - It provides a base to which the muscles can atach. When our muscles pull on the bones they are attached to, we can make many movements. Lift an arm, walk, etc. Some bones have three functions at the same time. For example, ribs sahpe the body, protect the heart and lungs, and several muscles of the thorax.
  92. 92. THE MOTOR SYSTEM. THE COMPONENTS OF SKELETON Cartilage and bones form the skeleton. Cartilage is flexible, resistant and softer than bones. There is cartilage at the end of long bones, in the ears, the nose, the ribs, etc. Bones are very hard and resistant. They are made up of lingh tissue and minerals, like calcium. These minerals make the bones hard.
  93. 93. THE MOTOR SYSTEM. JOINTS The place where two bones join is called a joint. There are two types of joints: fixed joints and mobile joints. - Fixed joints do not let the bones move. For example, there are fixed joints between the bones in the skull. -Mobile joints let the bones move. Examples of mobile joints are the wrist and the union of the pelvis and the femur. Some joints let us make many movements. For example, the shoulder. Other joints, like the knee, only let us make one type of movement. Joints let us move the parts of the body. If all the bones were attached to each, the skeleton would be rigid.
  95. 95. THE MOTOR SYSTEM. MUSCLE SYSTEM The muscles in the human body form the muscle system. Muscles are resistant and elastic organs. They are responsable for movement. There are several types of muscles: skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Skeletal muscles work together with bones. They are responsable for voluntary movements, like chewing and walking. -Smooth muscles form part of the organs inside the human body. They make involuntary movements. For example the muscles of the oesophagus. -The cardiac muscle is in the heart. This muscle never stops. It continues moving throughout all our life. It pumps blood with its movement.
  96. 96. THE MOTOR SYSTEM. MUSCLE SYSTEM Muscles contract and relax to podruce movement. When a muscle contracts, it gets smaller. It pulls on the bone it is attached to. When the muscle relaxes, it goes back to its original size. The bone returns to its initial positition.
  98. 98. MOVEMENT. MOVEMENT CO-ORDINATION Bones and mucles have to work together so that we can move. Muscles move when the nervous system sends them and order to move. The nervous system co-ordinates the movements of the body in the following way: -The different sense organs gather information form outside. For example, the ear perceives sounds. -The information passes to the sensitive nerve in the sense organ. The nerve carries the information to the brain. This is when we become aware of sounds and colours, etc. -The brain interprets this information. It orders a movement.
  99. 99. MOVEMENT. MOVEMENT CO-ORDINATION - The motor nerves carry the brain´s orders to the muscles. When the muscles receives the order to move, it contracts. The muscle pulls on the bone it is attached to. This produces the movement.
  100. 100. MOVEMENT. TYPES OF MOVEMENT Types of Movement People can make two types of movements: voluntary movements and involuntary movements We make voluntary movements when we want to. For example, walking, turning, the pages of book or chewing. The brain sends the orders to make voluntary movements. We make involuntary movements without realising it. In general, the movements internal organs make to carry out their functions are involuntary movements. The orders for involuntary movements can come from the brain or the spinal cord.
  102. 102. MOVEMENT. REFLEXES A reflex is a special type of movement. It is an involuntary movement. Reflexes are very quick movements we make without thinking. For example, when something goes too near the eyes, you close them quickly. When you burn your hand, you take it away inmediately. Reflexes are very important for survival and health. For example, if you have burnt your hand you avoid a more serious burn when you take your hand away quickly.