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Safety Practices and sport s onjury Management

  1. Direction: Choose the best answer from the given choices. Write your answers in your activity notebook.
  2. 1. It is a twist, pull or tear of a muscle or tendon – a cord of tissue connecting muscle to bone. It is an acute, non-contact injury that results from overstretching or over-contraction. A. Concussion B. Dislocation C. Fracture D. Strain
  3. 2. It is a stretch or tear of a ligament, the band of connective tissues that joins the end of one bone with another. A. Concussion B.Dislocation C. Fracture D.Sprain
  4. 3. When two bones that come together to form a joint become separated. A. Concussion B.Dislocation C. Fracture D. Sprain
  5. 4. A break in the bone that can occur from after a quick, one-time injury to the bone or from repeated stress to the bone over time. A. Concussion B. Dislocation C. Fracture D. Sprain
  6. 5. It is a life-threatening injury because they disrupt the normal function of the brain. A. Concussion B.Dislocation C. Fracture D. Sprain
  7. 6. Which of the following is NOT classified as chronic injuries? A. Bursitis B. Osteoarthritis C. Sprain D. Stress Fracture
  8. 7. Which of the following is classified as acute injuries? A. Bursitis B. Osteoarthritis C. Sprain D. Strain
  9. 8. It refers to damaged tissues or organs which occur when it encounters trauma or physical force that is greater than what it can resist or absorb. A. Acute Injuries C.Concussion B. Chronic injuries D. Injuries
  10. 9. In the acronym PRICED, what does P stand for? A. Perform B. Place C. Precise D. Protection
  11. 10.In the acronym HARM, what does H stand for? A. Hands B. Heat C. Help D. Hot
  12. Task 1: Name Them! Directions: Identify the type of injury shown in the pictures below. Choose the correct answer among the choices inside the box.
  13. Sprain Strain Fracture Dislocation Concussion
  14. What are injuries? Why is my risk at getting injured higher now that I am more active?
  15. Individuals who engage in various types of physical activities like sports and exercise, have a higher risk of getting injured as compared to those who practice a sedentary lifestyle. The more engaging the sport or the more rigorous the exercise is, the higher is the risk for injuries. However, the potential benefits of physical activities outweigh the risks of suffering an injury.
  16. Most of the injuries are preventable and awareness of the risk factors will help in reducing the risk. Furthermore, proper warm- up and training, vigilance, and safety measures can dramatically reduce the occurrence of injuries.
  17. Moreover, injuries are damaged tissues or organs which occur when it encounters trauma or physical force that is greater than what it can resist or absorb. The tissues are able to withstand varying degrees of stress and strain, but it will break down if it experiences an impact or force that is stronger than what it can tolerate.
  18. Factors influencing the ability of our tissues or organs to effectively resist or absorb forces include inherent abnormality, body position, age, technique, fitness level, equipment, and environmental aspects.
  19. Tissues and organs react to the impact and direction of the force. Tensile forces are those that act away from the center of the structure, causing a pull or stretch. Compressive forces impact the center causing it to bend or fold. Shear forces are opposing forces toward the different ends of the structure causing it to twist. The mechanism of how the force was applied is just as important as its impact.
  20. The bone is strong in resisting compressive strength while muscle-tendon units are strong at resisting tensile forces. An individual who engages in various types of strenuous activities will expose his/her body to the combination of these forces which could result to an injury.
  21. Aside from the knowledge of the forces that cause injury, it is important to understand the ability of the structures to resist or absorb forces. Injuries in sports and fitness commonly affect the musculoskeletal structures. The ligaments, tendons, muscles, and bones have inherent strength that helps withstand strong forces.
  22. The strength properties of each musculoskeletal structure vary according to the density of collagen, elastin fibers present and the actual position of the body structure at the time it was exposed to these forces.
  23. Jumping and landing on a fully extended leg can cause injury than when it is extended and flexed gradually upon landing thereby absorbing the impact which could have caused an injury. Its ability to withstand sudden or acute forces also depends on the tissues (i.e., fat) that soften the impact on the structure.
  24. In general, injuries including sports injuries can be classified into two: acute and chronic/overuse. Acute injures have signs and symptoms (e.g., pain, swelling) that manifest immediately after force application. On the other hand, the signs and symptoms of chronic or overuse injuries occur after a long period of exposure to the force.
  25. Sprains, strains, fractures, dislocations, and wounds are examples of acute injuries. An excessive stretching force can cause the fibers of the ligament, muscle, or tendon to break.
  26. An overstretched ligament is called a sprain. A strain is also caused by excessive stretching that causes tears in the muscle-tendon unit. Fractures are breaks in the continuity of the bone.
  27. It usually occurs as a result of high impact forces that cause the bone to bend or twist. Dislocations are bones that are pushed out from their joint capsule. Remember: ligament is to sprain, muscle-tendon unit is to strain, fractures and dislocations is for bones.
  29. 1. Strain
  30. Strains are by far the most common of all sports-related injuries simply because we use so many muscles and tendons when we exercise or play.
  31. These moving parts are all susceptible to stretching farther than they should, or moving in ways they shouldn’t move, leaving them torn, damaged and in pain.
  32. Common muscle strains include pulled hamstrings, pulled groin muscles and strained quads. Most strains are minor and heal naturally with rest. The best way to reduce the risk of strained muscles and tendons is to warm up and stretch before engaging in strenuous activity.
  33. 2. Sprain
  34. Sprains are to ligaments what strains are to muscles. Ligaments are the tissues that connect bone to bone. When these ligaments turn in a wrong way, they can pull or tear.
  35. Ankle sprains are perhaps the most frequent type of sprain among athletes, followed closely by knee sprains, wrist and elbow sprains, etc.
  36. Sprains can be painful, take longer to heal than strains, and sometimes require immobilization to protect against further injury. Pre- workout stretches and warm- ups can help deter sprains, as well as practicing good technique in the sport you’re playing.
  37. Sprains often leave the ligament weak and susceptible to future sprains, so if you have a history of spraining a knee or ankle, for example, it would be good idea to support that joint with a brace while playing.
  38. 3. Fracture
  39. Impact and contact sports often lead to fractures of the bone (mostly arms, legs and feet), all of which can be painful, take weeks of immobilization to heal and may sometimes require surgery to correct.
  40. Fractures are an inherent risk with most strenuous and/or contact sports, but you can reduce the risk by wearing the appropriate padding, warming up, working out to keep muscles strong and flexible, practicing good technique, etc.
  41. Also, don’t “play through the pain,” as sometimes the pain is a sign of a strain or sprain that left untreated can make the bone vulnerable to fracture.
  42. 4. Dislocation
  43. “dislocation is an injury in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. The cause is usually trauma resulting from a fall, an auto accident, or a collision during contact or high-speed sports.
  44. Dislocation usually involves the body's larger joints. In adults, the most common site of the injury is the shoulder. In children, it's the elbow.
  45. Your thumb and fingers also are vulnerable if forcibly bent the wrong way.The injury will temporarily deform and immobilize your joint and may result in sudden and severe pain and swelling.
  46. A dislocation requires prompt medical attention to return your bones to their proper positions”.
  47. 5. Concussion
  48. concussion occurs when a sudden impact to the head causes the brain to lurch inside the skull, sometimes damaging the tissues holding it in place.
  49. Concussions may be mild to severe, with symptoms ranging from headache and dizziness to sleepiness and temporary loss of consciousness.
  50. Always seek a medical evaluation from a spine- and-brain specialist with any blow to the head, as sometimes more serious symptoms may occur after the fact.
  51. Never continue to play sports if symptoms of a concussion exist. Concussions usually heal naturally with rest within a week to several weeks.
  52. The best way to reduce the risk of concussion is to wear appropriate protective headgear when playing contact sports like hockey or football, or when biking or skateboarding, etc.