2. 1. Explain the purpose and basic
requirements of an effective literature review.
2. Discuss important points on proper citation,
3. Apply concepts on paraphrasing
4. Cite sources appropriately.
3. Review Literature and Studies
Types and Forms of Citations
Referencing for Resources
4. When thinking about what a
literature review is, we need to
think about what it is for. What is
the purpose of a literature
5. Word factory
- Group yourselves according to
the WORD you have received in a
- Use the manila paper and marker
to complete the alphabet with
words related to Review of
6. - Proceed using the K-W-L chart
What I know about RRL
What I want to know more about RRL
What I learn about RRL
7. Establishes the terms and context.
Presents a survey of preceding
literature on the topic.
Explores ways that others have
solved similar questions/problems.
Outlines the relationship of these
texts to each other.
8. Evaluates the quality and
relevance of the literature.
Establishes the gaps or
Demonstrates your scholarly
9. The literature review is a critical look at the
existing research that is significant to the
work that you are carrying out.
10. A critical analysis of existing research in
it highlights both the strengths and
weaknesses of existing research
Allows you to gain a critical understanding
of your field
11. Opportunity to think about what has been done in
your field; opportunity to think about the
similarities, patterns, trends and also differences
across the existing research
By identifying strengths and weakness, you will
be able to think about what has not/needs to be
done in your field
The gap in the literature is your justification for
12. - Literature review as an outcome: appears
in the final draft of your thesis as part of your
introduction or as a separate chapter.
- Literature review as a process: critical
engagement ( thinking, reading, and writing)
with relevant research on your topic. It is a
crucial and formative stage of your thesis
13. LITERATURE REVIEW can help you:
•Focus on your research question
•Develop your research methodology and data
•Identify a conceptual framework for your
•Identify gaps in previous studies
•Identify flawed methodologies or theoretical
•Identify controversies in the research literature
•Provide a check for testing your findings and
•Help you make meaning out of your findings.
14. 1. provide background information
2. establish importance
3. demonstrate familiarity
4. “carve out a space” for further
23. Start with an overview
Decide on organizing principles (themes,
trends, methodology, chronology,
controversies – usually a combination of
some of these)
Use headings for the different sections of the
Provide summative signposts of where your
argument is leading
Summarize your review/highlight ‘gap’ in
24. Tips for clear writing:
Clear introduction: overview of topic, aim of
review and structure
Clear paragraph structure
Make sure the subject of your sentence is clear
Don’t assume knowledge
Make sure key terminology and difficult ideas are
always explained thoroughly (ask your yourself:
does it make sense?)
Be objective and balanced
Use signposts to orient the reader
26. - One way to express the
appreciation for the recognition
of people’s ownership of
27. 1. Find or give importance and respect to the
other people for what they know about the field
2. Give authority, validity, and credibility to other
people’s claims, conclusions, and arguments
3. Prove broad and extensive reading of authentic
and relevant materials about the topic
4. Help readers contact the sources of ideas
5. Permit readers to check the accuracy of work
6. Save researchers from plagiarism
28. 1. Integral: The author’s name appears in the
Example (author-date system): Lillis (2001) argues
that both tutors and students often lack explicit
knowledge of the conventions governing the
construction of academic texts.
2. Non-integral: The author’s name appears outside
Example: Both tutors and students often lack explicit
knowledge of the conventions governing the
construction of academic texts (Lillis, 2001).
29. If it’s not your own idea (and not common
- Paraphrase key ideas.
- Use quotations sparingly.
- Introduce quotations effectively.
- Use proper in-text citation to document the
source of ideas.
- Maintain accurate bibliographic records
31. - A criminal act of stealing
intellectual property subject for
penalty or imprisonment.
- To steal or purloin from the
writings of others
- To appropriate without due
acknowledgement of the author.
32. American Psychological Association (APA)
uses the author-date method of citation. The
last name of the author and the date of
publication are inserted in the text in the
When referencing or summarizing a source,
provide the author and year. When quoting or
summarizing a particular passage, include
the specific page or paragraph number, as
CITATIONS IN THE TEXT
33. One work by one author:
In one developmental study (Smith, 1990),
children learned... OR
In the study by Smith (1990), primary
school children... OR
In 1990, Smith’s study of primary school
34. Works by multiple authors
First citation: Masserton, Slonowski, and
Slowinski (1989) state that...
Subsequent citations: Masserton et al.
(1989) state that...
For 6 or more authors, cite only the name
of the first author followed by et al. and the
35. When a resource has no named author, cite
the first few words of the reference entry
(usually the title). Use double quotation marks
around the title of an article, chapter, or Web
page. Italicize the title of a periodical, book,
brochure, or report.
- The site seemed to indicate support for
homeopathic drugs (“Medical Miracles,” 2009).
The brochure argues for homeschooling
(Education Reform, 2007).
Works by no identified author:
36. Two or more works in the same
Citations of two or more works in the same
parentheses should be listed in the order
they appear in the reference list (i.e.,
alphabetically, then chronologically).
Several studies (Jones & Powell, 1993;
Peterson, 1995, 1998; Smith, 1990)
37. Specific parts of a source
Always give the page number for quotations or
to indicate information from a specific table,
chart, chapter, graph, or page. The word page
is abbreviated but not chapter.
The painting was assumed to be by Matisse
(Powell, 1989, Chapter 6), but later analysis
showed it to be a forgery (Murphy, 1999, p.
38. If, as in the instance of online material, the
source has neither visible paragraph nor
page numbers, cite the heading and the
number of the paragraph following it. This
allows the reader to locate the text in the
The patient wrote that she was
unimpressed by the doctor’s bedside
manner (Smith, 2006, Hospital Experiences
section, para. 2)
--Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The guide to
everything and then some more stuff.
New York, NY: Macmillan.
- Gregory, G., & Parry, T. (2006). Designing brain-
compatible learning (3rd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Chapter of a Book:
- Bergquist, J. M. (1992). German Americans. In J.
D. Buenker & L. A. Ratner (Eds.),
Multiculturalism in the United States: A comparative
guide to acculturation and ethnicity (pp. 53-76). New
York, NY: Greenwood.
40. - Journal Article without DOI (when DOI is
Becker, L. J., & Seligman, C. (1981).
Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of
Issues, 37(2), 1-7.
Hamfi, A. G. (1981). The funny nature of
dogs. E-journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2),
-48. Retrieved from
41. - Becker, E. (2001, August 27). Prairie farmers reap
conservation's rewards. The New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
- Brislin, R. W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. In R.
J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 1,
pp. 319-327). New York, NY: Wiley.
- Developmental genetics. (2005). In Cambridge
encyclopedia of child development. Retrieved from
Online Newspaper Articles:
42. - Hershey Foods Corporation. (2001, March 15).
2001 Annual Report. Retrieved from
Dent-Read, C., & Zukow-Goldring, P. (2001). Is
modeling knowing? [Review of the book Models of
cognitive development, by K. Richardson].
American Journal of Psychology, 114, 126-133.
Technical and Research Reports (often with
43. Data Sets:
Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2000).
Simmons national consumer survey [Data file].
New York, NY: Author.
Lincoln, D. S. (2009, January 23). The
likeness and sameness of the ones in the
[Web log post]. Retrieved from
44. Website with no author or date of
Census data revisited. (n.d.). Retrieved
March 9, 2009, from Harvard, Psychology
of Population website,
Do not include retrieval dates unless the
source material may change over time. If no
DOI has been assigned to the content,
provide the homepage URL.
Reprint from Another Source:
45. Citation in the text:
Reference List Citation:
Newton, W. (1999). Return to Mars. In C.
Mari (Ed.), Space Exploration (pp. 32-
41). New York, NY: H.W. Wilson.
(Reprinted from National Geographic,
pp. 2-26, August 1998).
46. Thesis Statement: Service-learning programs implemented in American
undergraduate universities since 2000 have not only proven beneficial for the
individuals or organizations being served but also for the participating students by
offering opportunities for academic, emotional, and social growth.
Prior studies have identified many benefits
for educational institutions from service-learning
programs. These benefits include positive perceptions
of the university by the community (Miron & Moely,
2006), enhanced student retention rates (Eyler et
al., 2001), positive teaching and learning outcomes
such as greater student involvement and
participation in class (Caruso et al., 2007), and
increased opportunities for meaningful research
and scholarly activities (Strand et al., 2003).
47. In this study and related research, the
individuals serving are university students who are
collaborating with the community partner. The
studied benefits to individuals serving include
cultural awareness sharing (Crabtree, 2008), as well
as networking opportunities and application of
classroom learning to real-world issues (Bowen et
al., 2009). Ultimately, service-learning stimulates
student learning and engages students in their
surrounding communities. Service learning creates
new goals for students such as personal
development, career development, moral
development, academic achievement, and
“reflective civic participation” (Lamb et al., 1998).
These types of projects allow students to utilize
material learned in the classroom to improve
48. Integrating concepts and theories
learned in the classroom with everyday life
makes students more capable of highlighting
the importance of each course. Additionally,
material learned in business courses can be
applied to benefit the community through a
variety of tangible services, such as business
planning or marketing new programs. Service
learning is an excellent way for students to
apply their course lessons to real-world
situations and concurrently benefit the
1. Search for literature related to your research
problem/topic crafted in session 2
2. Write Literature using proper citation
3. Paraphrase the original statement to a
4. Present your outputs to last for 5 minutes
55. 10 - Logical organization, precise expression of thought,
spelling, punctuation, grammar, proper tense,
8 - Logical organization, precise expression of thought,
however, minor spelling, punctuation, grammar, proper
tense, and/ or professional language problems.
5 - Weak organization and expression of thought OR major
spelling, punctuation, grammar, proper tense, and/ or
professional language problems.
2 - Weak organization and expression of thought AND
major spelling, punctuation, grammar, proper tense,
and/ or professional language problems.
0 - paper did not include this element.
56. 5 - The internal references and reference page
conformed to APA Format.
4 - The internal references or reference page include
one area of improper formatting.
3 - The internal references and/or reference page
include two areas of improper formatting.
2 - The internal references and/or reference page
include three areas of improper formatting.
1 - The internal references and/or reference page
include four areas of improper formatting.
0 - The internal references and reference page did NOT
conform to APA Format.
57. “ Why settle for
LESS, when you can
do your BEST!”
In pairs, discuss what you think a literature review is for. Jot your ideas down on paper.
Process group’s work
How else will you define exactly what you’re looking at and where its limits are?
How else will you know what’s been done already?
How else will you select an appropriate methodology and approach?
How else will you know what the different perspectives and debates are, and where you are coming from?
How else will you be able to build on or reject it?
How else will you justify your own contribution?
How else can I have faith in your conclusions?
What type of literature review am I writing?
What type of literature am I conducting?
What materials am I going to use?
How do I assess existing research? A literature review is never just a list of studies- it always offers an arguments about a body of research
What am I going to write?
How can I fine tune my draft? OBSERVE PARALLELISM
- To steal or purloin from the writings of another; to appropriate without due acknowledgement of the author.
When quoting in your paper, if a direct quote is less than 40 words, incorporate it into your text and use quotation marks. If a direct quote is more than 40 words, make the quotation a free-standing indented block of text and DO NOT use quotation marks.
When a work has 2 authors cite both names every time you reference the work in the text. When a work has three to five authors cite all the author names the first time the reference occurs and then subsequently include only the first author followed by et al. For
The site seemed to indicate support for homeopathic drugs (“Medical Miracles,” 2009).
Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works with no author.
NOTE: For articles that have a DOI, see Journal Article with DOI example.