2. Etymologically the word 'emotion' is derived
from the Latin word, 'emovere' which means
'to stir up' or 'to excite. In common usage emotion is
referred to as a subjective feeling.
Feelings are simple experiences of the affective type,
pleasant or unpleasant.
Emotions are agitated states of our mind and body
leading us to perform some or other type of behaviour
3. According to Woodworth,
Emotion is a 'moved' or 'stirred-up‘ state of an
organism. It is a stirred-up state of feeling and appears
that way to the individual himself. It is a disturbed
muscular and glandular activity and appears that way to
the external observer. OR
Merriam-Webster defines emotion as a conscious &
subjective mental reaction towards a particular event &
is usually accompanied by changes in the physiological
& behavioural aspects of a person.
4. Emotions are universal.
Emotions are personal/ unique.
Emotions rises abruptly but subside slowly.
Emotions are the product of our perceptions.
Same emotions can be aroused by a number of
different stimuli, objects,& situations.
NATURE & CHARACTERISTICS OF
5. There are three types of components-
COMPONENTS OF EMOTION
14. 1. Facial Expressions : Face is flushed
in anger & pale in fear. Mouth
turns down in unpleasant
emotions & turn up in pleasant
16. 2.Bodily movement & gestures:
Unexpected fearful situation might
cause a startle pattern in which the
eyes close, mouth widens , head &
neck are thrust forward.
3 . Voice disturbances: A tremor or a
break in the voice –deep sorrow. A
loud sharp high-pitched voice – anger.
Speech is low & monotonous –
dejection & sadness & rapid- tension &
17. Physiological changes occurring during an
emotional state are mainly due to the
autonomic nervous system and the endocrine
gland system. The autonomic nervous system
has two sub divisions-sympathetic division and
parasympathetic division. The sympathetic
division of the autonomic nervous system
prepares the body for emergency action
during aroused states.
18. Increased blood pressure (BP) and heart
Changes in the rate of respiration.
Dilation of pupils.
Sweating and decreased secretion of saliva.
Increased blood sugar level.
Decreased mobility of the gastrointestinal
Erect hair on the skin.
Muscular tensions and tremors
19. The physiological changes produced by the
parasympathetic nervous system are as follows:
Reduction of heart rate and BP.
Diversion of blood to the internal organs
and digestive tract.
Regulation of salt and water level in the body.
Building up and conservation of body energy.
20. During emotional experiences perception ,learning ,
consciousness and memory are affected.
I. Thinking & reasoning will be affected adversely.
II. Learning will be slowed down during emotion.
III. Memory will be inhibited.
IV. Disorientation of time, place & person may
experience during an intense emotion.
V. Person may be unable to concentrate in his tasks.
VI. Decrease in self –confidence & self –esteem.
22. The James-Lange theory proposes that an event
or stimulus causes a physiological arousal
without any interpretation or conscious
thought and you experience the resulting
emotion only after you interpret the physical
JAMES- LANGE THEORY
23. The Cannon Bard theory, on the other hand ,
suggests that the given stimulus evokes both a
physiological and an emotional response
simultaneously and that neither one causes the
CANNNON BARD THEORY
24. The Schachter-Singer theory takes a more
cognitive approach to the issue . He believes
that an event causes physiological arousal , but
that you must then identify a reason for the
arousal before you label the emotion.
25. When an event occurs, a cognitive appraisal is
made (either consciously or subconsciously) and
based on the result of that appraisal, an emotion
and physiological response follow.
28. Dr . Schindler says-by controlling our own emotions we
can eliminate half of the nagging illnesses that plague
our daily lives. Our body functions well when we are
happy. There is an old saying, "Joy is the best
1. Intense and unpleasant emotions disturb the whole
individual. If they persist longer they may cause illness
or worsen the condition of one already ill.
EMOTIONS IN HEALTH AND ILLNESS
29. 2. Negative emotions can weaken body's immune
system and cause infections. When the person is
stressed or anxious he may not take care of his
health as well as he should. He may not feel like
exercising, eating nutritious food or taking
the prescribed medicine. He may abuse
alcohol, tobacco or other drugs.
30. Modern medicine shows that uncontrolled emotionality
plays a vital role in the causation of many physical disorders
I. Peptic ulcer.
II. Heart diseases.
IV. Diabetes and tuberculosis (TB) are made worse.
V. Bronchial asthma.
VI. Increased BP.
VII. Insomnia, chronic constipation.
VIII. Functional colitis.
IX. Skin disorders like pruritus, psoriasis, etc.
X. Susceptible to infections.
31. The knowledge about emotions is important for a nurse.
Normally the patients are less self controlled because of their
illness. They may be tense, irritable and unbalanced. Therefore,
the nurse has to be very mature and balanced in her behavior
towards the patient.
1. The nurse has to substitute patient's negative emotions with
positive emotions. She has to replace fear, depression and
hatred with hope, courage and love.
2. The nurse should avoid tensions at all costs. She should
develop sound philosophy of life and learn self-control.
Nursing Implications of Emotions