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Presentación Inglés.pdf

  1. 1. INFINITIVE AND GERUND INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO POLITÉCNICO SANTIAGO MARIÑO EXTENSIÓN PORLAMAR ARQUITECTURA INGLES II ELABORADO POR: ANASOPHIA GÓMEZ C.I: 30.230.545 PORLAMAR, 10 DE DICIEMBRE DEL 2022
  2. 2. INFINITIVE
  3. 3. DEFINITION • The infinitive is the basic form of verbs in English. It is usually structured as follows: to + (root of the verb), for example, to talk (to speak). However, there is also the form without to. It can have different functions within a sentence among which are opinions expressed or proposed.
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS • -It does not distinguish person, number or time (I am going to go, they are going to go) -Has a progressive or forward- looking aspect -Does not specify the particular circumstances of the action -has an abstract character -It is used as an auxiliary verb
  5. 5. APPLICATIONS • It is used to indicate an action that continued, continues, or will continue while speaking.
  6. 6. TYPES AND EXAMPLES • Present infinitive: It is the best known way. It is formed with the structure a + (root of the verb) and works as a noun in a sentence. For example: Sleeping was a pleasure (Sleeping was a pleasure). • Negative infinitive: It is formed with not + the infinitive. It may or may not include the to. As its name implies, it is to deny an action. For example: Try not to get mad (Try not to get mad). • Progressive infinitive: It is structured as follows: (to) be… -ing (the to may or may not appear). It serves to indicate an action that continues, continues, or continues while speaking. For example: It's nice to be talking to you (It's nice to talk to you). • Perfect infinitive: Its structure is this: (to) have + past participle (the to may or may not appear). It is usually common in the third conditional. For example: If I had known you were coming, I would have prepared your favorite food (If I had known you were coming, I would have prepared your favorite food). passive infinitive Its form is as follows: (to) be + past participle (the to may or may not appear).
  7. 7. GERUND
  8. 8. DEFINITION • The gerund is, in various languages, one of the non-finite forms of the verb, that is, a verbal form that is not defined by features such as time, mode, number, or person.
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS • It must function as an adverb or as a circumstantial complement or as a verb. • It expresses simultaneous action or prior to that of the main verb, or in such an immediate way that it is perceived as simultaneous. • The subject of the gerund is the same as that of the main verb or has its own subject. • When it is with verbs of physical perception the subject can be the direct object of the main verb. • Function to form various verb periphrases.
  10. 10. APPLICATIONS • The uses of the gerund are: Express an action or event that happened at the same moment as the main verb of the sentence. For example: He opened the letter, thinking it was good news. State actions prior to the core verb of the sentence. For example: Training every morning, we would have won the race. Incorporated in exceptions, the gerund is allowed as an adjective if the subordinate with which it changes the desired meaning. For example: Boiling water. The subordinate clause Agua que hileve does not have the same meaning as with a gerund. In cases that are not exceptions, the uses of the gerund as an adjective are incorrect. For example: Children eating apples. The correct sentence is: Children who eat apples.
  11. 11. TYPES AND EXAMPLES • Gerunds have two types that depend on whether or not they have a proper subject: the conjoint gerund and the absolute gerund. The conjoint gerund has the same subject as the verb in the personal form. It is written in the sentence separated with commas, it can be placed before or inserted between the subject and the main verb. Although the use of the comma is always recommended, on some occasions, when the gerund is at the end, it is possible to do without the comma. For example: Reading so many novels, Don Quixote went crazy.Don Quixote, reading so many novels, went crazy. The absolute or non-arranged gerund is the one that has its own subject, different from the subject of the main clause and does not coincide with the direct object. This type is separated by commas from the rest of the sentence. For example: While the child is sleeping, the mother also rests. The mother, while the child is sleeping, also rests.

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