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2007 Ergonomics society - What works in industry

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Ergonomics Society annual conference. Practical implementation of human factors in major hazard industries

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2007 Ergonomics society - What works in industry

  1. 1. Tel: 01492 879813 Mob: 07984 284642 andy.brazier@gmail.com www.andybrazier.co.uk 1 What works in the oil, gas and chemical industries?
  2. 2. 2 A bit about me Chemical engineer – Loughborough University PhD – Edinburgh University 11+ years working as a human factors consultant – predominantly in oil, gas and chemical industries Self-employed for 3 years Registered member of the Ergonomics Society.
  3. 3. 3 The industry Dominated by large multi-nationals Dominated by engineers New ideas – agility of a super-tanker
  4. 4. 4 Engineers are interested in human factors, but don’t speak the same language Biomechanics Physiology Anatomy Psychology Ergonomics Machines for making beer The flow of beer through the body (achieving a mass balance) How beer is processed by the body (unit operations) Topic of conversation when you’ve had a few Know something about that.
  5. 5. 5 Ergonomics – not very interesting But these things are interesting
  6. 6. 6 Rightly or wrongly, ergonomics and human factors are seen to be different Ergonomics Human capabilities Hardware design Work stations User interfaces Working environment Manual handling Personal safety, health and well being Human factors Whole system Organisation Culture Tasks Errors Procedures Training and competence Major hazard Process safety.
  7. 7. 7 An engineering approach to human factors Risk based – process safety Structured on process systems Focus on critical activities and tasks Borrow from engineering methods (e.g. HAZOP) Task and error analysis Human factors risk control measures Eliminate and reduce Procedures, training and competence.
  8. 8. 8 Staffing Assessment Methodology Tried and tested method for assessing staffing arrangements, especially during change Gives some objectivity to human factors Successful at focussing efforts YES YES NO NO Do/will staffing arrangements cover worst case scenarios? Physical assessment Ladder assessment Are arrangements sustainable? Ref: HSE CRR 348/2001 Ref: Energy Institute user guide
  9. 9. 9 Typical findings Problems with communication Passive approaches to stress and fatigue No control of shift swaps, overtime, breaks etc. Poor management of organisational change (including staffing levels) Lack of systems for procedures Reliance on informal training Subjective evidence of competence Remainder of the talk focuses on the bottom three issues
  10. 10. 10 Hypothetical Gas Terminal – St Barton
  11. 11. 11 A systematic approach Define the system Define the system goals Identify the functions to achieve the goals Identify the ancillary functions Identify safety critical elements requiring maintenance Identify tasks Ref: ISO 11064 Simple and very effective
  12. 12. 12 St Barton System definition The plant and equipment between inlet and outlet isolation valves System’s goals Supply gas to customer at required specification Manage risks to safety, health and the environment Achieve nomination Operate profitably.
  13. 13. 13 St Barton - Main Functions Receive gas from pipeline Remove liquids and particles Heat gas to achieve specification Inject nitrogen to achieve WOBBE Control flow rate to achieve nomination Meter gas for contractual purposes.
  14. 14. 14 St Barton utilities/ancillaries Fuel gas Nitrogen Instrument air Fire fighting capability Fire/gas detection Emergency shutdown Emergency depressurisation Electrical power Drainage.
  15. 15. 15 1. Start-up/Shutdown tasks 1.1 Whole terminal 1.1.1 Return terminal to service after maint. 1.1.2 Prepare terminal for maintenance 1.1.3 Return to service after blowdown 1.2 Processing trains 1.2.1 Return train to service after maint. 1.2.2 Prepare train for maintenance 1.2.3 Increase number of trains online 1.2.3 Reduce number of online trains 1.3 Heaters 1.3.1 Start additional heater 1.3.2 Stop a heater St Barton Operations Task List Criticality High High High High High Med Med Med Med
  16. 16. 17 Assigning criticality Can be very subjective Everything is critical Hazardousness of system Ignition sources Changing line-up Impact of task deviation Overriding safety devices Overall criticality Low Medium High 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 0-3 4-8 9-15 Ref: OTO 1999 092
  17. 17. 18 1. Start-up/Shutdown tasks 1.1 Whole terminal 1.1.1 Return terminal to service after maint. 1.1.2 Prepare terminal for maintenance 1.1.3 Return to service after blowdown 1.2 Processing trains 1.2.1 Return train to service after maint. 1.2.2 Prepare train for maintenance 1.2.3 Increase number of trains online 1.2.3 Reduce number of online trains 1.3 Heaters 1.3.1 Start additional heater 1.3.2 Stop a heater St Barton – Task Criticality 3+0+3+2+2 High 3+0+3+3+0 High 3+0+1+2+2 Med 3+0+2+2+2 High 3+0+2+2+1 Med 3+0+1+1+0 Med 3+0+1+1+0 Med 1+1+1+0+0 Low 1+0+1+0+0 Low
  18. 18. 19 What has this achieved? A human factors risk assessment Only a means to an end, but what is the end? Human factors risk management Engineer out – beware of risk transferral Hardware controls – beware of ironies of automation Software controls – procedures, training and competence
  19. 19. 20 1. Start-up/Shutdown tasks 1.1 Whole terminal 1.1.1 Return terminal to service after maint. 1.1.2 Prepare terminal for maintenance 1.1.3 Return to service after blowdown 1.2 Processing trains 1.2.1 Return train to service after maint. 1.2.2 Prepare train for maintenance 1.2.3 Increase number of trains online 1.2.3 Reduce number of online trains 1.3 Heaters 1.3.1 Start additional heater 1.3.2 Stop a heater St Barton - Procedures Required Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
  20. 20. 21 Better procedure systems One size does not fit all Different types of procedure Full step-by-step Aide memoir Flow chart Checklist Sign or label on plant Training procedure None Requirements depend on the task’s: Criticality Complexity Frequency it is performed (by an individual).
  21. 21. 22 1. Start-up/Shutdown 1.1.1 Return terminal to service after maint. 2. Routine operations 2.1 Field operator routines 3 Materials handling 3.1 Receive bulk materials 3.1.1 Receive diesel from tanker St Barton – Type of Procedure Full procedure + Checklist Checklist (training) Guide + shift log Full procedure + signs on plant 2.1.1 Plant patrol 2.1.2 Receive shift handover 5 Respond to operational events 5.1 Respond to high pressures 5.1.1 Respond to high pressure at inlet Flow chart
  22. 22. 23 Training Required for all tasks Timing is important Order tasks are learnt when starting a new job Prior to infrequent task being performed Method of training is important Class room - theory Workshop – practical skills On the job – most tasks Simulation – infrequent tasks.
  23. 23. 24 1. Start-up/Shutdown 1.1.1 Return terminal to service after maint. 2. Routine operations 2.1 Field operator routines 3 Materials handling 3.1 Receive bulk materials 3.1.1 Receive diesel in tanker St Barton – Training Method Pre-task briefing On the job On the job + class On the job 2.1.1 Plant patrol 2.1.2 Receive shift handover 5 Respond to operational events 5.1 Respond to high pressures 5.1.1 Respond to high pressure at inlet Simulation
  24. 24. 25 Competency assessment A lot of training fails to achieve its objectives Need to assess the skills, knowledge and understanding required Level of assessment depends on nature of task Peer Observation Line manager Discussion Internal assessor Question and answer External assessor Written test.
  25. 25. 26 2. Routine operations 2.1 Field operator routines 3 Materials handling 3.1 Receive bulk materials 3.1.1 Receive diesel in tanker St Barton – Competence Assessment Peer Internal Line manager 2.1.1 Plant patrol 2.1.2 Receive shift handover 5 Respond to operational events 5.1 Respond to high pressures 5.1.1 Respond to high pressure at inlet Internal 6 Respond to emergencies 6.3 Respond to major incidents 6.3.1 Respond to propane tank BLEVE External
  26. 26. St Barton Task List Procedures required Training method Assessor 1 Start-up/shutdown 1.1 Whole terminal 1.1.1 Return terminal to service after maint. 3 0 3 2 2 High Full procedure + checklist Pre-task briefing Internal 1.2.3 Prepare terminal for maintenance 3 0 3 3 0 High Full procedure + checklist Pre-task briefing Internal 1.2.4 Return to service after blowdown 3 0 1 2 2 Med Full procedure + checklist Pre-task briefing Internal 1.2 Processessing trains 1.2.1 Return train to service after maint. 3 0 2 2 2 High Checklist On the job Line mgr 1.2.2 Prepare train for maintenance 3 0 2 2 1 Med Checklist On the job Line mgr 1.2.3 Increase number of trains online 3 0 1 1 0 Med None On the job Line mgr 1.2.4 Reduce number of trains on line 3 0 1 1 0 Med None On the job Line mgr 1.3 Heaters 1.3.1 Start an additional heater 1 1 1 0 0 Low None On the job Peer 1.3.2 Stop a heater 1 0 1 0 0 Low None On the job Peer 2 Routine operations 2.1 Field routine operations 2.1.1 Plant patrol 3 0 0 2 0 Med Checklist for training On the job Peer 2.1.2 Shift handover 3 0 0 3 0 Med Guide + shift log On the job + classroom Internal 3 Materials handling 3.1 Receive bulk materials 3.1.1 Receive diesel from tanker 2 2 2 2 0 Med Full procedure + sign on plant On the job Line mgr 5 Respond to opeational events 5.1 Respond to high pressre 5.1.1 Respond to high pressure at inlet 3 0 2 3 1 High Flow chart Simulation Internal 6 Respond to emergencies 6.3 Respond to major incidents 6.3.1 Respond to propane tank BLEVE E E E E E High Flow chart + job aid Simulation + classroom External Criticality scores
  27. 27. 29 Benefits of this approach Theme and terminology familiar to the end user Quick and simple Focuses effort according to process risk Explains why full blown procedures are not provided for every task Emphasises the role of on the job training Makes competence assessment less threatening Provides a good demonstration of human factors risk management
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