5. Total Quality Management is an enhancement to the
traditional way of doing business. It has main 3 pillars are:
• Made up of
• Degree of
• Act, Art or a
6. It is the art of managing the role to achieve excellence under
philosophical guidance with continuous improvement.
“A degree or level of excellence.” Oxford Dictionary
According to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
and the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC):“The
totality of features and characteristics of a product or service
that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs”
Quality is excellence that is better than a minimum standard.
7. It is conformance to standards and ‘fitness of purpose’
ISO 9000:2000 definition of quality- “It is the degree to which a set of
inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.”
Quality is conformance to standards, specifications or requirements
Quality is fitness for use (Juran, 1989)
Quality as excellence (Peters and Waterman, 1982)
Quality means delighting the customer (Peters, 1989)
8. 1. Management commitment to TQM principles and
methods & long term Quality plans for the Organization
2. Focus on customers – internal & external
3. Quality at all levels of the work force.
4. Continuous improvement of the production / business
5. Treating suppliers as partners
6. Establish performance measures for the processes.
Quality Element Previous State TQM
Definition Product Oriented Customer Oriented
Priorities Second to Service & Cost First among equals of
service and cost
Decisions Short-Term Long-Term
Emphasis Detection Prevention
Errors Operations System
Responsibility Quality Control Everyone
Problem Solving Managers Teams
Procurement Price Life-cycle costs,
Manager’s Role Plan, Assign, Control &
Delegate, Coach, Facilitate
10. For implementation of TQM movement, we need
go through philosophies of notable individuals in
field of TQM. TQM current positioning have
contributed to modern setup of organization.
11. The framework of TQM depends upon elements are such as
philosophical elements, generic tools & Tools of QC
12. Quality is also defined as excellence in the product or service
that fulfills or exceeds the expectations of the customer.
There are 9 dimensions of quality that may be found in
products that produce customer-satisfaction.
Though quality is an abstract perception, it has a quantitative
measure Q= (P / E ) ,
where Q = quality,
P = performance (as measured by the Manufacturer)
E = expectations (of the customer)
If Q >1 then custom has good feeling about product or services
13. Quality is not fine-tuning your product at the final stage of
manufacturing before packaging and shipping
Quality is in-built into the product at every stage from
conceiving –specification & design stages to prototyping –
testing and manufacturing stages.
TQM philosophy and guiding principles continuously
improve the Organization processes and result in customer
Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent
characteristics fulfills requirement – ISO 9000: 2000
MORE ABOUT QUALITY
15. Quality in articles and art & crafts produced by skilled craftsmen and
artisans from the B.C. era e.g. goldsmiths, silversmiths, blacksmiths,
Artists & Artisans Guilds in the Middle ages spent years imparting
quality skills and the workmen had pride in making quality products.
Industrial Revolution brought factory manufacturing where articles
were mass-produced and each worker made only a part of the product
and they don’t have idea about quality of the product .
In 1924, W.A. Shewart of Bell Telephone Labs developed a statistical
chart for the control of product variables – the beginning of SQC and
In 1946, the American Society for Quality Control was formed.
16. In 1950, W. Edwards Deming, who learnt SQC from Shewart, taught
SPC & SQC to Japanese engineers and CEO’s
In 1954,Joseph M. Juran taught Japanese managements their
responsibility to achieve quality .
In 1960, the first quality control circles were formed. SQC techniques
were being applied by Japanese workers.
1970’s US managers were learning from Japan Quality
In 1980’s TQM principles and methods became popular.(also in auto
In 1990’s ,the ISO 9000 model became the world-wide standard for
17. There are lots of obstacles for implementation of TQM in an organization
because it depends upon physical, social, economic, technological or
political. These barriers determined by Robert J. Masters after extensive
Lack of management commitment
Top management embrace quality improvement programs no matter how
far reaching the programs may appear the monetary implications therein.
Competition alone should not be considered as the single factor that
drives managers into implementing quality initiatives.
Inability to change organizational culture
In adequate cultural dynamism has made total quality implementation
difficult because most of the top level management of many organizations
are rigid in their ways of doing things.
18. Improper planning
The absence of a sound strategy has often contributed to ineffective
quality improvement. There is need of developing the right attitude
and level of awareness is crucial to achieving success in a quality
Lack of continuous training & education
There is evidence that lack of understanding and proper training
exists at all levels of any organization, and that it is a large
contributor to worker resistance. TQM should provide
comprehensive training, including technical expertise,
communication skills, small-team management, problem-solving
tools, and customer relations.
Incompatible Organizational Structure & isolated individuals &
There is need of co-ordination between departments and individuals,
it’s the longest internal barrier. The only way to resolve conflicts are
restructuring through proper segmentation such as Spartan Light
Metal products Inc. implemented
19. Ineffective Management techniques & lack of access to Data
Data plays an important role in management decision making ,
it needs to improve the effect of management ideas for design
effective processes. The processes are helpful through excessive
inspection, training & management encouragement.
Paying scarce attention to internal & external customers
Most companies don’t involve quality in their strategic plan,
little attention is paid to TQM in terms of human and financial
resources. The company attention towards increasing product
& quality. TQM has been neglected as its implementation “May
not necessarily bring gains to the organization in the short term”.
20. Inadequate use of empowerment and teamwork.
A key challenge in implementation of teams, especially self-
directed work. Team members should be trained enough in
problem solving, monitoring, and resolving conflicts. Norms
need to be established around the issues of leadership,
membership, and processes.
Failure to continually improve
There is need to explore problems; constantly improve the
system of production and service. There should be continual
rise in productivity and a decrease in costs.
21. TQM is implemented in an organization in 1980s & there are
multiple roles implemented at different stages.
In 1981 Motorolla launched improvement of quality with “Zero
defects in everything we do”. The company achieved “Total
customer satisfaction”. It would achieved through network of
customer surveys, field audit & customer feedback etc.
Motorolla implemented Six Sigma & total cycle time to achieve
3.4 defects per million with more improved processes such as
design, administration, marketing & administration.
Finally the company launched Participated Management
Program – PMP this would help to achieve specific aim, goals,
new initiated & problem solving also company devoted 40% of
22. Total Quality Management - Dale H. Besterfield et al. ,Pearson
Certified Manager of Quality / Organizational Excellence –
Russell T. Westcott, ASQ (USA)
Smartinvestorsreports.blogspot.com, (2012). Smart Investors:
BARRIERS TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT