INDUSTRIAL TRAINING PROJECT REPORT
Global Institutes of Management & Emerging
SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO:-
ROLL NO. 1243289
Global Institutes of
Management and Technology
A summer project is a golden opportunity for learning and self-development. I
consider myself very lucky and honored to have so manywonderful people lead me
through in completion of this project.
I wish to express my indebted gratitude and special thanks to Er. Rajnish Mittal,
Senior at H.M.S.I. , who in spite of being extraordinarily busy with his duties, took
out time to hear, guide and keep me on the correct path and allowing me to carry
out my industrialproject work at this esteemed organization and extending during
A humble ‘Thank you’ Sir.
I also express my deepest thanks to Er Parteek Sharma, AsistantManageratHMSI,
for giving necessary advices and guidance throughout the project work.
Place: Manesar Angel bajaj
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
HONDA MOTORCYCLE & SCOOTER INDIA PVT. LTD. MANESAR,
This is to certify that Mr. Angel Bajaj has completed the 6 week Industrial
Training during the period from 11 January 2016 to 11 July 2016 in our
Organization as a Partial Fulfillment of Degree of Bachelor of Technology
Mechanical Engineering. During training he successfully completed his project on
Press trolley Management in the maintenance engine department of scooter plant.
Er. Parteek Sharma
Weld (F/B) Department
HMSI, Manesar, Distt. Gurgaon
1.1 Honda Corporate Profile:
HONDA, one of the biggest brand names in the automobile world today, was
founded by Mr.Soichiro Honda at Hamamatsu, Japan in 1948, since then the
company has been growing by leaps and bounds satisfying customers all over the
world with its comfortable world class products having most advanced technology.
Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Private Ltd. (HMSI), a wholly owned
subsidiary of Honda Motor Company Ltd., was incorporated in 20th August 1999.
1.2 History of the Organization:
Mr. SoichiroHonda was the founder of the organization, and the first plant of the
organization was established at Hamamatsu (Japan) on 24th September, 1948.
He dreamed of providing people, everywhere in the world an economical means of
transportation. He thought of better ways of making piston rings and found a
company & began production. Then his company started producing small
motorcycles, including one built in 1949 called D-type dream.
Then he thought of making high capacity motorcycles and taking them to racing.
So his company made bigger and faster machines, two-, four-, five-, and six-
cylinder race bikes and participated in the Isle of Man TT race (125 cc motorcycle
He wanted to share his new motorcycles with the world and therefore he opened
American Honda Motor Co. in Los Angeles. Also Honda began manufacturing
motorcycles at its Suzuka factory in 1960. Honda launched its first sports car, the
S500 in Japan and entered Formula-1 in 1964.
In 1989, Soichiro Honda became the first Asian to be inducted into U.S.
Automotive Hall of Fame. In 1990, Honda wins its fifth consecutive 1st ranking in
the J.D. Power Consumer Satisfaction Index. In 1993, founder Soichiro Honda
passed away. He dreamed of changing the way people looked at motorcycles and
gave us machines that were powerful & fun to rid
1.3 Six Regional Headquarters:
Six regional headquarters of the Honda throughout the world are written
North/ Central America
Asia & Oceania
Honda Motor Europe
Asian Honda Motor Co. Ltd.
Honda Motor LTDA.
Honda North America
Honda Motor Co. Ltd.
1.4 Honda’s Products around the World:
Various Honda’s products around the world are as follows:
a) Scooters & Motorcycles b) Automobiles (Cars)
c) Power Products (Generators) d) Robots (ASIMO)
e) Trimmers f) Lawn Movers
g) Jet Engines h) Honda Engine
Jet EngineFig: 1.1, Various Products of HONDA around the world
2001 Started with mass production of 1st scooter,
Activa. ‘Scooter of the year award’ for Activa.
ISO-9001-2000 Certification by TUV, Germany
2002 Launched new motor scooter, Dio.
ISO-14000 Certification by TUV, Germany.
BBC Wheel Award for Dio.
Export started to Latin America
2003 Launched geared scooter Eterno.
Achieved status of No. 1 Scooter manufacturing
company in domestic Market.
Achieved status of no 1. Exporter in scooter
segment Certification by ARAI for emission lab
2004 Scooter of the year award for Eterno.
HMSI established new motorcycle plant.
Launched 1st 150 cc motorbike, Unicorn.
CKD export to Latin America. Bike of the year
award to Unicorn
2005 ISO-14001:2004 Certification by TUV,
Unicorn Tops in TNS Consumer Satisfaction
Survey in “Premium Motorcycle” category
Activa achieved landmark sales target of 1
2006 HMSI launched its 2nd Motorcycle model,
SHINE a 125cc segment Motorcycle.
HMSI successfully launched LEAD in
Australian Market.HMSI launched new variant
ACTIVA & BEAT CKD
2007 Launch of new scooter AVIATOR. It is a E-
2008 Honda launched a new bike, Stunner a 125cc
bike with a sporty look.
2009 HMSI launched its 4th Motorcycle, TWISTER
a 110cc bike which was the first bike in India
with lower engine capacity and high style.
2010 HMSI launched a new model of Unicorn with
the name Unicorn Dazzler, 150 cc bike.
2011 HMSI wowed Indian customers with its latest
offering – CBR 250R
2012 HMSI introduced seven new bikes &scooters.
CBR 150R, DIO, DREAM YUGA, CB SHINE,
VT1300CX, CBR1000RR FIREBLADE &
CBR 250R (Red, Blue & White).
1.5 Introduction to HMSI:
Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Pvt. Ltd. (HMSI), a wholly owned subsidiary
of Honda Motor Company Ltd. was incorporated on 20th August1999 to
manufacture two wheelers in India. It’s Symbol “Wings” is recognized all over the
world as the symbol of Honda two wheelers with which they promise to initiate
changes and make a difference in the lifestyle of the people of India. It represents
the flight that HMSI has taken to achieve the goals and targets which conform to
the international standards. Honda’s commitment to India is to manufacture world
class two wheelers that are designed and best suited for local conditions. Ever
since its establishment in 1999,
Fig: 1.2, Honda Motorcycle &Scooter India Private Ltd. IMT Manesar
HMSI has striven to offer products of the highest quality at reasonable price by
following its fundamental belief of bringing joy to people. In a short span of Eight
years, HMSI has emerged as the largest scooter manufacturer and the fourth
largest two wheeler company in India. While endeavoring to meet and exceed the
expectations of the customers, the critical importance of providing the product,
technology and service that benefits the existing employees but also beneficial for
the newly entered employees to understand the manufacturing flow process in
plant. It is believed at HMSI that by meeting these expectations, HMSI will
enhance the quality of life through products and services that reflect the spirit of
today. Bringing joy to people and contributing to social development will continue
to be the principles that will guide HMSI in future. It came into mass production
with Honda Activa in 2001. Since then, the company has continued to grow in the
Indian market along with regularly providing world class, advanced and
technically sound products. Living up to its illustrious lineage of excelling in the
manufacture of two wheelers of global quality, HMSI has revolutionized the multi-
dimensional Indian two-wheeler market with products like Twister, Dio, Aviator,
Unicorn, Shine, Dazzle, Stunner and Dream yuga Apart from outstanding sales,
Honda also caters its customers with excellent service and spare parts support. The
HMSI factory is spread over 52 acres, with a covered area of about 85,815 square
meters at Manesar, Gurgaon district of Haryana. The foundation stone for the
factory was laid on 14thDecember 1999 and the factory was completed in January
2001. The initial installed capacity was 100,000 scooters per year, which has
reached 6, 00,000 scooters by the year by 2007 and motorcycle capacity shall be
4,00,000 per annum. The total investment outlay for the initial capacity was
Rs.215crores and now the accumulated investment is 800crores.
HMSI mainly deals with
Manufacturing and sales of two wheelers.
Manufacturing and sales of two wheeler engines.
Service and sales of spare parts and accessories.
Export of Honda products (CBU, Engine & Parts).
1.6 Management Board of HMSI:
A name of the various management heads of the organization is given below:
Mr. Keita Muramatsu (President & CEO)
Mr. H Nagata (Vice President)
Mr. Miutani (Director)
Mr. H Iwakami (Director)
Mr. M Kato (Director)
Mr. T Oyana (ASH)
Mr. M Takedagaw
1.7Few Key details about HMSI:
1. Registered office
Plot No. 1, Sector 3, IMT Manesar, Distt – Gurgaon
2. Incorporation August 20th 1999
3. Equity capital Rs. 300crores (Approx.7500 million yen)
4. Area Covered area 85,815 sq. m (41 %)
Motorcycle- Unicorn / Shine / Stunner / Twister /
Scooters – Activa / Dio / Aviator
6. Plant capacity 1,000,000 per annum,
SC – 600,000, MC –400,000
7. Logo Wings
8. President & CEO Mr. Keita Muramatsu
Table: 1.1, Few Key details about HMSI
1.1 Overview of the HMSI
Area: 210,000 sq. m.
Production: 1.55million units/year
Location: IMT Manesar, Haryana
Incorporation: August 20th, 1999
Fig: 2.1: Overview of the HMSI Plant
2.2 Plant Layout of the HMSI
HMSI deals with the both the products in the two-wheeler segment. In this plant
there are two sections one is scooter plant and other is motorcycle plant. In scooter
plant all the models Activa, Dio, Aviator, Lead and Beat are being made. In
Motorcycle plant Unicorn, Shine and Stunner, Aviator is being made.
Fig: 2.2: Plant Layout of the HMSI
2.3 Flow Chart:
Various departments or sections within the HMSI are given below:
Raw Material Storage
Brought Out Parts (BOP)
Press and Weld
Fig: 2.3, Flow Chart for the production in HMSI
2.4 Various Models
HMSI has a number of models of scooters & motorcycles; they differentiate
according to their model names & power. These are listed below:
Scooter & Motorcycle
Model Name Power
Activa KWP 109cc
Dio KRP 102cc
Aviator KVT 109cc
Shine KTE 125cc
Twister KWS 110cc
Stunner KWFG 125cc
Unicorn KSPP 150cc
Dazzler KSPL 150cc
Honda CBR KWJF 250cc
Dream yuga k-14 110cc
Table: 2.1, Various Model names & their Power
This project required me to collect a lot of data and analyze this data using various QC
tools or quality control tools. Before going on to the QC tools used by me I would like to
give a brief introduction to quality.
PRESIDENT & CEO
Sr. VICE PRESIDENT
ENGINE MFG ASSEMBLY. PPC
FRAME MFG. ENGINEERING
Sr. VICE PRESIDENT
ENGINE MFG ASSEMBLY. PPC
FRAME MFG. ENGINEERING
MEAL NEALGDC &
HPDC MEFE (SC)MEFE (MC)
PLANT-1 PLANT-2 PLANT-3
INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY
Quality is defined as a conformance of the product with respect to specification.
Every manufacturing organization is concerned about the quality of its product. This is
due to the fact that the customer’s satisfaction is derived from the quality products and
services. Quality is a relative term and it is generally used with reference to the end use of
the product. Due to the stiff competition in the national and international level and
consumer’s awareness require production of quality products and services for survival
and growth of company.
A component is said to possess good quality, if it works well in the equipment for
which it is meant. Quality is thus defined as fitness for purpose. Quality is thus defined as
fitness for the purpose. Quality is the ability of the material to perform satisfactorily in an
application for which it is intended by the user.
Quality of a product means conformance to requirements. In general quality is a total
composite product and service characteristics of engineering, manufacturing and
maintenance through which the product and the service meets the expectations of the
Quality control is the process through which the actual quality performance is
measured and compared with the standards and takes corrective action if there is a
deviation. It’s a systematic control of various factors that affect the quality of the product.
QUALITY CONTROL TOOLS
1) CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM
The cause and effect diagram sometime know as Ishikawa diagram after its
inventor. It is also known as a fish bone diagram because of its shape. A cause and effect
diagram describes the relation between the variables. The undesirable output is shown as
the effect, and related cause are shown as leading to, or potentially leading to, the said
effect. This popular tool has one severe limitation, however in that user can overlook
important, complex interactions between causes thus; if a problem is caused combination
of the factors, it is difficult to use to depict and solve it.
2) PARETO DIAGRAM
A Pareto diagram puts data in a hierarchical order, which allows the most
significant problem to be corrected first. The main aim of the Pareto analysis is to
identify the three top contributors for the problem. The Pareto analysis technique is used
primarily to identify and evaluate nonconformities, although it can summarize all types of
data. It is perhaps the most often diagram.
The histogram plots data in a frequency table. What distinguishes a histogram
from a check sheet is that its data are grouped into rows so that the identity of individual
value is lost. Commonly is used to present quality improvement data, histogram works
based with small amount of data what vary considerably. When used in the process
capability studies histogram can display specification limit to show the portion of the data
does not meet the specification.
4) CONTROL CHARTS
A control chart is a simple graphical device for knowing at a given instance of
time, whether or not a process is under control. In any manufacturing process there
variation from piece to piece.
TYPES OF CONTROL CHARTS
Variable control charts are used for plotting the measurement of the
characteristics like height ,weight ,temperature ,thickness etc.average range ,median
range, average standard deviation ,individual moving range are some of the types of
variable control charts. Attribute data’s are based on only two values (conforming/ Non
conforming, go /no go, present/absent) but they can be counted for recording analysis.
Examples are presence of defects in painted panel. Other example is characteristics that
are measurable but the results are recorded in yes/no, such as conformation of shaft
diameter. Checked on go/no go gauge.
In the real world very few processes completely satisfies all the conditions and
assumptions required for estimating Cpk. also, statistical debates and research
communities are still ragging in the strengths and weaknesse4s of various capabilities and
performance indices. Finally in order to achieve continuous improvement, attempt must
be made to refine the “voice of the process” to match and then to surpass the “expectation
of the customer”.
5) PDCA Cycle
Among the most widely used tools for continuous improvement is a four-step
quality model—the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle, also known as Deming Cycle or
Plan- Identify an opportunity and plan for change.
Do- Implement the change on a small scale.
Check- Use data to analyze the results of the change and determine whether it made a
Act- If the change was successful, implement it on a wider scale and continuously assess
your results. If the change did not work, begin the cycle again
Honda’s philosophy has the various characteristics that are listed below:
It provides every Honda associate around the world with a vision.
It tells us the values of our business.
It bonds everyone together towards a common mission.
It provides a constant standard for correct action and ethical behaviour.
It shows the link between the company’s past, present and future.
It challenges the organization to strive for the realization of its vision
It helps our organization to maintain its sense of uniqueness.
Fig: 2.10, Shows the Honda’s Philosophy
Fig: 2.10, Shows the Honda’s Philosophy
THE THREE JOYS
RESPECT FOR THE INDIVIDUAL
Maintaining a global viewpoint, they are dedicated to supplying products of the
highest quality yet at a reasonable price for worldwide customer satisfaction.
HMSI has a basic policy that is MSQCD. This basic policy has the following
Fig: 2.11, Shows the Company vision
HMSI being a company of Japanese origin, I also got acquainted with the Japanese
principles of manufacturing like
JIT (Just in Time)
TQM (Total Quality Management
Cause & effect analysis
PDCA (Plan Do Check Act) cycle
Seiri = Organization
Seiton = Neatness
Seiso = Cleaning
Seiketsu = Standardization
Shitsuke = Self-discipline
Gemba = Go to actual place
Genbutsu = See actual problem
Genjitsu = Take realistic solution
Kiken = Dangerous
Kitanai = Dirty
Kitsui = Inconvenient
2.8Two Fundamental Beliefs:
Respect for the Individuals
The Three Joys
2.8.1Respect for the Individuals
Respect for the individuals recognizes the following core concepts:
Initiative: Initiative means not to be bound by preconceived ideas, but think
creatively and act on your own initiative and judgment, while understanding
that you must take responsibility for the results of those actions.
Equality: Equality means to recognize and respect individual differences in
one another and treat each other fairly. Our company is committed to this
principle and creating equal opportunities for each individual.
Trust: The relationship among associates at Honda should be based on
mutual trust. Trust is created by recognizing each other as individuals,
helping out where others are deficient, accepting help where we are
deficient, sharing our knowledge, and making a sincere effort to fulfill our
2.8.2 The Three Joys
Our goal is to provide Joy through our business: for those who buy our products
("The Joy of Buying"), engage in selling our products and services ("The Joy of
Selling"), and are involved in business of creating
our products ("The Joy of Creating").
The Joy of Buying is achieved through
providing products and services that exceed the
needs and expectations of each customer.
Importantly, the Joy of Selling and the Joy of
Creating cannot be achieved without first bringing
joy to the customer.
The Joy of Selling occurs when those who are engaged in selling and
servicing Honda products develop relationships with a customer based on
mutual trust. Through this relationship, Honda associates, dealers and
distributors experience pride and joy in satisfying the customer and in
representing Honda to the customer.
The Joy of Creating occurs when Honda associates and suppliers involved
in the design, development, engineering and manufacturing of Honda products
recognize a sense of joy in our customers and dealers. Formerly known as the
"Joy ofProducing," the Joy of Creating occurs when quality products exceed
expectations and we experience pride in a job well done.
3.1 Few of the In-House Facilities
High Pressure Die Casting, Gravity Die Casting & Low Pressure Die Casting
Gravity Die-Casting & Low pressure Die Casting Sections are for manufacturing
critical engine parts.
3.2 Welding Robots
Weld Shop has spot welding, seam welding and MIG welding machines to weld
various sheet metal parts to form the basic frame and other scooter panels.
3.3 Paint Shop Robots
Paint Shop has a conveyor system, which is unique amongst all Honda Factories
in the world. The conveyor car carrying the parts is rotated and dipped so as to
enable good paint adhesion, high gloss and superior paint finish. Robots are used
in painting for improved paint finish.
3.4 Engine Assembly
Engine Assembly is done in an enclosed air pressurized area to protect the engine
from dirt and dust. Each of the engines is then inspected for various parameters.
3.5 Frame Assembly
Frame Assembly is done at the slat conveyor. After the Frame Assembly line is
the rollertester to check the final scooter quality before handing over to
3.6Safety Used While Working in HMSI
Various safety precautions used inside the plant are given below:
a) Cotton Hand Gloves b) Arm Guard
c) Arm Sleeve d) Face Mask
e) Helmet f) Safety Shoes
g) Goggles h) Apron
i) Ear Plug
3.7 HMSI Environment Policy
As responsible members of society and industry, we Honda Motorcycle & Scooter
India Pvt. Ltd (HMSI), Manesar manufacturer of two wheelers, recognize that
wellbeing of humans and conservation of earth’s environment is important. By
adopting Environment management system, HMSI is fast moving towards
realization of Honda’s Green Factory Concept.
We shall endeavor to continually monitor, improve and conserve the environment
in which we operate. HMSI is committed to achieve, environmental excellence in
all its Industrial activities, in the following ways:
Conserving environment through preventing pollution at its source of
generation and strengthening our existing pollution control system.
Promoting Conservation of resources such as energy, water, oil and grease
and other Raw materials, by reusing, recycling and minimizing the waste
Complying with all applicable legal/ regulatory requirements and strive to
go beyond wherever possible.
Regular monitoring and reviewing of environmental objectives and targets.
Increasing environment awareness and competence amongst our employees
and encourage Vendors and dealers to adopt EMS.
HMSI will continually improve its environmental management system following
PDCA Cycle to make it more effective. The Policy will be well disseminated to
our employees as Well as persons working on our behalf and to public at large.
4.1 Honda Certification
There are some certifications that a organization take from ISO (International Organization of
Standard). These certification are very important for any organization cause its provide quality and
fame to an organization.
Similarly, HMSI is certified from 3 ISO certifications:-
1. ISO 27000
2. ISO 9001
3. ISO 14000
4.1.1 ISO 9001:-
QMS is a system which is used to direct and control the environment of the organization
(Quality Management System)
22.214.171.124 The main Advantages of this Certification are:-
Reduce product variation
Reduce rejection waste
Reduce potential failure
Improve product reliability
Improve process efficiency
Reduce market claims
Effective work management
4.1.2 ISO 27000:-
(Information Security Management System)
Its an asset like other important business assets, has value to an organization and
subsequently need to be suitably protected.
126.96.36.199 Information security :-
Its prevention of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information assets of
188.8.131.52 ISMS :-
As per ISO 27001:2005 standard ISMS is a part of overall management system
based upon business risk approach to establish, implement, operate, monitor,
maintain and improved.
The property that information is not made available or disclosed to
un-authorized individual entities or process.
The property of safe guarding the accuracy and completeness of assets.
The property of being assessable upon demand by authorized entity.
S- New models design etc
A-Develop schedule, cbst sheets etc.
M-Salary structure, performance evaluation, quotations.
B- Purchase requests, info of company site, extension norms.
6.1 Classification of presses:-
1. Mechanical press:-
In this press, the load generation thro motor, flywheel, gear, transmission
through connecting rod. High production rate.
2. Hydraulic press:-
Load generation thro motor driven hydraulic pumps and transmission through hydraulic
cylinders. Generally, low production rate.
There are 4 mechanical presses:-
Scooter Parts Motorcycle Parts
P1, P2, P3 & P4 are the mechanical presses. They are used because of their high productive rate.
There is also a hydraulic press which is used for the die
maintenance. The productive rate of this press is less than that of mechanical press. That’s why,
mainly mechanical presses is used for the press operations in the industries.
The P2 is used for drawing operation and P1 is used for Trimming, Piercing and bending.
The reason is that because the P2 press machine has double
pads and cushions which absorb the force exerted by the die.
Whereas, in the P1 only Trimming, Piercing and bending
which occurs at the principle on the cam and the follower that’s why we don’t do the drawing
operation on the P1 Press.
6.2 Press PPE’s:-
1. Helmet 4. Hand gloves
2. Arm guard 5. Safety shoes
3. Ear gloves 6. Goggles
6.3.1 Scooter line:-
Blank sheet Draw Part Trim & Piercing
Hemming Side Bending Front bending
Rework Supply to Paint
6.3.2 Motorcycle line:-
R/M sheet Draw Operation Trimming
Rework Quality Guide Inspection
Rework Quality Guide Inspection
Material Movement to Weld
6.4 Defects in Press operation:-
1. Dent:- Due to presence of foreign substance in die.
2. Crack:- Due to high pressure and tight pins.
3. Wrinkle:- Due to tight feed.
4. Thinning:- Decreasing in the thickness of the product due to stretching and uneven
5. Overlap:- Overlapping of the sheet on itself.
6. Burr:- Occur at the piercing.
7. Turn up:- Bending at the corners.
6.5 Rework Operation
1. Firstly, the dent is removed with the help of hammer.
2. Then, with the rotary tool, which rotate at 18000rpm is used for cutting.
3. At the last, with random tool, which rotate at 12000rpm is used for finishing of the
Note: - The Rotary tool and random tool work on the principle of the compressed gas.
7.1 There are 4 types of welding done in HMSI:-
1. MIG welding
2. TIG welding
3. Spot welding
4. Seam welding
The filler metal used in the welding is mild steel coated with copper metal for the preventing
it from corrosion.
Robots are used for doing MIG welding and in the rework it is done manually.
Then this all frames are checked at the inspection shop.
The fame is manufactured in the weld shop.
3. Blow holes
6. Less penetration
The welding used:-
MIG welding Seam welding
The specification of MIG welding are:-
1. Filament used: MS wire coated with copper
2. Gases used: Argon & Carbon Dioxide
3. Gases Ratio: Carbon Dioxide :80%
4. Ampere: 160-240
5. Voltage: Low
The frame of the bike is made of two parts,:-
These parts are welded together with above mentioned parameters
These are are imported from different companies with their wanders who ensure
the quality and quanity of the products
Then this products are send to the line for the
operation and assembling work.
After then, the frames are put in the carrier on the conveyer for the painting.
Before painting, the fames are washed in the ionized water then dried in the oven
at 500 temperatures.
Then ED coating (electrode deposition) is done on them. Then, at paint booth the base
coating and top coating is done by the robots.
But for finishing and parts which are not painted is done manually.
Then, these frames are allowed to enter at the oven for drying of
the paint. The ED coating will get deposit and the paint will got attached metal.
Then, this paint coated is checked at the inspection booth.
The defected frame are sent to the manually paint shop.
Then, all the OK frames are sending to the assembly line for the manufacturing of the
There are 4 conveyer line with different temperatures and components.
The metallic frames are kept at 1700 temperature where as fiber frames are kept at 800
The heat is generated in the conveyer by C.N.G and steam
is also used to create the heat for the drying of the paint on components.
While the time of manufacturing a product in the company, many defects and
faults come in front.
To make the processesand works on, these defects have to be resolved and
So that there would be no effect on the productive efficiency of the company.
Defects coming in the process and opreations are as following:-
1. Dents and bends in the product
2. Not precision sizes of the products
3. Time lap in the assembly line
4. Rework of the product
5. Calling of the Maintanance team
6. Rejection of the product
These are the major defects that comes in a manufacturing company while the
time of the production.
To remove these failures, a lot of action are taken. But, there is problem
that every failure have their own reasons and format to get resolved.
So, every falure required a different format of series to get
resolved, and this will nlead to take wsateage of time and money and afforts.
Methods used to resolve the failures:-
1. Top Down Approach 2. Bottom Approach
Top-down and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and
knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and
scientific theories (see systemics), and management and organization. In practice,
they can be seen as a style of thinking, teaching, or leadership.
Top-down investing involves analyzing the "big picture". Investors using this
approach look at the economy and try to forecast which industry will generate the
best returns. These investors then look for individual companies within the chosen
industry and add the stock to their portfolios. For example, suppose you believe
there will be a drop in interest rates. Using the top-down approach, you might
determine that the home-building industry would benefit the most from
the macroeconomic changes and then limit your search to the top companies in that
Conversely, a bottom-up investor overlooks broad sector and
economic conditions and instead focuses on selecting a stock based on the
individual attributes of a company. Advocates of the bottom-up approach simply
seek strong companies with good prospects, regardless of industry or
macroeconomic factors. What constitutes "good prospects", however, is a matter of
opinion. Some investors look for earnings growth while others find companies
with low P/E ratios attractive. A bottom-up investor will compare companies based
on these fundamentals; as long as the companies are strong, the business cycle or
broader industry conditions are of no concern.
1. Top Down approach:-
A top-down approach (also known as stepwise design and in some cases used as a
synonym of decomposition) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain
insight into its compositional sub-systems in a reverse engineering fashion. In a
top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not
detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater
detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire
specification is reduced to base elements. A top-down model is often specified
with the assistance of “black boxes”, these make it easier to manipulate. However,
black boxes may fail to elucidate elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to
realistically validate the model. Top down approach starts with the big picture. It
breaks down from there into smaller segments.
This below picture shows exactly how the Top Down Approach works.
2. Bottom- Up Approach:-
A bottom-up approach is the piecing together of systems to give rise to more
complex systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent
system. Bottom-up processing is a type of information processing based on
incoming data from the environment to form a perception. From a Cognitive
Psychology perspective, information enters the eyes in one direction (sensory
input, or the "bottom"), and is then turned into an image by the brain that can be
interpreted and recognized as a perception (output that is "built up" from
processing to final cognition). In a bottom-up approach the individual base
elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then
linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked,
sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This
strategy often resembles a "seed" model, by which the beginnings are small but
eventually grow in complexity and completeness. However, "organic strategies"
may result in a tangle of elements and subsystems, developed in isolation and
subject to local optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose.
Product design and development
During the design and development of new products, designers and engineers rely
on both a bottom-up and top-down approach. The bottom-up approach is being
utilized when off-the-shelf or existing components are selected and integrated into
the product. An example would include selecting a particular fastener, such as a
bolt, and designing the receiving components such that the fastener will fit
properly. In a top-downapproach, a custom fastener would be designed such that it
would fit properly in the receiving components. For perspective, for a product with
more restrictive requirements (such as weight, geometry, safety, environment,
etc.), such as a space-suit, a more top-down approach is taken and almost
everything is custom designed. However, when it's more important to minimize
cost and increase component availability, such as with manufacturing equipment, a
more bottom-up approach would be taken, and as many off-the-shelf components
(bolts, gears, bearings, etc.) would be selected as possible. In the latter case, the
receiving housings would be designed around the selected components.
Containers, vessels, enclosures, or other fluid system are sometimes tested for leaks - to
see if there is any leakage and to find where the leaks are so corrective action can be
taken. There are several methods for leak testing depending on the situation. Sometimes
leakage of fluid may make a sound which can be detected. Tires, engine radiators, and
maybe some other smaller vessels may be tested by pressurizing them with air and
submerging them in water to see where air bubbles come out to indicate a leak. If
submerging in water is not possible, then pressurization with air followed by covering the
area to be tested with a soap solution is done to see if soap bubbles form, which indicate a
leak. Other types of testing for gas leaks may involve testing for the outleaking gases
with sensors which can detect that gas, for example - special sensing instruments for
detecting natural gas. U.S. federal safety law now requires natural gas companies to
conduct testing for gas leaks upstream of their customer's gas meters. Where liquids are
used, special color dyes may be added to help see the leakage. Other detectable
substances in one of the liquids may be tested, such as saline to find a leak in a sea water
system, or detectable substances may even be deliberately added to test for leakage.
8.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
Leak testing/Pressure testing is a test performed on a two-stroke engine to ensure that the
engine has no air leaks.
An air leak in a two-stroke engine can cause a lean
condition in engine fuel-air mixture. This in turn can result in engine overheating, piston
seizure, detonation etc.
Leak testing is part of the non-destructive test NDT portfolio that can be applied
to a part to verify its conformity; depending on material, pressure, leak tightness specifications,
different methods can be applied. International standards has been defined to assist in these
There are basically three types of problem in Engine
Machinig problem : The problem occur due to defective machining of the
component or casting problem. Hole Dia. Oversize, drilling
or tapping NG, milling NG etc are some of the machining
Functional Problem : The problem which cannot be visualized easily on engine. Hair point
hole, valve leak, tapping NG are some of the functional problem.
Bodily problem : The problem occur due miss management/handling of component engine
during assembly. Piston ring miss, oil pump cap miss etc are some of
the bodily problems.
Responsibility: Being a Mechanical Engineer Trainee at Honda
I was responsible for “functional problem” analysis.
Following is the procedure for pressure testing.
Leak Testing Machine
To leak test the engine: cylinder, head, reed cage, intake manifold and spark plug must
all be installed and torque correctly. Exhaust pipe and carburetor must be removed.
Seal round exhaust ports with the correct size rubber expansion plug. For 1986-1991
Honda CR250R and 1985-2001 Honda CR500R, remove the exhaust manifold and seal
the exhaust port using one of the flat metal plates with a rubber gasket. Optional plate
08-071O is available separately for 1987-1989 CR125R.
Insert the correct size carburetor adapter (#1, #2 or #3) into the intake manifold and
tighten the manifold clamp. Teflon tape the thread on the quick coupler and install
coupler into the carburetor adapter.
Push the nylon hose (from the pump/ gauge assembly) into the quick coupler. If the
nylon hose leaks where installed into the coupler, push the hose into the coupler
assembly while under pressure. It is important to have the system under pressure while
attempting to seat the hose to coupler. To remove hose, push green (or gray) ring on
quick coupler towards brass fitting while pulling and twisting hose out.
With all test equipment in place and the piston at bottom dead center, use the hand
pump to pump 6 PSI of air pressure into engine. Never exceed 8 PSI of air pressure or
damage to the seals and/or engine may occur. If loss of air pressure occurs, spray soapy
water over mating surfaces to see where soap bubbles appear. Repair any leaks that
may appear and redo test. A leakage rate of 1 PSI per minute is acceptable; however the
lower the leakage rate the better your engine will perform.
6. By carefully listening at various points, you may be able to locate air leaks that are
not easily accessible with soapy water. Crankcase seal leakage may be heard by
removing the magneto cover or if on primary side may be heard through the oil filler
hole. Leakage at the power valve seals and O-rings can be heard by removing the
power valve linkage covers or through the transmission oil filler hole. On water-cooled
engines, head gasket leakage may show up as bubbles in the radiator coolant.
7. The center crank seal (labyrinth seal) will allow low velocity air to pass from one
side to the other side. Therefore, both the left and right cylinders/ crankcases are tested
together. To do so, seal both exhaust ports and one intake port. Then, install the correct
carburetor adaptor into the remaining intake port. Perform steps 1 thru 6. There is no
way to check the labyrinth seal; this seal will normally out last the crankshaft main
8. Each leak down tester is tested for leaks at Motion Pro. To insure that your leak
down tester remains leak proof it should be tested periodically. To test simply connect
leak down tester hose to a 1 quart leak proof container and pressurize to 6 PSI. If no
leakage occurs in ten minutes the tester is leak proof. To locate leaks spray a soapy
water solution over fittings and connections and look for soap bubbles. On pipe fittings,
use Teflon tape or pipe sealant. Occasionally, the check valve between the hand pump
and hose will leak. Clean the check valve with contact cleaner and re-grease the ball in
the check valve to insure a good seal, and then retest.
A diagrammatic representation of my methodology for solution of this problem is given
DATA COLLECTION:- Collect the data of machining rejection for a month.
CATEGORIZATION:- Categorize this data under various heads of lines and
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION:- The major contributors of machining rejection are
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS:- The root cause of major contributors is found using QC
PROBLEM SOLUTION:- An effective solution of the problem is found and put to
RESULT OBSERVATION:- The aftereffects of solution are observed to judge their
DATA COLLECTION CATEGORIZATION
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS
List of the problem coming during leak testing
Gear Spindle oil seal leak
Head cover gasket miss
Neutral switch bolt free
Piston ring miss/bend
Oil pump bolt free
9.1 GEAR SPINDLE OIL SEAL LEAK
Gear spindles are a critical component of the drive train. Strip quality and thickness
control can be influenced by the performance of the drive spindles.
Gear spindle seal is used to resist the lubricant coming out
No re-use of seal.
Proper installation of seal.
Don’t rotate the punch while inserting the seal.
Put the punch straight while inserting the seal.
Proper training of workers.
NO PROPER INSTALATION OF SEAL
MANUAL ERROR N/G OIL SEAL LEAK
OPERATOR NEGLIGENCE UNSKILLED OPERATOR
WHY 2? WHY 2?
WHY 3? WHY 3?
GEAR SPINDAL OIL SEAL LEAK
9.2 HEAD COVER GASKIT MISS
A valve cover is on top of the engine and helps keep the oil splashed up to the top of the
motor in that pretty much its only function. A head gasket is a much bigger deal. your
engine has a block which is on the bottom and bolted to the frame with motor mounts.
And a head.which sits on top of the block. In between the two is a head gasket. The two
peices of metal that make up the engine expand at different times as they are two
different types of metal. The head gasket sits in between and allows enough room for
everything to expand as it warms up, and contract as it cools off
HEAD COVER GASKIT may be leaking for a variety of reasons. It could be shrunken,
cracked or rotten, or your valve cover itself may be cracked or broken or one of the bolts
may just be lose, allowing a little leak.
No re-use of seal.
Use good quality of seal.
Proper training of workers.
9.3 NEUTRAL SWITCH BOLT FREE
Fig 9.3.1 Fig 9.3.2
The neutral switch is built into the Transmission Range Selector switch located on the top
of the transmission.
Ensures that your car is in neutral before starting vehicle. In other words, its an electrical
fault built into your ignition system so you cant damage your transmission by trying to
crank your engine while in gear. The switch acts as an open circuit in your starting
system until your clutch is pressed in.
It can done by the improper working on assembly line, Over tapering, Less tapping,
No re-use of seal.
Proper training of workers.
9.4 Piston ring miss/ bend
Fig 9.4.1 Fig 9.4.2
Piston ring is a split ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of a piston in
a reciprocating engine such as an Internal combustion engine or steam engine.
The three main functions of piston rings in reciprocating engines are :
1. Sealing the combustion chamber so that there is no transfer of gases from the combustion
chamber to the crank.
2. Supporting heat transfer from the piston to the cylinder wall.
3. Regulating engine oil consumption.
The gap in the piston ring compresses to a few thousandths of an inch when inside the cylinder
It can done by the improper working on assembly line, Over tapering, unskilled working.
No re-use of ring.
Process flow chart (with images)
Proper training of workers.
9.5 Oil pump bolt free
Fig 9.5.1 Fig 9.5.2
The oil pump in an internal combustion engine circulates engine oil under pressure to the
rotating bearings, the sliding pistons and the camshaft of the engine. This lubricates the bearings,
allows the use of higher-capacity fluid bearings and also assists in cooling the engine.
As well as its primary purpose for lubrication, pressurized oil is increasingly used as a hydraulic
fluid to power smallactuators. One of the first notable uses in this way was for hydraulic
tappets in camshaft and valve actuation. Increasingly common recent uses may include the
tensioner for a timing belt or variators for variable valve timingsystems.
The 5-why sheet above shows that the rejection at Multi Tapping Machine is due to tap
breakage which further is caused due to wrong loading of the component.
The wrong loading occurs majorly due to the negligence of the operator or the
ignorance of the operator. The chances of wrong loading increases several folds when the
operator is new.
R CASE WRONG LOADING
MANUAL ERROR SEAT CHECK NOT WORKING
OPERATOR NEGLIGENCE UNSKILLED OPERATOR
WHY 2? WHY 2?
WHY 3? WHY 3?
MULTI TAPPING TAP BROKEN
Number of defects in Aviator
Defect, Head cover
ewitch bolt free, 1,
Defect, Piston ring
miss/bend,2, 15%Defect, Oil pump
bolt free, 8, 62%
Head cover gaskit miss
Neutral ewitch bolt free
Piston ring miss/bend
Oil pump bolt free
Improvement is a continuous process, so a positive view towards the solution of the
problem of Pressure/Leak testing should be maintained and this project should be
carried forward by all the associates of HMSI, MANESAR in order to further reduce
the loss in this section.