B.N:- Musa sp
INTRODUCTION: Bananas are believed to have
originated up to 10,000 years ago and some scientists
believe they may have been the world's first fruit.
• Bananas were first grown in Southeast Asian jungles.
Most people believe that bananas originated in the country
of Malaysia because of the large variety of bananas found
• It is likely that they were the first fruit to be farmed by
humans. Bananas were brought to the Americas by Spanish
explorers in the 1500s.
The soil suitable for bananas should be 0.5 1m in depth, rich, well-
drained, fertile, moisture-retentive, and containing plenty of
The range of pH should be 6.5-7.5.
Alluvial and volcanic soils are the best for banana cultivation.
I. Banana plants like warm and wet conditions, along with fertile soils.
II. They grow best in the tropics, with an average temperature in the high-
20s Celsius, and can be found in plantations in a wide band between 30
degrees north and south of the equator.
III. Banana fruit are usually ripened at a relative humidity (RH) of more
than 90%, which will prevent early browning of the skin.
IV. The optimum temperature is 31 or 32°C, a temperature reached only in
the summer months in the banana growing districts. Leaf emergence
stops at about 9 or 10°C.
The selected field must be ploughed 4-6 times and allowed to weather for two weeks.
Then the field is levelled by passing a blade harrow , plough furrows may be formed
length wise and breadth wise of the field at the required spacing and its intersection of the
plough furrows pits of size 0.6m x 0.6m x 0.6m are dug sufficiently ahead at points fixed
Usually well decomposed compost or FYM are mixed with top soil to fill the pits when
In areas where nematode problem is prevalent, nematicides and fumigants are also added
to pits before planting.
A pit size of 60 x 60 x 75cm is recommended for planting banana suckers
Botany of Banana
. Banana plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy they are
often mistaken for trees, but their main or upright stem is
actually a pseudo stem (literally “fake stem”).
. For some species, this pseudo stem can reach a height of
up to 2–8 m, with leaves of up to 3.5 m in length
. Each pseudo-stem can produce a bunch of yellow, green
or even red bananas before dying and being replaced by
• The banana leaves consist of a long, tube-like structure called a
sheath, a stout petiole (leaf stalk), and a lamina blade.
• Leaves are spirally arranged and may grow to 2.7 meters long and
60 cm wide and each plant has 8 to 12 leaves.
One pseudo-stem may have over 40 leaves during its lifetime.
• The banana inflorescence (flowering stalk) is produced
10 to 15 months after planting, by this time 26 to 32
leaves have been produced. The process of banana
flowering is called shooting.
• The banana inflorescence shoots out from the heart at
the tip of the stem and is at first a large, long oval,
tapering, purple-clad bud
• As it opens, the slim nectar-rich, tubular, toothed,
white flowers appear.
• The flowers occupying the first 5 – 15 rows are
• The hairy banana only has 5–7 flowers in a hand. That
means, there are 25–40 flowers per plant, arranged in
• The banana fruit technically is a berry, seedless
(parthenocarpy) sterile triploid and some are fertile and can set
• Musa fruits are variable in size, shape, and color. They are
generally elongate-cylindrical, straight to strongly curved, 3–
40 cm long, and 2–8 cm in diameter.
World Banana Production by Country
Country Production (Tons) Production per Person (Kg) Acreage (Hectare) Yield (Kg / Hectare)
India 30,460,000 22.791 866,000 35,173.2
China 11,998,329 8.608 358,924 33,428.6
Indonesia 7,280,659 27.473 132,214 55,067.2
Brazil 6,812,708 32.514 461,751 14,754.1
Ecuador 6,583,477 385.752 183,347 35,907.2
Philippines 6,049,601 56.852 185,894 32,543.3
Guatemala 4,341,564 250.927 90,240 48,111.3
Angola 4,036,959 138.016 162,156 24,895.5
Tanzania 3,406,936 62.86 302,758 11,253
Colombia 2,914,419 58.371 105,609 27,596.3
Banana Production in
• Pakistan produces banana on
about 35 thousand ha with a
total production of 154.8
thousand tons giving an
average yield of 4 tons per ha,
which is only one-fifth of the
world average. Banana is a
major and important fruit crop
Year Punjab Sindh KPK Balochistan Pakistan
2014-15 0.7 25 0.7 0.9 27.3
2016-17 0.5 25.9 0.7 0.9 28
2017-18 1 25.9 0.7 0.8 28.4
Punjab Sindh KPK Balochista
2014-15 4.3 121.2 13.1 2.7 143.3
2016-17 3.4 100.8 13.1 2.7 120.4
2017-18 6.8 107.8 13 3.6 131.2
Nutrition in Banana
• One serving, or one medium ripe banana, provides
about 110 calories, 0 grams of fat, 1 gram of
protein, 28 grams of carbohydrate, 15 grams of
sugar (naturally occurring), 3 grams of fiber, and
450 mg potassium.
• Parts of the banana are used for low levels of
potassium in the blood (hypokalaemia),
constipation, and diarrhea. They are also used
for diabetes, high cholesterol, and many other
conditions, but no good scientific evidence
supports most of these uses.
Banana is mostly propagated by
rhizomes and suckers viz. sword
suckers and water suckers.
Sword suckers have a well-
developed base with narrow
sword-shaped leaf blades at the
Water sucker possesses broad
leaves, which do not produce
healthy banana clumps.
• A young dwarf plant will require around 250 grams of fertilizer per month,
while a mature plant can need as much as 700 grams. During the spring
and summer months, add fertilizer once or twice a month. There is no
need to fertilize a banana plant during the autumn and winter.
• During warm weather, apply once a month. Spread the fertilizer
evenly around the plant in a circle around the trunk.
• A balanced fertilizer of 8-10-8 (NPK) is recommended.
• Drip irrigation is the method of applying uniform
and precise amounts of water directly to the root
zone of the plants as per the requirement, through
emitters at frequent intervals over a long period of
time, via a low-pressure pipe network comprising
of mains, sub-mains, and laterals.
Drip irrigation is the most scientific method of
irrigation which has the following features:
1.Water is applied at a low rate to maintain optimum
air-water balance within the root zone.
2.Water is applied over a long period of time drop by
3.Water is applied daily at frequent intervals as per the
water requirement of plants.
4.Water is applied via a low-pressure piping system.
5.Water is supplied to the plants and not to the entire
6.The soil moisture content is always maintained at the
‘Field Capacity’ of the soil and hence the crops grow at
a faster rate consistently and uniformly.
Critical time of Irrigation
•irrigation of the banana
plantations every 3- 4 days during
• Companion plants are those that
thrive together in the same
growing space. In the case of
bananas, various beans and
legumes are companions when
interplanted, and do not disrupt
banana tree growth or fruit yield.
These companion plants are the
most successful when planted and
The commercial Indian banana
varieties are Dwarf cavendish,
Robusta, Poovan, Robusta,
Nendran, Red Banana,
Ardharpuri, Ney proven,
Basrai, Karpuravalli, and
The important cultivars grown in
the country are Basarai, Sonkel,
Safri, Chini Champa and William
Hybrid. Basarai is the most
successful in all these cultivars due
to its dwarf height, large and thick
fruits and more bunch weight.
Sowing of one cultivar of banana is
common practice in Sindh.