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  1. Muhammad Annus Hani ROLL NO# 04 HORT-302 Tropical & Sub-tropical Fruits Prof .Dr. Sajjad Hussain
  2. BANANA B.N:- Musa sp FAMILY: Musaceae INTRODUCTION: Bananas are believed to have originated up to 10,000 years ago and some scientists believe they may have been the world's first fruit.
  3. Origin • Bananas were first grown in Southeast Asian jungles. Most people believe that bananas originated in the country of Malaysia because of the large variety of bananas found there. • It is likely that they were the first fruit to be farmed by humans. Bananas were brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 1500s.
  4. SOIL  The soil suitable for bananas should be 0.5 1m in depth, rich, well- drained, fertile, moisture-retentive, and containing plenty of organic matter.  The range of pH should be 6.5-7.5.  Alluvial and volcanic soils are the best for banana cultivation.
  5. Alluvial volcanic
  6. Climate I. Banana plants like warm and wet conditions, along with fertile soils. II. They grow best in the tropics, with an average temperature in the high- 20s Celsius, and can be found in plantations in a wide band between 30 degrees north and south of the equator. III. Banana fruit are usually ripened at a relative humidity (RH) of more than 90%, which will prevent early browning of the skin. IV. The optimum temperature is 31 or 32°C, a temperature reached only in the summer months in the banana growing districts. Leaf emergence stops at about 9 or 10°C.
  7. Land Preparation  The selected field must be ploughed 4-6 times and allowed to weather for two weeks. Then the field is levelled by passing a blade harrow , plough furrows may be formed length wise and breadth wise of the field at the required spacing and its intersection of the plough furrows pits of size 0.6m x 0.6m x 0.6m are dug sufficiently ahead at points fixed for planting.  Usually well decomposed compost or FYM are mixed with top soil to fill the pits when planting.  In areas where nematode problem is prevalent, nematicides and fumigants are also added to pits before planting.  A pit size of 60 x 60 x 75cm is recommended for planting banana suckers
  8. Botany of Banana . Banana plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy they are often mistaken for trees, but their main or upright stem is actually a pseudo stem (literally “fake stem”). . For some species, this pseudo stem can reach a height of up to 2–8 m, with leaves of up to 3.5 m in length . Each pseudo-stem can produce a bunch of yellow, green or even red bananas before dying and being replaced by another pseudo-stem.
  9. Leaf • The banana leaves consist of a long, tube-like structure called a sheath, a stout petiole (leaf stalk), and a lamina blade. • Leaves are spirally arranged and may grow to 2.7 meters long and 60 cm wide and each plant has 8 to 12 leaves.  One pseudo-stem may have over 40 leaves during its lifetime.
  10. FLOWER • The banana inflorescence (flowering stalk) is produced 10 to 15 months after planting, by this time 26 to 32 leaves have been produced. The process of banana flowering is called shooting. • The banana inflorescence shoots out from the heart at the tip of the stem and is at first a large, long oval, tapering, purple-clad bud • As it opens, the slim nectar-rich, tubular, toothed, white flowers appear. • The flowers occupying the first 5 – 15 rows are female. • The hairy banana only has 5–7 flowers in a hand. That means, there are 25–40 flowers per plant, arranged in 5–7 hands.
  11. Fruit • The banana fruit technically is a berry, seedless (parthenocarpy) sterile triploid and some are fertile and can set seed. • Musa fruits are variable in size, shape, and color. They are generally elongate-cylindrical, straight to strongly curved, 3– 40 cm long, and 2–8 cm in diameter.
  12. Top 10 Banana producing countries
  13. World Banana Production by Country Country Production (Tons) Production per Person (Kg) Acreage (Hectare) Yield (Kg / Hectare) India 30,460,000 22.791 866,000 35,173.2 China 11,998,329 8.608 358,924 33,428.6 Indonesia 7,280,659 27.473 132,214 55,067.2 Brazil 6,812,708 32.514 461,751 14,754.1 Ecuador 6,583,477 385.752 183,347 35,907.2 Philippines 6,049,601 56.852 185,894 32,543.3 Guatemala 4,341,564 250.927 90,240 48,111.3 Angola 4,036,959 138.016 162,156 24,895.5 Tanzania 3,406,936 62.86 302,758 11,253 Colombia 2,914,419 58.371 105,609 27,596.3
  14. Banana Production in Pakistan • Pakistan produces banana on about 35 thousand ha with a total production of 154.8 thousand tons giving an average yield of 4 tons per ha, which is only one-fifth of the world average. Banana is a major and important fruit crop of Pakistan. Year Punjab Sindh KPK Balochistan Pakistan Area(000 ha) 2014-15 0.7 25 0.7 0.9 27.3 2016-17 0.5 25.9 0.7 0.9 28 2017-18 1 25.9 0.7 0.8 28.4 Production 000 tonnes Punjab Sindh KPK Balochista n Pakistan 2014-15 4.3 121.2 13.1 2.7 143.3 2016-17 3.4 100.8 13.1 2.7 120.4 2017-18 6.8 107.8 13 3.6 131.2
  15. Nutrition in Banana • One serving, or one medium ripe banana, provides about 110 calories, 0 grams of fat, 1 gram of protein, 28 grams of carbohydrate, 15 grams of sugar (naturally occurring), 3 grams of fiber, and 450 mg potassium. •
  16. Medicinal Uses • Parts of the banana are used for low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalaemia), constipation, and diarrhea. They are also used for diabetes, high cholesterol, and many other conditions, but no good scientific evidence supports most of these uses.
  17. Propagation of Banana  Banana is mostly propagated by rhizomes and suckers viz. sword suckers and water suckers.  Sword suckers have a well- developed base with narrow sword-shaped leaf blades at the early stages.  Water sucker possesses broad leaves, which do not produce healthy banana clumps.
  18. Fertilization • A young dwarf plant will require around 250 grams of fertilizer per month, while a mature plant can need as much as 700 grams. During the spring and summer months, add fertilizer once or twice a month. There is no need to fertilize a banana plant during the autumn and winter. • During warm weather, apply once a month. Spread the fertilizer evenly around the plant in a circle around the trunk. • A balanced fertilizer of 8-10-8 (NPK) is recommended.
  19. Irrigation Month Water Req. Lit/Day/ Plant June 5-6 July 4-5 August 5-6 September 6-8 October 10-12 November 8-10 December 6-8 January 10-12 Febraury 12-14 March 16-18 April 20-22 May 25-30 • Drip irrigation is the method of applying uniform and precise amounts of water directly to the root zone of the plants as per the requirement, through emitters at frequent intervals over a long period of time, via a low-pressure pipe network comprising of mains, sub-mains, and laterals. Principles: Drip irrigation is the most scientific method of irrigation which has the following features: 1.Water is applied at a low rate to maintain optimum air-water balance within the root zone. 2.Water is applied over a long period of time drop by drop. 3.Water is applied daily at frequent intervals as per the water requirement of plants. 4.Water is applied via a low-pressure piping system. 5.Water is supplied to the plants and not to the entire field. 6.The soil moisture content is always maintained at the ‘Field Capacity’ of the soil and hence the crops grow at a faster rate consistently and uniformly.
  20. Critical time of Irrigation •irrigation of the banana plantations every 3- 4 days during hot period
  21. Intercropping • Companion plants are those that thrive together in the same growing space. In the case of bananas, various beans and legumes are companions when interplanted, and do not disrupt banana tree growth or fruit yield. These companion plants are the most successful when planted and established together.
  22. Commercial Varities The commercial Indian banana varieties are Dwarf cavendish, Robusta, Poovan, Robusta, Nendran, Red Banana, Ardharpuri, Ney proven, Basrai, Karpuravalli, and Rasthali.
  23. Cultivated varities The important cultivars grown in the country are Basarai, Sonkel, Safri, Chini Champa and William Hybrid. Basarai is the most successful in all these cultivars due to its dwarf height, large and thick fruits and more bunch weight. Sowing of one cultivar of banana is common practice in Sindh.