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Oracle RAC features on Exadata

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The slide deck was delivered at Collaborate 18 and covers Oracle RAC features on Exadata

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Oracle RAC features on Exadata

  1. 1. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle RAC integration with Exadata, IMDB & Data Guard Anil Nair Sr. Principal Product Manager, Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) Apr 24th, 2018 @RACMasterPM http://www.linkedin.com/in/anil-nair-01960b6 http://www.slideshare.net/AnilNair27/ 20 Years of Continuous Innovation
  2. 2. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Safe Harbor Statement The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle. 3
  3. 3. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Please remember to provide feedback – Session ID Session ID: 1374 – New integration features of Oracle RAC 12c Rel 2 with Exadata, Data Guard and IMDB • Reach out to us with follow up questions, suggestions etc. via Twitter @RACMasterPM Linkedin http://www.linkedin.com/in/anil-nair- 01960b6 Feedback is important for successful collaboration
  4. 4. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Oracle RAC, Exadata! Why now? Oracle RAC optimizations on Exadata, In-Memory, Data Guard 1 2 5
  5. 5. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Oracle RAC, Exadata! Why now?1 2 6
  6. 6. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 7 Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 4 8 32 48 64 80 2035 4010 15520 22416 30016 37040 # of Cores across RAC Nodes Users 2 Nodes 3 Nodes 4 Nodes 5 Nodes SAP certified SD Benchmark results • Scalable Active/Active Instances • No Application changes Required
  7. 7. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Compared to… 8 • One Writer Multiple Readers • Connection aware sessions • Not Portable • Lacks popular Application Support Source: AWS blog
  8. 8. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • CPU/Cores – RAC features for PDBs ensure smooth consolidated environments • NUMA – (IPC) layer enhanced to consider NUMA • Flash/NVMe – Cache Fusion algorithm tweaked for low latency devices 9 While Oracle RAC continues to innovate
  9. 9. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 10 But, Performance improvement is not linear Source: Intel
  10. 10. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 11 Including the latest All Flash Storage Arrays Flash Storage Array Servers 10X Bottleneck! Even with 25x 10Gb/s Links 250 GB/s Flash Bandwidth 25 GB/s • Flash performance suffers at various layers like HBA/SAN – Current Flash Drives are much faster than SANs and LANs – One PCI flash drive is 2.5X faster than a 10Gb net link • Un-optimized general purpose SSDs affects performance – SSD garbage collection typically affects consistent I/O performance – Wear levelling and Firmware compatibilities with underlying OS
  11. 11. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Exadata provides best platform for Oracle RAC 1212
  12. 12. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle Autonomous Database Self-Driving - User defines service levels, database makes them happen Self-Tuning - Continuous adaptive performance tuning Self-Scaling - Instantly resize compute and storage without downtime Self-Securing - Protection from both external attacks and internal users Self-Repairing - Automated protection from all downtime 13 Oracle RAC on Exadata plays critical part
  13. 13. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Oracle RAC optimizations on Exadata, In-Memory, Data Guard 1 2 14
  14. 14. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Optimized Oracle RAC features 15 Fast Node Death Detection Cache Fusion optimization ASM optimization Stretch Cluster In-Memory Service Oriented Buffer Cache Multi Instance Redo Apply Exadata
  15. 15. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 16 Fast Node Death Detection
  16. 16. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 17 Node Eviction Basics (Generic Systems) MyCluster 1 2 3 4 S p l i t Sub Cluster A Sub Cluster B For more details check my blog post on the new Oracle RAC 12c Release 2 Node Weighting features
  17. 17. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Node Membership depends on • NHB (Network Heart Beat) • One HB per second per interface (UDP and GIPC for Cache fusion) • PollingThread and SendingThread • Misscount defaults to 30 sec (60 for upgrades) 18 $crsctl get css miscount CRS-4678: Successful get misscount 30 for Cluster Synchronization Services $oifcfg getif eth0 XX.XXX.XX.0 global public eth1 X0.XXX.0.0 global cluster_interconnect eth2 X0.XXX.0.0 global asm
  18. 18. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Network HeartBeats 2018-03-13 17:00:20.023: [ CSSD][4096109472]clssnmSendingThread: sending status msg to all nodes 2018-03-13 17:00:22.818: [ CSSD][4106599328]clssnmPollingThread: node anair2 (2) at 50% heartbeat fatal, removal in 14.520 seconds 2018-03-13 17:00:22.818: [ CSSD][4106599328]clssnmPollingThread: node anair2 (2) is impending reconfig, flag 132108, misstime 15480 19 Network heartbeats sent to other nodes. The message is output once every 5 messages (seconds) Network heartbeat missing from node 2 (anair2) for 15 consecutive seconds (15480 ms).
  19. 19. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | CSS Logging (Private Network failure) 2018-03-13 17:00:29.833: [ CSSD] [4106599328] clssnmPollingThread: node anair (2) at 75% heartbeat fatal, removal in 7.500 seconds … heartbeat fatal, removal in 2.490 seconds 2018-03-13 17:00:37.337: [ CSSD][4106599328] clssnmPollingThread: Removal started for node anair2 (2), flags 0x2040c, state 3, wt4c 0 2018-03-13 17:00:37.340: [ CSSD][4085619616] clssnmCheckSplit: Node 2, anair2, is alive, DHB (1281744040, 1396854) more than disk timeout of 27000 after the last NHB (1281744011, 1367154) 20 Network heartbeat missing from node 2 (anair2) Node eviction proceedings initiated for node 2 (anair2) Note: Node 2 (anair2) is updating Disk (SplitBrain)
  20. 20. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Disk Heartbeats helps to resolve SplitBrain • Disk Heart Beat aka DHB #crsctl query css votedisk ## STATE File Universal Id File Name Disk group 1. ONLINE ee0c34dfb13f4f31bfc36d551f919c96 (AFD:DATA1) [DATA] 2. ONLINE ee0334dfedu3213b4s3cc33e9303751 (AFD:RECO1) [RECO] 3. ONLINE ee033dfe58564f32b43g94d683e93f1 (AFD:DATA2) [DATA] • One write and 1 read per second per Voting file – Each Node with external redundancy will have 1 writers and 2 readers • Disktimeout defaults to 200 sec #crsctl get css disktimeout CRS-4678: Successful get disktimeout 200 for Cluster Synchronization Services. 21
  21. 21. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | CSS logging during Voting Disk I/O failure(s) 2010-08-13 18:31:19.787: [ SKGFD][4131736480]ERROR: - 9(Error 27072, OS Error (Linux Error: 5: Input/output error 2010-08-13 18:31:19.787: [ CSSD][4131736480](:CSSNM00060:) clssnmvReadBlocks: read failed at offset 529 of /dev/XXXX …. (message repeated) 2010-08-13 18:31:23.782: [ CSSD][150477728] clssnmvDiskOpen: Opening /dev/sdb8 …. 2010-08-13 18:34:37.429: [ CSSD][150477728] (:CSSNM00060:)clssnmvReadBlocks: read failed at offset 17 of /dev/sdb8 22 Error writing to voting disk (OS error 5) Error message ….Repeats 18:31:19.787 18:34:37.429 ~200 Seconds
  22. 22. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Confidential – Oracle Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 23 CSS heartbeats on Exadata
  23. 23. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Fast Node Death detection (NHB) • CSS is integrated with the subnet manager to declare node dead in less than ~2 seconds – No waiting for long heartbeat timeouts – Reduces application brownouts – Configured out of the box *(Subnet manager runs in the switch) • GIPC posts the node death failure to CSS – Resulting in quicker reconfiguration and Application Failover 24 0.8 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Exadata Generic Systems Node death detection Seconds
  24. 24. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Fast Node death detection Logging (Exadata) • 2018-02-03 13:33:27.724 : CSSD:866105088: clssnmeventhndlr: EXADATA NodeDeath detection from GIPC for node xyzadm1 number 1 • 2018-02-03 13:33:27.724 :GIPCHTHR:988976896: gipchaWorkerProcessClientDelEndp: workerThread set nodeDeath req, hendp 0x7f9c04088f70 [0000000000000bca] { gipchaEndpoint : port 'gm2_xyzadXX/ba3d-0156- 2b59-0f07', peer ‘xyzadm01:cff5-5bd0-d868-2361', 2018-02-03 13:33:28.457 : CSSD:971667200: clssnmvDiskEvict: Begin: Kill block write, file o/192.168.175.192/DBFS_CD_09_xyzadm1 25 CSS receives Node death event from GIPC And in less than 1 second writes the kill block and begins eviction procedures 13:33:27.724 13:33:28.457 00:00:00.733
  25. 25. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Voting disks on Exadata presented via iDB protocol – Does not go through normal OS IO path – Does not rely on OS` path retries • Additional diskmon process – One Master Diskmon and one instance level diskmon slave processes – Diskmon will signal CSS if it cannot reach Storage Cells – Fast Detection of loss of DHB 2017-09-25 22:37:14.417 [OCSSD(63908)]CRS-1605: CSSD voting file is online: o/ZZ.XXX.YYY.9;ZZ.YYY.BB.10/DBFSC3_CD_02_admxxx; o/ZZ.XXX.YYY.7; ZZ.YYY.BB.8/DBFSC3_CD_02_admxxx; o/ZZ.XXX.YYY.5; ZZ.YYY.BB.6/DBFSC3_CD_02_admxxx; ps -ef | egrep "diskmon|dskm" | grep -v grep oracle 3205 1 0 Feb16 ? 00:01:18 ora_dskm_sales2 oracle 10985 1 0 Feb16 ? 00:32:19 /u01/app/12.2.0/grid/bin/diskmon.bin -d -f oracle 17542 1 0 Feb16 ? 00:01:17 asm_dskm_+ASM2 oracle 24738 1 0 Feb18 ? 00:00:21 ora_dskm_orcl1 26 Fast Node Death detection (DHB) ** Diskmon
  26. 26. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Diskmon cell failure detection 2018-04-10 09:29:29.249 : DISKMON:2218510080: dskm_cell_health_resp1: Encounter a split-brain with node 1, suicide self.... 2018-04-10 09:29:29.255 : DISKMON:2218510080: WARNING: Notifying CSSD to ABORT 2018-04-10 09:29:29.254 : DISKMON:1859278592: dskm_hb_thrd_main11: got status change 2018-04-10 09:29:29.259 : DISKMON:1859278592: INFO: Entering Cell Reconnect: rscnam: o/192.168.216.217;192.168.216.218 rsc: 0x7f6e4005f7e0 state: UNREACHABLE reconn_attempts: 1 last_reconn_ts: 1523377686 CSSD:3368920832: clssnmPollingThread: Removal started for node XXXXXXadm02 (2), flags 0x20222000, state 3, wt4c 0 CSSD:3368920832: clssnmMarkNodeForRemoval: node 2, XXXXXXXdm02 marked for removal CSSD:3368920832: clssnmChangeState: oldstate 3 newstate 5 clssnm1.c 2854 28
  27. 27. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 29 Near Zero Downtime Reconfiguration with Recovery Buddy 4x faster! * • Recovery Buddy • Tracks blocks changes on buddy instance • Quickly identifies blocks requiring recovery during reconfiguration • Allows rapid processing of new transactions • * up to 4 times faster with Recovery Buddy and Optimized (Singleton) Reconfiguration Time For more details read my blog post on Recovery Buddy
  28. 28. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Faster Reconfiguration 30 Detect Evict Elect Recovery Read Redo Apply Recovery Detect Evict Elect Recovery Read Redo Apply Recovery Detect Evict Elect Recovery Read Redo Apply Recovery
  29. 29. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 31 Cache Fusion optimization
  30. 30. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Efficient IPC (Inter Process Communications) is critical for Cache Fusion • Lost blocks very expensive – Failed acks • Redundant Private network • Low Latency 32 Cache Fusion IPC requirements Query BlockBlock Network congestion Cache Fusion 348 Lost blocks
  31. 31. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • InfiniBand has amazing throughput with very low latency – But overheard of calling OS on every message limits small message rate • Exafusion along with IPCLW provides blazing performance • Database directly calls InfiniBand hardware – Bypasses networking software stack, interrupts, scheduling 33 Exafusion Direct-to-Wire OLTP Protocol 8K OLTP Block Transfers/sec InfiniBandExafusion InfiniBand 10GigE 3X Speedup
  32. 32. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • New IPCLW communication library for RAC IPC • NUMA aware resource assignment • Incorrect resource placement adds additional hops over QPI which is considerably slower. • Reduced overhead (Sockets, Memory etc) • New Extended Reliable Connected XRC Transport Service – Provides high performance communications by passing Kernel from User space. – Utilizes multiple Virtual Lanes  Cache fusion traffic utilizes distinct lane 34 Cache Fusion optimizations Generic Systems
  33. 33. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 35 Alert log: Confirm optimal settings • Cluster Communication is configured to use IPs from: GPnP IP: 169.254.249.167 Subnet: 169.254.0.0 • Relies on HAIP • Private Interface 'bondib0' configured from GPnP for use as a private interconnect. • Relies on Bonding for Private network HA IPCLW over UDP Oracle RDS/IP
  34. 34. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | In-Memory Fault Tolerance with Oracle RAC on Exadata 36 • Similar to Storage Mirroring • Duplicate In-Memory Columns on other nodes – Enabled per table/partition – Application transparent • Benefit from consistent Query performance after Node Failure • Exafusion provides the critical layer for Fault Tolerance feature on Engineered Systems* Duplicate
  35. 35. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 37 Accelerate In-Memory with Read Only Instances • Use Oracle RAC to redirect – OLTP users to RAC instances running on Hub Nodes and – DSS queries to utilize parallel query slaves with In-Memory option to speed up analytic queries • Engineered systems benefit from fault tolerant In-Memory compression units (IMCU)Parallel Query Coordinator Parallel Query Slaves
  36. 36. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 38 Integrate with & utilize the Exadata platform features
  37. 37. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 39 Block waits and Block History 1 2 3 4 Shadow Process LGWR gc current block busy, gc buffer busy acquire, gc buffer busy release
  38. 38. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | How does it looks in AWR? Node4
  39. 39. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Outliers in log IO slow down lots of clients • Outliers from any one copy of mirror slow down all the foregrounds – Database wait time goes up by #foregrounds * Stall time – Backlog doesn’t clear immediately like an accident on the freeway and increases “log file sync” waits • Legacy storage IO cannot differentiate redo log IO from others • UPS protected cache in traditional storage helps but will soon get overwhelmed • Measure log file latency with full backup or a data load running 41 Log Writer performance depends on underlying Storage Log Buffer client foreground client foreground client foreground Log Writer
  40. 40. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Smart Flash Log uses flash as a parallel write cache to disk controller cache • Whichever write completes first wins (disk or flash) • Reduces response time and outliers – “log file parallel write” histogram improves – Greatly improves “log file sync” • Uses almost no flash capacity (< 0.1%) • Network resource management provides priority for redo log I/Os across the network • OLTP workloads transparently accelerated and provide predictable response times 42 Exadata Smart Flash Log Smart Logging - Off Smart Logging - On No Outliers
  41. 41. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • On Exadata, Oracle does not wait for the log write notification – Exadata ensures the log write completes before changes to block on another instance commit, guaranteeing durability – Wait for Log I/O during transfer of hot blocks is eliminated – Up to 40% throughput and 33% response time improvement in some heavily contended OLTP workloads • Storage software will ensure correct ordering of writes 43 Smart Fusion Block Transfer 1. Issue log write 2. Wait for log write completion 3. Transfer block Exadata Avoids I/O Wait confirmation Storage
  42. 42. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Exadata Commit Cache • In-Memory commit cache per DB Instance that logs commit time • DB instance checks against this cache for committed transactions – Saves blocks being passed around, no wait for log flush • RDMA the commit cache from a remote instance at one shot improving batching • Eliminates up to 60% cache fusion block traffic for batch 44 Right Growing Indexes particularly benefit by this feature
  43. 43. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • OLTP sessions require remote undo header lookups to find – If a transaction has committed – Block cleanouts • To reduce remote look ups, each instance maintains a hash table of recent transactions (active & committed) • Undo Header Hash table improves scalability by eliminating remote look ups Undo Header Hash Table 45 • When a query has to roll a change out of a block to get a consistent version, and the change was made on another instance, an undo block must be fetched from that instance • Use RDMA to read UNDO blocks from other instance • Reduces latency from 50us to 10us
  44. 44. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 46 Scalability and Availability in Consolidated Environments Multitenant • Consolidate even more PDBs per server for Scalability and Availability – Add RAC instances to scale as load on PDBs increase – RAC instances prevents downtime caused by both planned and unplanned failures – RAC “Service Isolation” feature provides consistent performance on the consolidated PDB instances
  45. 45. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Consolidate up to 4,000 PDBs on Exadata • Oracle RAC optimized on the Exadata platform provides the perfect environment for consolidation – This combination offers unique end-to-end resource management and consolidation capabilities • IORM and Storage cells aware of PDB • Algorithm ensures single PDB does not hog Flash – Exclusively available on Exadata, SuperCluster and DB PaaS 47 RetailPricing Multitenant Container
  46. 46. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Storage server to storage server offload support for ASM Scoped- Security – Applies to ASM re-sync, rebalance, resilver, rebuild and database high throughput write operations • Smart redirect for high throughput write – Automatically detects and quarantines any anomalous operation and uses alternate IO path 48 ASM integration with Exadata
  47. 47. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Intelligent and flexible rebalance power setting – Dynamically change ASM_POWER_LIMIT • ASM rebalance restores redundancy first – Drastically reduces secondary failure exposure window – Exposed via new REBUILD phase in v$asm_operation • Exadata leverages flash cache for rebalance reads – Improves performance of redundancy restoration by up to 30% • XDMG and XDWK background processes – Two additional process run in ASM instances. – XDMG monitors cells and performs automatic actions • Receives events from Cell on Failures – XDWK performs async actions like Disk online, Drop, Add etc 49 Efficient Diskgroup Rebalance and Restore
  48. 48. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Data Protection with ASM integration • If an application update in the database encounters corruption – Database reads from the ASM mirror – Repairs the corruption using the good copy  This repair happens without impacting other database processes and application • When a network packet in the I/O path between DB server and storage node is corrupted – Storage cell prevents the write – ASM retries by re-sending the packet  Application never encounters corruptions • Automatic disk inspection and repair when disks are idle • Hardware Assisted Resilient Data (HARD) compliant checks 50 Corruption Detection, Prevention & Repair
  49. 49. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 51 Multi-Instance Redo Apply recover managed standby database disconnect using instances 3;
  50. 50. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Utilize all RAC nodes on standby to apply Redo • Parallel, multi-instance recovery means “the standby DB will keep up” – Standby recovery - utilizes CPU and I/O across all nodes of RAC standby • Multi-Instance Apply runs on all MOUNTED instances or all OPEN Instances • Exposed in the Broker with the ‘ApplyInstances’ property on standby • MRP0: Background Managed Standby Recovery process started *** 2018-04-17T21:38:10.974841-04:00 Managed Recovery: Initialization posted. 2018-04-17 21:38:10.989 : [ CSSCLNT][ CSSCLNT]clsssinit: • Watch out for – Bug 26327521 - ADG: STANDBY HIT ORA 600 [KRPM_CACHE_CV_2], MIRA DONESN'T SUPPORT 32K DB BLOCK
  51. 51. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Summary 5353 Exadata provides best platform for Oracle RAC
  52. 52. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Please remember to provide feedback – Session ID Session ID: 1374 – New integration features of Oracle RAC 12c Rel 2 with Exadata, Data Guard and IMDB Reminder for tomorrows session on Wed Apr 25th at 9:45 Confidential – Oracle Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted 54 Feedback is important

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