Scientific study of climate is called climatology.
The purpose of studying climatology is to achieve
maximum human comfort both indoor as well as
outdoors by utilizing maximum natural energy and
The earth receives almost all its thermal energy
from sun in the form of radiations and sun’s rays is
the most dominating factor.
Heat received at a given point on earth depends on
angle of incidence, atmospheric conditions (haze,
clear sky), length of the day.
3. Hot and Dry Climate
Areas which have a hot and dry climate are usually
In areas with hot and dry climate we should build
houses with high ceilings.
We should have closely placed buildings with
We should use stone for the exteriors as well as for
the flooring as it is a thermally insulating material.
5. Hot and Humid Climate
In areas which have a hot and humid climate we
should use timber or locally grown palm as a
material for building houses.
The houses should be built on stilts.
The roof of the house should be sloping.
We can have steps reaching the water.
We should have broad eaves.
6. Warm Humid
Areas which have a warm humid climate, continuous
ventilation is the primary requirement for comfort.
The temperature is generally moderate but due to
predominance of humidity the conditions are sweaty.
The planning of houses should be open in nature.
Clustering of houses should be avoided.
8. Composite Climate
Areas having a composite climate have extreme
heat as well as cold. Example- Delhi.
A small enclosed deck on the northern side of the
building can be used in summers as well as
Deciduous trees, creepers and vines will provide
shade when needed and will also allow the sun rays
to penetrate inside in the cool season when they
lose their foliage.
9. Influence of Building shape on Wind Pattern
Every building creates a wind protected area and
will deflect the wind direction. This is called the
This is also important for the neighboring
Wider the building larger is the wind shade.
10. Orientation of the Roof
To keep the roof cool, it should be sloped towards the
prevailing breeze and any obstruction which would
prevent the wind flow along the roof should be
11. Thermal Environment of a Building
Shape of a building. Example: Igloo
Fenestration (size, position and orientation of a
Solar control (insulation + thermal storage)
13. South Orientation
Sunlight will occur from late morning to early
In summers the sun will appear high up in the sky
and in winters it will appear low.
South orientation is best to obtain maximum
sunlight during the day.
The hot summer sun can be easily controlled by
properly designed overhangs and the low angle of
the sun during the winter month will enable the
rays to penetrate deep within the room.
14. East Orientation
Sunlight will occur only during the morning hours.
During the summer months as the sun rises in the
east, the early morning hours will have sunlight.
The heat will not be generally intense.
During the winter months, the sun will rise more
towards the south-east, thus providing a short period