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Computer for Management..pptx

  1. 1. Computer for Management 21BBA105 Dr. Ankur Kukreti Associate Professor Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
  2. 2. CO 1 • Knowledge about History of Computer, Generation and its Evolution, Characteristics of Computers, Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers, Main Areas of Computers and their Applications. And Knowledge about type of Computers CO 2 • Knowledge about Input output Devices. And Knowledge about Data and Information Concepts and Knowledge about Internet and its applications and type of Networks CO 3 • Describe about MS Office For Office Work CO 4 • Knowledge about DBMS, MIS and Information Systems in Global Business Today CO 5 • Enumerate various Business Application of MIS. And Knowledge about Business Expert System
  3. 3. SYLLABUS
  4. 4. UNIT 1
  5. 5. History and Evolution of Computers • The word COMPUTER was first used in a book named as ”The Young Mans Gleanings” written by English writer Richard Braithwait. “I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduce the thy dayes into a short number” is the line taken from that book which first used the word COMPUTER. • Let us go through various computing devices which were developed prior to the existing computer.
  6. 6. Abacus • Many centuries ago when man started to count the numbers, he thought of a device which can trace the numbers and thus came the existence of ABACUS. It was the first counting device which was developed in China more than 3000 years ago. The name Abacus was obtained from Greek word Abax which means slab. This device basically consists of a rectangular wooden frame and beads. • The frame contains horizontal rods and the beads which have holes are passed through the rods. Counting was done by moving the beads from one end of the frame to the other.
  7. 7. Napier ’s Bones • It is a device which contains a set of rods made of bones. It was developed by John Napier, a Scottish Mathematician and hence the device was named as Napier’s Bones. The device was mainly developed for performing multiplication and division. Later in 1614 he also introduced logarithms.
  8. 8. Pascaline • Pascaline is a calculating machine developed by Blaise Pascal, a French Mathematician. It was the first device with an ability to perform additions and subtractions on whole numbers. The device is made up of interlocked cog wheels which contains numbers 0 to 9 on its circumference. When one wheel completes its rotation the other wheel moves by one segment. Pascal patented this device in 1647 and produced it on mass scale and earned a handful of money.
  9. 9. Punched Card • Punched Card System is used for storing and retrieving data. This was invented by Herman Hollerith, an American Statistician in US Census Bureau. The system stores the data coded in the form of punched holes.
  10. 10. Tabulator • Herman Hollerith also invented Tabulator which was the first step towards programming. The first tabulator which he invented in 1890 was used to operate only on 1890 census cards. As he was a statistician in census bureau, he developed devices to simplify the tasks related to his department. • Later in 1906, Type 1 tabulator was developed with a plug board control panel which allowed it to do different jobs without being rebuilt. His inventions were the basis for the modern information processing industry.
  11. 11. Digital Era • Coming to the digital era, Binary system made its entry into the computer world. According to this system, 0’s and 1’s were used. This system was suggested by Claude Shannon, an American Mathematician. • The first electronic computer was built by Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff, a Physics Professor and Clifford Berry. The computer was names as ABC(Atanasoff-Berry Computer). This computer used vacuum tubes for data storage. It was designed mainly for solving systems of simultaneous equations. • In 1946, General Purpose Computer was developed which contained 18000 valves and used to consume 100kilowatts of power and weighted several tonnes.
  12. 12. Transistors • In 1947, Transistors were introduced into the computers. With the introduction of transistors, computations were simpler and faster.
  13. 13. • In 1957, IBM developed FORTRAN. • In 1959, Integrated Circuit(IC) came into existence which was later used in the computers. • In 1960, Mainframe computer was designed which used IC for the first time. • In 1970, Memory chip with 1KB storage capacity was developed by Intel. • In 1975, First micro computer was developed by H. Edward Roberts(now the father of micro computer) • In 1980’s and 1990’s, many modifications and up gradations were done and the usage of chips and various other stuffs changed the computers completely.
  14. 14. Generations of Computers • Computers in the form of personal desktop computers, laptops and tablets have become such an important part of everyday living that it can be difficult to remember a time when they did not exist. In reality, computers as they are known and used today are still relatively new. Although computers have technically been in use since the abacus approximately 5000 years ago, it is modern computers that have had the greatest and most profound effect on society. The first full-sized digital computer in history was developed in 1944. Called the Mark I, this computer was used only for calculations and weighed five tons. Despite its size and limited ability it was the first of many that would start off generations of computer development and growth.
  15. 15. ZEROETH GENERATION • Man used his fingers, ropes, beads, bones, pebbles and other objects for counting. •Abacus, Pascaline, Difference & Anylitical engines •Electricity was not yet invented
  16. 16. FIRST GENERATION, 1951 – 1958: The Vacuum Tube • The first generation of computers, characterized by vacuum tubes, started in 1951 with the creation of - UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) – a tabulating machine which won the contest for the fastest machine which could count the US 1890 census. VACUUM TUBES – electronic tubes about the size of light bulbs.
  17. 17. DISADVANTAGES: • They generate more heat causing many problems in temperature regulation and climate control. • Tubes were subject to frequent burn-out.
  18. 18. SECOND GENERATION, 1959 – 1964: The Transistor The year 1959 marked the invention of transistors, which characterized the second generation of computers. TRANSISTOR – was a three-legged component which shrunk the size of the first generation computers. Occupied only 1/100th of the space occupied by a vacuum tube More reliable, had greater computational speed, required no warm-up time and consumed far less electricity.
  19. 19. THIRD GENERATION, 1965 – 1970: The Integrated Circuit Third generation computers arose in 1965 with the invention of smaller electronic circuits called integrated circuits (IC’S) INTEGRATED CIRCUITS – are square silicon chips containing circuitry that can perform the functions of hundreds of transistors.
  20. 20. ADVANTAGES: • RELIABILITY – Unlike vacuum tubes, silicon will not break down easily. It is very seldom that you will have to replace it. • LOW COST – Silicon chips are relatively cheap because of their small size and availability in the market. It also consumes less electricity.
  21. 21. FOURTH GENERATION, 1971 – present: The Microprocessor • Marked by the use of microprocessor • MICROPROCESSOR – is a silicon chip that contains the CPU – part of the computer where all processing takes place. 4004 chip – was the first microprocessor introduced by Intel Corporation.
  22. 22. TODAY’S COMPUTER • Today’s Computer is classified as fourth generation computers. • faster, more powerful, tremendous data storage and processing capacity • new brands and models would come out the market almost every other month. • many clones or imitations of the IBM have become even more powerful and a lot cheaper.
  23. 23. • computers became more affordable • computers can now be found in homes, schools, offices etc. • there has been a tremendous improvement in software technology • different software applications to choose from: word processing, spreadsheets, database management, games and entertainment. • computer subjects are now being offered not just to college students but even to high school and elementary. • computers are now used as an aid in teaching math, science etc.
  24. 24. First Generation Computers • First generation computers bore no resemblance to computers of today, either in appearance or performance. The first generation of computers took place from 1951 to 1958 and was extremely large in size. The inner workings of the computers at that time were unsophisticated. These early machines required magnetic drums for memory and vacuum tubes that worked as switches and amplifiers. It was the vacuum tubes that were mainly responsible for the large size of the machines and the massive amounts of heat that they released. These computers produced so much heat that they regularly overheated despite large cooling units. First generation computers also used a very basic programming language that is referred to as machine language.
  25. 25. Second Generation Computers • The second generation (from 1959 to 1964) of computers managed to do away with vacuum tubes in lieu of transistors. This allowed them to use less electricity and generate less heat. Second generation computers were also significantly faster than their predecessors. Another significant change was in the size of the computers, which were smaller. Transistor computers also developed core memory which they used alongside magnetic storage.
  26. 26. Third Generation Computers • From 1965 to 1970 computers went through a significant change in terms of speed, courtesy of integrated circuits. Integrated circuits, or semiconductor chips, were large numbers of miniature transistors packed on silicon chips. This not only increased the speed of computers but also made them smaller, more powerful, and less expensive. In addition, instead of the punch cards and the printouts of previous systems, keyboards and monitors were now allowing people to interact with computing machines.
  27. 27. Fourth Generation Computers • The changes with the greatest impact occurred in the years from 1971 till date. During this time technology developed to a point where manufacturers could place millions of transistors on a single circuit chip. This was called monolithic integrated circuit technology. It also heralded the invention of the Intel 4004 chip which was the first microprocessor to become commercially available in 1971. This invention led to the dawn of the personal computer industry. By the mid-70s, personal computers such as the Altair 8800 became available to the public in the form of kits and required assembly. By the late 70s and early 80s assembled personal computers for home use, such as the Commodore Pet, Apple II and the first IBM computer, were making their way onto the market. Personal computers and their ability to create networks eventually would lead to the Internet in the early 1990s. The fourth generation of computers also saw the creation of even smaller computers including laptops and hand- held devices. Graphical user interface, or GUI, was also invented during this time. Computer memory and storage also went through major improvements, with an increase in storage capacity and speed.
  28. 28. The Fifth Generation of Computers • In the future, computer users can expect even faster and more advanced computer technology. Computers continue to develop into advanced forms of technology. Fifth generation computing has yet to be truly defined, as there are numerous paths that technology is taking toward the future of computer development. For instance, research is ongoing in the fields of nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, as well as quantum computation. • Computer would be using Japanese invented language KIPS (Knowledge instruction per second.
  29. 29. Basic characteristics about computer are: • 1. Speed: - As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instructions and even more per second. • Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in terms of microsecond (10-6 part of a second) or nanosecond (10 to the power -9 part of a second). From this you can imagine how fast your computer performs work. • 2. Accuracy: - The degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. The accuracy level is 7 determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data. • 3. Diligence: - A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a computer will perform every calculation with the same accuracy. Due to this capability it overpowers human being in routine type of work.
  30. 30. • 4. Versatility: - It means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use your computer to prepare payroll slips. Next moment you may use it for inventory management or to prepare electric bills. • 5. Power of Remembering: - Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data. • 6. No IQ: - Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can. • 7. No Feeling: - It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users. • 8. Storage: - The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computers.
  31. 31. Organizations of a computer • A computer is a fast and accurate device, which can accept data, store data, process them and give, desired results as output. The computer is organized into four units as shown in the following diagram.
  32. 32. Input Unit: Any device designed to assist in the entry of data into a computer is known as input device. Input devices convert data from any convenient external format into binary codes that a computer can store and manipulate internally. Some of the most common, most popularly used devices are following. a) Mouse b) Light Pen c) Touch Screen d) Keyboard e) Scanner f) OCR and MICR g) Bar Code Reader h) Joy Stick etc Output Unit: Any peripheral device that converts the stored binary coded data into convenient external forms as test and pictures are known as Output device. Some of the most popularly used Output devices are following: a) Visual Display Unit (Monitor) b) Printer : Dot Matrix and Impact/Non Impact, Printer, Daisy wheel Printer, Line Printers, Ink-jet, Laser Printer c) Plotters etc
  33. 33. • Central Processing Unit: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the heart of the computer combined with the processor of a computer. The CPU carries out actions with the help of Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU). This is done following a detailed set of arithmetic instructions written in the main memory. It also uses the main memory storage of information. Through the channels of information specified as “Bus”, the CPU instructs various parts called device controllers to transfer data between secondary memory and the main memory. The CPU accepts the data from the Input unit processes it and gives the result/output to the output device. The data/result can be stored for the use by storing it in the secondary memory. The total operations of the computer is synchronized and controlled by the CPU. The processing capacity of a computer is measured in terms the amount of data processed by the CPU in one operation. The CPU has three important sub units. 1) Arithmetic-Logic unit 2) Control Unit 3) Memory Unit
  34. 34. • Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU is an electronic circuit used to carry out the arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. This unit carries out logical operations like greater than, less than, equal to etc. It performs the operation on the data provided by the input devices. A comparison operation allows a program to make decisions based on its data input and results of the previous calculations. Logical operations can be used to determine whether particular statement is TRUE or FALSE. The ALU operates on the data available in the main memory and sends them back after processing again to main memory. • Control Unit: The control unit coordinates the activities of all the other units used in the system. Its main functions are to control the transfer of data and information between various units and to initiate appropriate actions by the arithmetic-logic unit. Conceptually, the control unit fetches instructions from the memory, decodes them, and directs them to various units to perform the on specified tasks.
  35. 35. • Memory Unit: The main memory is also called primary memory, is used to store data temporarily. Although, the CPU is the brain behind all the operations in the computer, it needs to be supplied with the data to be processed and the instructions to tell it what to do. Once the CPU has carried out an instruction, it needs the result to be stored. This storage space is provided by the computer’s memory. Data provided by the input device, and the result of that processed data is also stored in the memory unit. This main memory is like a scratch pad. The storage capacity of the memory is generally measured in megabytes. 8 Bits = 1 Byte 1024 Bytes= 1 Kilobyte (KB) 1 024 Kilobytes= 1 Megabyte (MB) 1024 Megabytes= 1 Gigabyte (GB) Different kinds of primary memory are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). You can read and write data in RAM but the data is volatile or temporary that is whenever the power is switched off the contents of RAM is lost so its is required to store the data in the secondary memory if the data is required for the future use. But you can only read the data from ROM and you can not write any thing into it and the data is permanent. The manufacturer himself has written the data in it initially.
  36. 36. Secondary Memory This is the permanent memory. The data stored in it is permanent. But you can delete the data if you want. There are different kinds of secondary storage devices available. Few of them are Floppy disks, Fixed (hard) disks and Optical disks etc. a) Floppy Disk b) Fixed or Hard Disk c) Optical Disk like: CD (Compact Disk) DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) d) Magnetic Tape Drive
  37. 37. Types of computer Type of computer Digital computer Analog computer Hybrid Computer Micro Computer Main frame Computer Super Computer Home PC Mini Computer
  38. 38. Analog computer Analog computer measures and answer the questions by the method of “HOW MUCH”. The input data is not a number infect a physical quantity like tem, pressure, speed, velocity. Signals are continuous of (0 to 10 V) Accuracy 1% Approximately High speed Output is continuous Time is wasted in transmission time
  39. 39. Analog computer
  40. 40. Digital Computers Digital computer counts and answer the questions by the method of “HOW Many”. The input data is represented by a number. These are used for the logical and arithmetic operations. Signals are two level of (0 V or 5 V) Accuracy unlimited low speed sequential as well as parallel processing Output is continuous but obtain when computation is completed.
  41. 41. Micro Computer Micro computer are the smallest computer system. There size range from calculator to desktop size. Its CPU is microprocessor. It also known as Grand child Computer. • Application : - personal computer, Multi user system, offices.
  42. 42. Mini Computer These are also small general purpose system. They are generally more powerful and most useful as compared to micro computer. Mini computer are also known as mid range computer or Child computer. • Application :- Departmental systems, Network Servers, work group system.
  43. 43. Mini computer
  44. 44. Main Frame Computer Mainframe computers are those computers that offer faster processing and grater storage area. The word “main frame” comes from the metal frames. It is also known as Father computer. • Application – Host computer, Central data base server.
  45. 45. Super Computer  Super computer are those computer which are designed for scientific job like whether forecasting and artificial intelligence etc. They are fastest and expensive. A super computer contains a number of CPU which operate in parallel to make it faster. It also known as grand father computer.  Application – whether forecasting, weapons research and development.
  46. 46. Super computer
  47. 47. Hybrid Computer The combination of features of analog and digital computer is called hybrid computer. The main example are central national defense and passenger flight radar system. They are also used to control robots.
  48. 48. Classification of Digital computer • Desktop • Workstation • Notebook • Tablet PC • Handheld computer • Smart Phone
  49. 49. workstation
  50. 50. Tablet PC
  51. 51. Handheld PC(PDA)
  52. 52. Smart phone
  53. 53. Types of Computers : Types of Computers Analog Computers: The analog computer is almost an extinct type of computer these days. It is different from a digital computer in respect that it can perform numerous mathematical operations simultaneously. It is also unique in terms of operation as it utilizes continuous variables for the purpose of mathematical computation. It utilizes mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical energy or operation 
  54. 54. Hybrid computers: : Hybrid computers: These types of computers are, as the name suggests, a combination of both Analog and Digital computers. The Digital computers which work on the principle of binary digit system of “0” and “1” can give very precise results. But the problem is that they are too slow and incapable of large scale mathematical operation. In the hybrid types of computers the Digital counterparts convert the analog signals to perform Robotics and Process control
  55. 55.  Apart from this, computers are also categorized on the basis of physical structures and the purpose of their use. Based on Capacity, speed and reliability they can be divided into three categories of computers:1. The Mainframe Computer – These are computers used by large organizations like meteorological surveys and statistical institutes for performing bulk mathematical computations. They are core computers which are used for desktop functions of over one hundred people simultaneously. 2. The Microcomputer – These are the most frequently used computers better known by the name of “Personal computers”. This is the type of computer meant for public use. Other than Desktop Computer the choice ranges as follows: Personal Digital Computer Tablet PC Towers Work Stations Laptops Hand Held Computer 3. The Mini computer – Mini computers like the mainframe computers are used by business organization. The difference being that it can support the simultaneous working of up to 100 users and is usually maintained in business organizations for the maintenance of accounts and finances.
  56. 56. Types of Computers • Since the advent of the first computer different types and sizes of computers are offering different services. Computers can be as big as occupying a large building and as small as a laptop or a microcontroller in mobile & embedded systems. • The four basic types of computers are as under: • Supercomputer • Mainframe Computer • Minicomputer • Microcomputer
  57. 57. Supercomputer • The most powerful computers in terms of performance and data processing are the Supercomputers. These are specialized and task specific computers used by large organizations. These computers are used for research and exploration purposes, like NASA uses supercomputers for launching space shuttles, controlling them and for space exploration purpose. • The supercomputers are very expensive and very large in size. It can be accommodated in large air-conditioned rooms; some super computers can span an entire building.
  58. 58. • Uses of Supercomputers In Pakistan Supercomputers are used by Educational Institutes like NUST for research purposes. Pakistan Atomic Energy commission & Heavy Industry Taxila uses supercomputers for Research purposes. • Space Exploration Supercomputers are used to study the origin of the universe, the dark-matters. For these studies scientist use IBM’s powerful supercomputer “Roadrunner” at National Laboratory Los Alamos. • Earthquake studies Supercomputers are used to study the Earthquakes phenomenon. Besides that supercomputers are used for natural resources exploration, like natural gas, petroleum, coal, etc. • Weather Forecasting Supercomputers are used for weather forecasting, and to study the nature and extent of Hurricanes, Rainfalls, windstorms, etc. • Nuclear weapons testing Supercomputers are used to run weapon simulation that can test the Range, accuracy & impact of Nuclear weapons. • Popular Supercomputers 1. IBM’s Sequoia, in United States 2. Fujitsu’s K Computer in Japan 3. IBM’s Mira in United States 4. IBM’s SuperMUC in Germany 5. NUDT Tianhe-1A in China 6. GOI’s Param of India
  59. 59. • Mainframe computer Although Mainframes are not as powerful as supercomputers, but certainly they are quite expensive nonetheless, and many large firms & government organizations uses Mainframes to run their business operations. The Mainframe computers can be accommodated in large air-conditioned rooms because of its size. Super-computers are the fastest computers with large data storage capacity, Mainframes can also process & store large amount of data. Banks educational institutions & insurance companies use mainframe computers to store data about their customers, students & insurance policy holders. • Popular Mainframe computers 1. Fujitsu’s ICL VME 2. Hitachi’s Z800
  60. 60. • Minicomputer Minicomputers are used by small businesses & firms. Minicomputers are also called as “Midrange Computers”. These are small machines and can be accommodated on a disk with not as processing and data storage capabilities as super-computers & Mainframes. These computers are not designed for a single user. Individual departments of a large company or organizations use Mini- computers for specific purposes. For example, a production department can use Mini-computers for monitoring certain production process. • Popular Minicomputers 1. K-202 2. Texas Instrument TI-990 3. SDS-92 4. IBM Midrange computers • Microcomputer Desktop computers, laptops, personal digital assistant (PDA), tablets & smart phones are all types of microcomputers. The micro-computers are widely used & the fastest growing computers. These computers are the cheapest among the other three types of computers. The Micro-computers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purposes. Well known manufacturers of Micro-computer are Dell, Apple, Samsung, Sony & Toshiba. Desktop computers, Gaming consoles, Sound & Navigation system of a car, Net books, Notebooks, PDA’s, Tablet PC’s, Smart phones, Calculators are all type of Microcomputers.
  61. 61. Uses of Computers in Business Computers Facilitate Communication • Email services, such as Yahoo and specialized services, like Hush-Mail help businesses send and receive electronic correspondence. Many online email services also enable you to voice chat with others over the Internet. Companies can also use applications such as Outlook to manage business mail, track events and help employees schedule meetings. Skype, Google Hangouts and similar programs give you the ability to hold remote video meetings with people from around the world. Many of these communications platforms also work on smart phones and tablets. Data Mining Benefits • Businesses often acquire and store massive amounts of information in relational databases, spreadsheets, XML files and other repositories. Learn to use data mining techniques and you can tap into a valuable undiscovered source of business intelligence. Data mining software can help businesses identify patterns and discover new relationships in historical data. Although data mining can help small companies, it's particularly useful for businesses with large amounts of complex data. Businesses that use data mining can boost sales, acquire new customers, improve productions, increase customer satisfaction and predict future business trends. Customer Relationship Management • Stand-alone software exists that can help business owners find, service and retain customers. Modern CRM applications integrate many of these functions into a single, unified system. Typical tasks that full-featured CRM apps perform include contact management, customer service and sales force automation.
  62. 62. Order Fulfillment • Fulfilling orders can be a time-consuming task, because it may require the assistance of people in accounting, the warehouse, inventory control and shipping departments. Computers make it easier for businesses to automate and speed up time-consuming order fulfillment processes. For example, an order fulfillment application may use barcode scanners to record product information as a product moves from the warehouse to the shipping trucks. Order fulfillment software can also tell you when to replenish your inventory. Design and Graphics • You don't need to hire a professional graphic artist to create professional looking graphics for your business. Tools, such as image editors and desktop publishing applications, can help novices create Web buttons and banners, draw logos, create marketing materials, enhance photos and produce newsletters. Programs, such as PowerPoint and Open Office Impress, can help you create powerful business presentations by clicking buttons and dragging your mouse. Video editing programs also give you the power to produce your own company videos that you can use for advertising and marketing. Computers can also connect you to the Internet where you can download free graphics that you can customize. Marketing and Advertising • There are several ways for businesses to advertise and market their services. Many business owners use computers to tap into the power of social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter. In addition to advertising products and services on these sites, businesses can use software to design and manage email marketing campaigns that target potential customers.
  63. 63. Using Computers to Manage People • Human Resources software can help businesses do everything from find potential employees to discipline them when problems occur. By storing employee information in a central repository, HR applications also make it easier for HR personal to track employee performance, maintain information about benefits and communicate with employees efficiently. Many HR apps also give HR managers the to generate reports that profile specific employees. Computer Administration • Regardless of the size of your business, it's important to keep your computers secure. If you have a large company, ensure that your IT department has the skills necessary to set up users, install software and keep your network safe. If you have a small office, assign an administrator to manage your computers.
  64. 64. Components of a computer 1. Hardware-Physical components of computer 2. Software-set of instructions given to hardware
  65. 65. Types of Software • There are two main types of software: 1. Systems software -: It includes the programs that are dedicated to managing the computer itself, such as the operating system, file management utilities, and disk operating system (or DOS). 2. Application software-: An application is any program, or group of programs, that is designed for the end user. Applications software(also called end-user programs) include such things as database programs, word processors, Web browsers and spreadsheets. • Application software which is software that uses the computer system to perform special functions or provide entertainment functions beyond the basic operation of the computer itself. There are many different types of application software, because the range of tasks that can be performed with a modern computer is so large like “MS Office”. • System software which is software that directly operates the computer hardware, to provide basic functionality needed by users and other software, and to provide a platform for running application software. System software includes:”Windows” , “DOS” etc.
  66. 66. Windows • Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server. Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.
  67. 67. • Older versions • Windows 1.0, the first version, released in 1985 • The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager". It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985. Windows 1.0 was to compete with Apple's operating system, but achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system; rather, it extends MS-DOS. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Versions of Windows
  68. 68. • Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, and was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user interface and memory management.Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights.Windows 2.0 also introduced more sophisticated keyboard shortcuts and could make use of expanded memory. • Windows 2.1 was released in two different versions: Windows/286 and Windows/386. Windows/386 uses the virtual 8086 mode of the Intel 80386 to multitask several DOS programs and the paged memory model to emulate expanded memory using available extended memory. Windows/286, in spite of its name, runs on both Intel 8086 and Intel 80286 processors. It runs in real mode but can make use of the high memory area. • In addition to full Windows-packages, there were runtime-only versions that shipped with early Windows software from third parties and made it possible to run their Windows software on MS-DOS and without the full Windows feature set. • The early versions of Windows are often thought of as graphical shells, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and use it for file system services. However, even the earliest Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions; notably, having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer, graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound). Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allows it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources are swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce; data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control.
  69. 69. • Windows 3.x • Windows 3.0, released in 1990 • Windows 3.0, released in 1990, improved the design, mostly because of virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers (VxDs) that allow Windows to share arbitrary devices between multi-tasked DOS applications. Windows 3.0 applications can run in protected mode, which gives them access to several megabytes of memory without the obligation to participate in the software virtual memory scheme. They run inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provides a degree of protection. Windows 3.0 also featured improvements to the user interface. Microsoft rewrote critical operations from C into assembly. Windows 3.0 is the first Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months. • Windows 3.1, made generally available on March 1, 1992, featured a facelift. In August 1993, Windows for Workgroups, a special version with integrated peer-to-peer networking features and a version number of 3.11, was released. It was sold along Windows 3.1. Support for Windows 3.1 ended on December 31, 2001. • Windows 3.2, released 1994, is an updated version of the Chinese version of Windows 3.1. The update was limited to this language version, as it fixed only issues related to the complex writing system of the Chinese language. Windows 3.2 was generally sold by computer manufacturers with a ten-disk version of MS-DOS that also had Simplified Chinese characters in basic output and some translated utilities.
  70. 70. • Windows 9x • The next major consumer-oriented release of Windows, Windows 95, was released on August 24, 1995. While still remaining MS-DOS-based, Windows 95 introduced support for native 32-bit applications, plug and play hardware, preemptive multitasking, long file names of up to 255 characters, and provided increased stability over its predecessors. Windows 95 also introduced a redesigned, object oriented user interface, replacing the previous Program Manager with the Start menu, taskbar, and Windows Explorer shell. Windows 95 was a major commercial success for Microsoft; Ina Fried of CNET remarked that "by the time Windows 95 was finally ushered off the market in 2001, it had become a fixture on computer desktops around the world."Microsoft published four OEM Service Releases (OSR) of Windows 95, each of which was roughly equivalent to a service pack. The first OSR of Windows 95 was also the first version of Windows to be bundled with Microsoft's web browser, Internet Explorer. Mainstream support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2000, and extended support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2001. • Windows 95 was followed up with the release of Windows 98 on June 25, 1998, which introduced the Windows Driver Model, support for USB composite devices, support for ACPI, hibernation, and support for multi-monitor configurations. Windows 98 also included integration with Internet Explorer 4 through Active Desktop and other aspects of the Windows Desktop Update (a series of enhancements to the Explorer shell which were also made available for Windows 95). In May 1999, Microsoft released Windows 98 Second Edition, an updated version of Windows 98. Windows 98 SE added Internet Explorer 5.0 and Windows Media Player 6.2 amongst other upgrades. Mainstream support for Windows 98 ended on June 30, 2002, and extended support for Windows 98 ended on July 11, 2006. • On September 14, 2000, Microsoft released Windows ME (Millennium Edition), the last DOS-based version of Windows. Windows ME incorporated visual interface enhancements from its Windows NT-based counterpart Windows 2000, had faster boot times than previous versions (which however, required the removal of the ability to access a real mode DOS environment, removing compatibility with some older programs),expanded multimedia functionality (including Windows Media Player 7, Windows Movie Maker, and the Windows Image Acquisition framework for retrieving images from scanners and digital cameras), additional system utilities such as System File Protection and System Restore, and updated home networking tools. However, Windows ME was faced with criticism for its speed and instability, along with hardware compatibility issues and its removal of real mode DOS support. PC World considered Windows ME to be one of the worst operating systems Microsoft had ever released, and the 4th worst tech product of all time.
  71. 71. • Early versions • In November 1988, a new development team within Microsoft (which included former Digital Equipment Corporation developers Dave Cutler and Mark Lucovsky) began work on a revamped version of IBM and Microsoft's OS/2 operating system known as "NT OS/2". NT OS/2 was intended to be a secure, multi-user operating system with POSIX compatibility and a modular, portable kernel with preemptive multitasking and support for multiple processor architectures. However, following the successful release of Windows 3.0, the NT development team decided to rework the project to use an extended 32-bit port of the Windows API known as Win32 instead of those of OS/2. Win32 maintained a similar structure to the Windows APIs (allowing existing Windows applications to easily be ported to the platform), but also supported the capabilities of the existing NT kernel. Following its approval by Microsoft's staff, development continued on what was now Windows NT, the first 32-bit version of Windows. However, IBM objected to the changes, and ultimately continued OS/2 development on its own. • The first release of the resulting operating system, Windows NT 3.1 (named to associate it with Windows 3.1) was released in July 1993, with versions for desktop workstations and servers. Windows NT 3.5 was released in September 1994, focusing on performance improvements and support for Novell's NetWare, and was followed up by Windows NT 3.51 in May 1995, which included additional improvements and support for the PowerPC architecture. Windows NT 4.0 was released in June 1996, introducing the redesigned interface of Windows 95 to the NT series. On February 17, 2000, Microsoft released Windows 2000, a successor to NT 4.0. The Windows NT name was dropped at this point in order to put a greater focus on the Windows brand.
  72. 72. • Windows XP • The next major version of Windows NT, Windows XP, was released on October 25, 2001. The introduction of Windows XP aimed to unify the consumer-oriented Windows 9x series with the architecture introduced by Windows NT, a change which Microsoft promised would provide better performance over its DOS-based predecessors. Windows XP would also introduce a redesigned user interface (including an updated Start menu and a "task- oriented" Windows Explorer), streamlined multimedia and networking features, Internet Explorer 6, integration with Microsoft's .NET Passport services, modes to help provide compatibility with software designed for previous versions of Windows, and Remote Assistance functionality. • At retail, Windows XP was now marketed in two main editions: the "Home" edition was targeted towards consumers, while the "Professional" edition was targeted towards business environments and power users, and included additional security and networking features. Home and Professional were later accompanied by the "Media Center" edition (designed for home theater PCs, with an emphasis on support for DVD playback, TV tuner cards, DVR functionality, and remote controls), and the "Tablet PC" edition (designed for mobile devices meeting its specifications for a tablet computer, with support for stylus pen input and additional pen-enabled applications). Mainstream support for Windows XP ended on April 14, 2009. Extended support ended on April 8, 2014. • After Windows 2000, Microsoft also changed its release schedules for server operating systems; the server counterpart of Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, was released in April 2003. It was followed in December 2005, by Windows Server 2003 R2.
  73. 73. • Windows Vista • After a lengthy development process, Windows Vista was released on November 30, 2006, for volume licensing and January 30, 2007, for consumers. It contained a number of new features, from a redesigned shell and user interface to significant technical changes, with a particular focus on security features. It was available in a number of different editions, and has been subject to some criticism, such as drop of performance, longer boot time, criticism of new UAC, and stricter license agreement. Vista's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008. • Windows 7 • On July 22, 2009, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 were released as RTM (release to manufacturing) while the former was released to the public 3 months later on October 22, 2009. Unlike its predecessor, Windows Vista, which introduced a large number of new features, Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista was already compatible. Windows 7 has multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows shell with an updated taskbar, a home networking system called Home Group, and performance improvements.
  74. 74. • Windows 8 and 8.1 • Windows 8, the successor to Windows 7, was released generally on October 26, 2012. A number of significant changes were made on Windows 8, including the introduction of a user interface based around Microsoft's Metro design language with optimizations for touch-based devices such as tablets and all-in- one PCs. These changes include the Start screen, which uses large tiles that are more convenient for touch interactions and allow for the display of continually updated information, and a new class ofapps which are designed primarily for use on touch-based devices. Other changes include increased integration with cloud services and other online platforms (such as social networks and Microsoft's own One Drive (formerly Sky Drive) and Xbox Live services), the Windows Store service for software distribution, and a new variant known as Windows RT for use on devices that utilize the ARM architecture. An update to Windows 8, called Windows 8.1, was released on October 17, 2013, and includes features such as new live tile sizes, deeper One Drive integration, and many other revisions. Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 has been subject to some criticism, such as removal of the Start menu. • Windows 10 • On September 30, 2014, Microsoft announced Windows 10 as the successor to Windows 8.1. It was released on July 29, 2015, and addresses shortcomings in the user interface first introduced with Windows 8. Changes include the return of the Start Menu, a virtual desktop system, and the ability to run Windows Store apps within windows on the desktop rather than in full-screen mode. Windows 10 is said to be available to update from qualified Windows 7 with SP1 and Windows 8.1 computers from the Get Windows 10 Application (for Windows 7, Windows 8.1) or Windows Update (Windows 7). • On November 12, 2015, an update to Windows 10, version 1511, was released.This update can be activated with a Windows 7, 8 or 8.1 product key as well as Windows 10 product keys. Features include new icons and right-click context menus, default printer management, four times as many tiles allowed in the Start menu, Find My Device, and Edge updates. • In February 2017, Microsoft announced the migration of its Windows source code repository from Perforce to Git. This migration involved 3.5 million separate files in a 300 gigabyte repository. By May 2017, 90 percent of its engineering team now uses Git, in about 8500 commits and 1760 Windows builds per day.
  75. 75. Basic Functions of the Windows • The key five basic functions of any operating system are as follows-: 1. Interface between the user and the hardware : An OS provides an interface between user and machine. This interface can be a graphical user interface (GUI) in which users click onscreen elements to interact with the OS or a command-line interface (CLI) in which users type commands at the command-line interface (CLI) to tell the OS to do things.
  76. 76. 2. Coordinate hardware components :An OS enables coordination of hardware components. Each hardware device speaks a different language, but the operating system can talk to them through the specific translational softwares called device drivers. Every hardware component has different drivers for Operating systems. These drivers make the communication
  77. 77. • 3. Provide environment for software to function: An OS provides an environment for software applications to function. An application software is a specific software which is used to perform specific task. In GUI operating systems such as Windows and macOS, applications run within a consistent, graphical desktop environment. • 4. Provide structure for data management : An OS displays structure/directories for data management. We can view file and folder listings and manipulate on those files and folders like (move, copy, rename, delete, and many others). • 5. Monitor system health and functionality: OS monitors the health of our system’s hardware, giving us an idea of how well (or not) it’s performing. We can see how busy our CPU is, or how quickly our hard drives retrieve data, or how much data our network card is sending etc. and it also monitors system activity for malware.
  78. 78. Character User Interface • CUI stands for character user interface and can also be referred to as the command prompt, C prompt or command line. In the direct operating system called DOS this is generally displayed on the screen by a "C:>" or "C>". This is the point at which commands are written out before being sent to the computer by pressing "Enter" on the keyboard.
  79. 79. Graphical User Interface • GUI stands for graphical user interface and eliminates the need to type commands on the C prompt or command line. With a GUI, you use a mouse to move the cursor around the screen, place it on an icon and click. By doing so a command is sent that would otherwise have to be typed using the CUI.
  80. 80. 4B-99 Commonly Used Printers • Impact printers – Generate output by striking the paper – Uses an inked ribbon • Non-impact printers – Use methods other than force – Tend to be quiet and fast
  81. 81. 4B-100 Commonly Used Printers • Dot matrix printers – Impact printer – Used to print to multi-sheet pages – Print head strikes inked ribbon – Line printers – Band printers – Speed measured in characters per second
  82. 82. 4B-101 Dot Matrix Print Head
  83. 83. 4B-102 Commonly Used Printers • Ink-jet printers – Non-impact printer – Inexpensive home printer – Color output common using CMYK • Cyan, magenta, yellow, black – Sprays ink onto paper – Speed measured in pages per minute – Quality expressed as dots per inch
  84. 84. 4B-103 Dots Per Inch
  85. 85. 4B-104 Commonly Used Printers • Laser printer – Non-impact printer – Produces high quality documents – Color or black and white – Print process • Laser draws text on page • Toner sticks to text • Toner melted to page – Speed measured in pages per minute – Quality expressed as dots per inch
  86. 86. 4B-105 Commonly Used Printers • All-in-one peripherals – Scanner, copier, printer and fax – Popular in home offices – Prices are very reasonable
  87. 87. 4B-106 Comparing Printers • Determine what you need • Determine what you can spend • Initial cost • Cost of operating • Image quality • Speed
  88. 88. 4B-107 High-Quality Printers • Special purpose printers – Used by a print shop – Output is professional grade – Prints to a variety of surfaces
  89. 89. 4B-108 High-Quality Printers • Photo printers – Produces film quality pictures – Prints very slow – Prints a variety of sizes
  90. 90. 4B-109 High-Quality Printers • Thermal wax printers – Produces bold color output – Color generated by melting wax – Colors do not bleed – Operation costs are low – Output is slow
  91. 91. 4B-110 High-Quality Printers • Dye sublimation printers – Produces realistic output – Very high quality – Color is produced by evaporating ink – Operation costs are high – Output is very slow
  92. 92. 4B-111 High-Quality Printers • Plotters – Large high quality blueprints – Older models draw with pens – Operational costs are low – Output is very slow
  93. 93. UNIT-4
  94. 94. INFORMATION SYSTEM • Information system is a way to collect, store and share data related to your business. This can be related to financial planning, purchasing, manufacturing, and finally sale. With the help of various programs such as SAP (System, Application, Products). • The role of information systems is very important for careers in accounting, finance, marketing management, and operations management. An information system helps each career in different ways to achieve one common company goal, which is to be profitable. New technologies in the information systems are helping businesses be more productive, cut operating costs, manage efficiently, and earn maximum profit. However, countries like, India, Japan, and China who have developed their information systems and have a large highly qualified work force that is much cheaper in labor costs are causing local businesses to outsource some part of their business and its functions to those countries.
  95. 95. • Sales and marking systems are helpful in indentifying customer base for your products that your company sales. The data related to demand helps market appropriate products to their respective markets. This helps achieving maximum sales and profit from the sales. Manufacturing and production system deals with planning, development, and production part of the product your company manufactures. This system also helps plan and maintain the flow of production to avoid over or under production to meet consumer demands on a consistent basis. Finance and accounting systems help keep track of funds and the use of funds related to manufacturing and sale of products produced. It also helps track the profits and losses. Human resource system helps maintaining employee personal and professional records, track their skill levels, job performance, and any required training to keep your staff up to date with the latest technology. This system is also used to employee compensation and their career development.
  96. 96. MIS (Management Information System) • Management information system is an integrated set of component or entities that interact to achieve a particular function, objective or goal. Therefore it is a computer based system that provides information for decisions making on planning, organizing and controlling the operation of the sub-system of the firm and provides a synergistic organization in the process. • The component of an information system includes: a hardware which is used for input/output process and storage of data, software used to process data and also to instruct the hand-ware component, data bases which is the location in the system where all the organization data will be automated and procedures which is a set of documents that explain the structure of that management information system. • There are various driving factors of management information system for example:-Technological revolutions in all sectors make modern managers to need to have access to large amount of selective information for the complex tasks and decisions.
  97. 97. • There are huge amount of information available to today’s manager and this had therefore meant that managers are increasingly relying on management information system to access the exploding information. Management information services helps manager to access relevant, accurate, up-to-date information which is the more sure way of making accurate decisions. It also helps in automation and incorporation of research and management science techniques into the overall management information system for example probability theory. • The management information services are capable of taking advantage of the computational ability of the company like processing, storage capacity among others. • Based on this relevancy, management information system should be installed and upgraded in various organizations since today’s managers need them to access information for managerial decision making and also management functions.
  98. 98. • The scope and purpose of MIS is better understood if each part of them is defined individually, • MANAGEMENT: Management has been define in process or activities that describe what managers do in the operation for their organization plan, organize, initiate and control operations. They plan by setting strategies and goals and selecting the best course of action to achieve the goals. They organize the necessary tasks for the operational plan, set these tasks up into homogenous groups and assign authority delegation; they control the performance standards and avoiding deviation from standard. • The decision-making is a fundamental prerequisite of each of the foregoing process, the job of MIS is facilitating decisions necessary for planning, organizing and controlling the work and functions of the business so that specified goals of business are achieved. • INFORMATION: Data must be distinguished from information and the distinction is clear and important for present purpose. Data are facts and figures that are not currently being used in a decision-making process and usually are taken from the historical records that are recorded and filled without immediate intent to retrieve for decision- making. • Information consists of data that have been retrieved, processed or otherwise used for information or interference purpose, argument or as a basis forecasting or decision- making regarding any business unit. Information is knowledge that one derives from facts for effective functioning of systems placed in the right context with the purpose of reducing uncertainty regarding the alternative courses of action as they are based on description and measurement of attributes of various entities associated with the enterprise. • SYSTEM: The system can be described as a set of elements joined together for a common objective. A subsystem is a part of a larger system with which one is concerned. All systems for our purpose the organization is the system and the parts (divisions, departments, functions, unit etc) are the subsystem.
  99. 99. • The system concept of MIS is, therefore one of optimizing the output of the organization by connecting the operating subsystems through the medium of information exchange. • The Management information system (MIS) is a concept of the last two decade or two. It has been understood and described in a number of ways. It is also known as the Information System, the Information and Decision System, the computer based Decision System. • Information is the life blood of an organization, particularly in the case of system approach management. The MIS or Information system can be define as the knowledge communicated by others or obtained from investigation or study. It is a system providing needed information to each manager at the right time in the right form and relevant one which aids understanding and stimulates the action. • MIS is an organized method of providing past, present and projection information relating to internal operations and externals intelligence. It supports the planning, control and operational functions of an organization by furnishing uniform information in proper time frame to help the process of decision-making. • Management Information System is generally defined as an integrated user-machine system for providing information to support operations, management and decision- making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computer hardware and software, manual procedure, models for analysis. Information is viewed as a resource much like land, labor and capital. It must be obtained processed, stored, manipulated and analyzed, distributed etc. An organization with a well-defined information system will generally have a competitive advantage over organization with poor MIS and no MIS.
  100. 100. BUSINESS TECH TRENDS FOR 2021 • Artificial intelligence • Artificial intelligence and machine learning have been hot tech topics for years. As these technologies are implemented into more solutions, small business owners will continue incorporating them into new and existing processes in 2021. That could mean a wide range of implementation scenarios, from voice assistants to personalized customer experiences. • Meredith Schmidt, executive vice president and general manager of small business and essentials at Salesforce, said that although artificial intelligence may sound like something only large enterprises use, it will start to become more widely adopted by small businesses. • "AI will help small businesses offer more personalized experiences to their customers by maximizing their time and automating manual tasks," Schmidt said. • Using tech solutions integrated with AI can help save businesses time. Salesforce found that 55% of small businesses cite insufficient time as a substantial challenge. As a result, AI is poised to make small business operations more efficient. • "If you are spending almost a quarter of your day on manual tasks, like inputting data, as our research showed, AI and automation can be a huge asset," Schmidt said.
  101. 101. • Proliferation of 5G • The adoption of 5G technology – the fifth generation of cellular capability, which boasts significantly faster data transmission speeds than the more widely supported 4G – began in 2019. According to cell phone manufacturer Huawei, 5G promises faster speeds than 4G LTE, with little or no latency (delay in data transfer). • This advancement is a major step in the development of the internet of things (IoT), as 5G networks are more capable of supporting the influx of interconnected smart devices. While there is a lot of hype surrounding 5G, however, it's still in its early stages.
  102. 102. • Comprehensive HR tech • One area that increased in importance in 2020 as a result of the coronavirus pandemic was the need for comprehensive human resources software and tech that will help small business owners keep track of their employees and their needs. Experts said they expect that trend to continue in 2021. • Rhiannon Staples, chief marketing officer of Hibob, said a lot of the focus on HR tech stems from the shift to remote work, though this technology is sure to continue to assist small businesses even in more normal times. • "The shift to remote work has changed businesses in terms of productivity, engagement, culture, two-way communication and employee development, and has highlighted the need for effective technology to help navigate these challenges," she said. "As such, centralized HR information systems have become mission critical." • By looking at HR tech as more than just a "system of record," Staples said, HR leaders are starting to understand that it can also help create a system of engagement. • "Many small businesses rely on Excel charts or antiquated HR systems to manage their people, but employees expect and deserve more, which is where centralized systems come into play," Staples said.
  103. 103. • Tech-assisted shopping • In response to lockdowns and other pandemic-related disruptions, major businesses have used mobile tech, online shopping and mobile scheduling to create a contactless shopping experience. • According to Staples, this high-tech approach to keeping people safe has spread to more than just curbside pickup, which has become a natural extension of existing tech such as mobile payments and terminals. • "Mobile payments used to be a nice-to-have that brought the convenience of avoiding long checkout lines to shoppers in crowded stores," she said. "But now, as a result of the pandemic, they're almost a baseline requirement for most retailers. Shopping and checking out with QR codes, and mobile terminals are now a daily occurrence in most retail locations." • With the vaccine not expected to reach critical mass in the U.S. until at least the spring, these tech-driven solutions will remain in 2021 and beyond. In fact, Staples said, people are becoming so used to this style of service that it wouldn't be surprising if it became the new norm. • "Many retailers are overhauling their in-store experiences to make them more reflective of our current - and probably future – reality," she said. "Even Walmart is overhauling 200 of their stores into airport-like experiences that emphasize convenience and touchless transactions."
  104. 104. • Remote onboarding • As populations continue to shrink in urban areas, more people will be seeking remote work. And as more businesses embrace this new model and the potential savings that can stem from it, they will have to rely on technology to handle remote onboarding processes. • Onboarding is an integral part of hiring new employees and getting them up to speed with their responsibilities and the company culture. Without the ability for people to connect in person, either because of the pandemic or their geographical location, companies will use software to do so, Staples said. • "Technology that ensures every step of the onboarding experience is planned and orchestrated professionally will help companies make sure their new team members feel welcome," she said, citing a Hibob study that found that a bad onboarding experience pushes nearly two-thirds of workers to seek a new job. • "Companies will invest more in technology that helps people understand the [organizational] charts of who's who in the company [and] familiarize themselves with the relevant connections they need to make outside of their immediate team and allows them to make connections with others with shared interests," Staples added.
  105. 105. • Software unification • In the modern workplace, more and more tech solutions are becoming popular for communication. Companies use Slack to connect teams, Outlook to send important documents, Salesforce to manage customers, Basecamp to plan projects and Google Drive to store company information, for example. • "Connecting software to work with other software is hard," said Roy Mann, CEO and co-founder of Monday.com. "There is going to be a breakthrough with integration platforms that will allow any software to connect well with any other software." • He predicts that in 2021, the connection will finally link multiple platforms and allow for seamless communication. For example, he said, customer information will change simultaneously across platforms if it's adjusted in just one, and this unification can save businesses time.
  106. 106. • Focus on cybersecurity • According to research from BullGuard, nearly 60% of small businesses think it's unlikely they will be targeted in a cyberattack. However, many small businesses have indeed been affected by cyberattacks and data breaches, so 2021 should be a year that small business owners start fighting back. • Jim Lippie, general manager of cloud computing for software company Kaseya, said small and midsize businesses (SMBs) should start viewing security through the lens of enterprise businesses. • "They will finally take security measures to heart," he said. "SMBs, like their large enterprise counterparts, will lock down on a comprehensive backup-and-disaster-recovery solution to keep protected, and also form new standardized blocking and tackling game plans to keep the business even more safe."
  107. 107. • Greater emphasis on automation • Automation has long been a buzzword in small business circles, but 2021 could be the year that it takes a seat at the head of the table. Omri Traub, CEO and founder of Popcart, believes business owners will spend 2021 seriously looking at automation as a way to save money and cover problem areas. • "With continued shortages of workers within select domains, automation investments will continue to increase," Traub said. "Examples for small business include online pricing automation to balance profitability and revenue growth, as well as inventory management systems to ensure the perfect amount of inventory is on hand." • Looking forward, Traub said he believes there will be a "new wave of companies" that will look to create these automated solutions. By providing that service, he said, numerous companies will leverage the cloud to help ensure that the push for more automation heats up.
  108. 108. • Influencer marketing • Social media influencers and personalized marketing are becoming viable avenues for connecting with customers and showcasing products. Gone are the days of driving sales through traditional print advertising. Now, a business must have a dynamic marketing strategy, and in 2021, that will mean working with influencers. • "Consumers want more authenticity in their advertisements, often in the form of a recommendation from someone they trust, like an influencer," said Alex Shvarts, chief technology officer and director of business development for FundKite. • Personalized marketing can help you connect with your customers and develop a niche within your industry. Working with influencers means understanding your business's needs and doing your research on who's influential within the industry.
  109. 109. • Social media advertising • Small businesses will continue to adopt social media advertising in 2021. While influencers are considered social media advertisers, social media advertising also encompasses other areas, like pay-per-click marketing. • "As more businesses start micro, social advertising will continue to grow as a cost-effective and efficient way to target specific audiences," said Matt Rosenberg, former communications manager for Wix.com and current senior manager of media relations at Weber Shandwick. "The ability to create unique and differentiating content that engages customers through social media channels is paramount in today's growing digital landscape."
  110. 110. Levels of Management Decision Making • Board or Owner Creates the Mission • All business and management activity follows from a company’s mission – its reason for being in business. A company’s board or owners create the mission and write a mission statement for the internal and external audiences. Success in accomplishing the mission could take many forms. The form chosen gives a company its vision, an ideal the business seeks to actualize. • A caterer, for instance, might envision becoming the first choice for jet-set soirees. Besides defining a lofty ambition and the existential question of mission, a company’s board or owners also articulate a company’s core values, those standards the business will never compromise. • Upper Management Needs a Strategic Plan • Upper management must translate the vast scope of mission and vision into concrete achievements over time. In other words, upper management needs a strategic plan. Decisions related to strategy involve company-wide matters enacted over the long term. The goals are what the company hopes to accomplish at least a year – more often five years – into the future. • Management then chooses a grand strategy, such as growth or diversification, to reach strategic goals. Of all management levels, upper managers spend the most time making decisions involving plans. They also have decision power over middle management. • Middle Management Accomplish Strategic Goals • Once upper management decides the overall direction of the company, it’s up to middle management to choose smaller tactical objectives that, put together, accomplish strategic goals. Middle managers create tactical plans, which have more detail than strategic plans. The tactics often are geared toward some function or department such as production, where a possible objective could involve some measurable efficiency or quality improvement. • Middle management’s choices and plans see fruition in a year or less. Managers in this tier oversee other middle managers or operational managers. • First-Line or Operational Management • Also called first-line management, operational management is the level directly responsible for employees. By choosing their own goals on a daily, weekly or monthly basis, first-line management accomplishes the objectives of middle management. The scope of operational management covers departments, sections or teams. • Inventory, scheduling and budgeting are examples of plans and decisions that operational managers adopt. Goals might include a certain number of sales for the day.
  111. 111. Managerial Challenges of information Technology • In 2020, the IT manager has moved into the center of business operations. Necessity is the mother of invention, and with the pandemic leading to mass remote working, IT managers have played an integral role in keeping us connected and safer using technology both new and old. • The days of the IT manager working from the side-lines is over. Whilst day to day service delivery is important, today’s IT manager must be proactive and should play a central role in realizing a business’s strategic potential while delivering its competitive advantage. • With new responsibility comes new challenges – here are the top ten those in charge face today: • 1. Evolving cyber-security threats • Almost 91 percent of enterprises globally have reported an increase in cyber-attacks following the move to remote working, according to a survey by VMware Carbon Black. In addition, 80 percent reported an increase in the sophistication of the attacks. If a threat is successful, the financial, reputational and operational risks cannot be overstated, and businesses can’t afford to take the threats lightly. • The vast and rapidly developing nature of cyber-security, coupled with a heavy day-to-day workload, means it can be difficult for IT Managers to keep up with all the latest threats. To address this challenge, they should consider deploying advanced technologies and solutions such as SIEM and MDR, to help automate breach detection and prevention where possible. • 2. Skills gap • The pace of innovation, the changing threat landscape and the recognition of tech’s key role in business is creating a significant gap in the skillset needed to manage modern IT. According to research by the UK government, two- thirds of organizations have reported a shortage of skilled staff with the ability to manage cyber threats. But without action, gaps grow, which means lower productivity, fewer sales, and a lack of innovation to name a few. • This lack of skilled professionals in areas like cyber-security can make building and retaining a full internal IT team prohibitively expensive. In this case, co-sourcing can help businesses access the specific skills and experience they need on a cost-effective, flexible basis. • When approaching the board to secure budget for training, IT Managers must ensure they speak in commercial terms. They need to clearly communicate and demonstrate the business benefits of additional training for technical employees or extra resources.
  112. 112. • 3. Cloud computing • The global cloud market grew by 33 percent in 2020’s third quarter, in large part as a result of the changing world of work. The benefits of flexibility and scalability are great, but IT managers must be involved in the decision-making process from the outset to prevent budget waste and poor decision making, particularly around configurations and licensing. • For those already operating in the cloud and considering new services, it’s essential to consider security across the spectrum. The best option would be a cross-platform, cloud- agnostic security solution which ensures complete enterprise security, regardless of location. • 4. Digital transformation • Digital transformation often bounces off senior leadership’s ears as a buzzword deemed too complex, vague, or expensive to commit to. However, gaining a competitive advantage in 2021 means that IT managers must focus their efforts in aligning IT projects to wider business and departmental strategies. The challenge for IT managers lies in driving forward the behavioural change so that digital transformation and change is the norm and aligned to all operations within a business. • 5. Outsourcing • Solutions can sometimes create new challenges. This is the case for businesses considering out- or co-sourcing work for skills not available internally. While this may be necessary to manage skills gaps, IT managers must manage the concerns around reliability, accountability, and security. • Going forward, managers must have a strict assessment process in place to control this important investment, while also seeking a real partnership with the outsourcing operations. The days of win-lose relationships are over, well, at least over for those seeking to really drive their operations and the wider business forward.
  113. 113. • 6. New technologies • New, shiny technology which catches the eye of board members might not always be the best solution to a real or perceived business problem or area of advantage. It’s all too easy to get swept up with thinking the business is missing out, but this is the type of spend that creates risk and leads to relationship breakdowns between IT and other departments. • Therefore, it’s crucial that IT managers advocate for a seat at the table and be the voice of reason when thinking about such investments. They must use their skills and expertise to address this challenge and guide the business towards effective investment, instead of impulse buys that do little to support longer-term strategies. • 7. Asset & data management • Advertisement • The more devices introduced into the workplace, the more monitoring, maintenance and security risks there are to control. This scaled dramatically through Covid as organizations moved to agile working en-masse. Information governance programs and mobile device management systems are crucial for managing assets and risk. • 8. Hiring & retaining talent • A skills shortage in IT creates fierce competition for attracting suitable candidates, which can make it particularly difficult for mid-sized businesses to retain their technical talent. It’s not just a higher salary which can tempt IT pros away, but workplace benefits like flexibility, the opportunity to upskill and more manageable workloads. • For in-demand areas, mid-market businesses will likely find it difficult to offer the work, environment and salary required to retain an expert with a niche skillset. Instead, consider what technical and strategic skills you really need to have in-house and which you could access via outsourcing or co-sourcing, for example. Remote working has made the market for this is more global than ever before.
  114. 114. • 9. Mobile device management (MDM) • The rise of homeworking has increased the use of personal and corporate devices, which can cause serious issues for IT managers. While deploying a BYOD Policy may be seen as a cost-saving measure, it can cause a wealth of security headaches. Malware intrusion, shadow IT, device loss or theft, data leakage and a lack of corporate visibility are just some the issues managers will have to contend because of them. • For a mobile-first workforce, which we’re increasingly likely to see, managers must ensure they have the solutions in place to see, manage and control these devices, and strong security policies – that staff are aware of – to back them up. • 10. Business intelligence • Data-driven decision making is invaluable and has the power to completely transform any operation. However, while businesses are generating more data than ever before, most of it is unstructured so it can’t add any real value. Turning it into gold is one of the greatest challenges facing IT pros right now and doing so can provide insight into every part of a business, from customers and operations, through to the wider marketplace. • The challenges faced by IT managers are complex but interconnected. Solutions such as co-sourcing can be applied to issues such as the skills shortage, and still this process creates fresh challenges. All said, what is fundamental to conquering potential IT hiccups in 2021 is that managers are given a voice at the decision- making table. If senior leaders want to unlock the transformative potential of tech during a transformative time, then it’s time to let the IT do the talking.
  115. 115. Overview of DBMS • Purpose of Database Systems • View of Data • Data Models • Data Definition Language • Data Manipulation Language • Transaction Management • Storage Management • Database Administrator • Database Users • Overall System Structure
  116. 116. Database Management System (DBMS) • Collection of interrelated data • Set of programs to access the data • DBMS contains information about a particular enterprise • DBMS provides an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use. • Database Applications: – Banking: all transactions – Airlines: reservations, schedules – Universities: registration, grades – Sales: customers, products, purchases – Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply chain – Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions • Databases touch all aspects of our lives
  117. 117. Purpose of Database System • In the early days, database applications were built on top of file systems • Drawbacks of using file systems to store data: – Data redundancy and inconsistency • Multiple file formats, duplication of information in different files – Difficulty in accessing data • Need to write a new program to carry out each new task – Data isolation — multiple files and formats – Integrity problems • Integrity constraints (e.g. account balance > 0) become part of program code • Hard to add new constraints or change existing ones
  118. 118. Purpose of Database Systems (Cont.) • Drawbacks of using file systems (cont.) – Atomicity of updates • Failures may leave database in an inconsistent state with partial updates carried out • E.g. transfer of funds from one account to another should either complete or not happen at all – Concurrent access by multiple users • Concurrent accessed needed for performance • Uncontrolled concurrent accesses can lead to inconsistencies – E.g. two people reading a balance and updating it at the same time – Security problems • Database systems offer solutions to all the above problems
  119. 119. Levels of Abstraction • Physical level describes how a record (e.g., customer) is stored. • Logical level: describes data stored in database, and the relationships among the data. type customer = record name : string; street : string; city : integer; end; • View level: application programs hide details of data types. Views can also hide information (e.g., salary) for security purposes.
  120. 120. View of Data An architecture for a database system
  121. 121. Instances and Schemas • Similar to types and variables in programming languages • Schema – the logical structure of the database – e.g., the database consists of information about a set of customers and accounts and the relationship between them) – Analogous to type information of a variable in a program – Physical schema: database design at the physical level – Logical schema: database design at the logical level • Instance – the actual content of the database at a particular point in time – Analogous to the value of a variable • Physical Data Independence – the ability to modify the physical schema without changing the logical schema – Applications depend on the logical schema – In general, the interfaces between the various levels and components should be well defined so that changes in some parts do not seriously influence others.
  122. 122. Data Models • A collection of tools for describing – data – data relationships – data semantics – data constraints • Entity-Relationship model • Relational model • Other models: – object-oriented model – semi-structured data models – Older models: network model and hierarchical model
  123. 123. Entity-Relationship Model Example of schema in the entity-relationship model
  124. 124. Entity Relationship Model (Cont.) • E-R model of real world – Entities (objects) • E.g. customers, accounts, bank branch – Relationships between entities • E.g. Account A-101 is held by customer Johnson • Relationship set depositor associates customers with accounts • Widely used for database design – Database design in E-R model usually converted to design in the relational model (coming up next) which is used for storage and processing
  125. 125. Relational Model • Example of tabular data in the relational model customer- name Customer- id customer- street customer- city account- number Johnson Smith Johnson Jones Smith 192-83-7465 019-28-3746 192-83-7465 321-12-3123 019-28-3746 Alma North Alma Main North Palo Alto Rye Palo Alto Harrison Rye A-101 A-215 A-201 A-217 A-201 Attributes
  126. 126. A Sample Relational Database
  127. 127. Data Definition Language (DDL) • Specification notation for defining the database schema – E.g. create table account ( account-number char(10), balance integer) • DDL compiler generates a set of tables stored in a data dictionary • Data dictionary contains metadata (i.e., data about data) – database schema – Data storage and definition language • language in which the storage structure and access methods used by the database system are specified • Usually an extension of the data definition language
  128. 128. Data Manipulation Language (DML) • Language for accessing and manipulating the data organized by the appropriate data model – DML also known as query language • Two classes of languages – Procedural – user specifies what data is required and how to get those data – Nonprocedural – user specifies what data is required without specifying how to get those data • SQL is the most widely used query language
  129. 129. SQL • SQL: widely used non-procedural language – E.g. find the name of the customer with customer-id 192-83-7465 select customer.customer-name from customer where customer.customer-id = ‘192-83-7465’ – E.g. find the balances of all accounts held by the customer with customer-id 192-83-7465 select account.balance from depositor, account where depositor.customer-id = ‘192-83-7465’ and depositor.account-number = account.account-number • Application programs generally access databases through one of – Language extensions to allow embedded SQL – Application program interface (e.g. ODBC/JDBC) which allow SQL queries to be sent to a database
  130. 130. Database Users • Users are differentiated by the way they expect to interact with the system • Application programmers – interact with system through DML calls • Sophisticated users – form requests in a database query language • Specialized users – write specialized database applications that do not fit into the traditional data processing framework • Naïve users – invoke one of the permanent application programs that have been written previously – E.g. people accessing database over the web, bank tellers, clerical staff
  131. 131. Database Administrator • Coordinates all the activities of the database system; the database administrator has a good understanding of the enterprise’s information resources and needs. • Database administrator's duties include: – Schema definition – Storage structure and access method definition – Schema and physical organization modification – Granting user authority to access the database – Specifying integrity constraints – Acting as liaison with users – Monitoring performance and responding to changes in requirements
  132. 132. Transaction Management • A transaction is a collection of operations that performs a single logical function in a database application • Transaction-management component ensures that the database remains in a consistent (correct) state despite system failures (e.g., power failures and operating system crashes) and transaction failures. • Concurrency-control manager controls the interaction among the concurrent transactions, to ensure the consistency of the database.
  133. 133. Storage Management • Storage manager is a program module that provides the interface between the low-level data stored in the database and the application programs and queries submitted to the system. • The storage manager is responsible to the following tasks: – interaction with the file manager – efficient storing, retrieving and updating of data
  134. 134. Overall System Structure
  135. 135. Application Architectures Two-tier architecture: E.g. client programs using ODBC/JDBC to communicate with a database Three-tier architecture: E.g. web-based applications, and applications built using “middleware”