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Open Access 101

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Webinar presentation made during Open Access week 2014

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Open Access 101

  1. 1. Unless otherwise indicated this work is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  2. 2. Open Access 101 Anna Daniel Open Access Week, October 2014 Image: gulia.forsythe https://flic.kr/p/egx8fA CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  3. 3. Agenda • Rationale for OA • Definitions • Open licences • Green, gold and hybrid open access publishing models • Journal articles: how to determine what you can make openly available • Summary of key points
  4. 4. Why go OA? Image modified from: Kingsley, D and Brown, S. 2013 Benefits of Open Access http://media-cache-ec0.pinimg.com/736x/c2/56/4a/c2564a4ab3b1f1bba268add77b0624b0.jpg CC BY = ARC measures of research performance ARC, NHMRC etc. Some funders overseas penalise grantees who do not open access to results. Use of OER in courses complies with Federal requirements for HECs funded students $ Reputation effect of being published in prestigious OA journals with prestigious editors. Attracts prestigious people to you! Because a third of Australia’s universities are doing it! Increased peer review and feedback, transparency and accountability = stronger research credibility Researchers in any country can reuse your work, anytime with attribution to you
  5. 5. Open access policies ANU, Bond, Charles Sturt, Deakin, Edith Cowan, James Cook, Macquarie, QUT, Newcastle, Queensland, South Australia, Wollongong and Victoria Universities CAUL Statement on Open Scholarship Federal State Universities OA Policies Declaration of Open Government 2010 Open Government Partnership Action Plan 2014 Publishing Public Sector Information (Finance) 2011 Coalition’s Plan for e-Government 2013 Australian Chief Scientist, ARC, NHMRC Government data – ‘an extraordinary national asset at our fingertips’ – should be published as a routine government function, and open access should be the default position’. Malcolm Turnbull 2014.1 …aka openness is now unavoidable 1. Keynote speech to the AIIA ‘Navigating Analytics Summit’: www.minister.communications.gov.au/malcolm_turnbull/speeches/aiia_speech_navigating_analytics_summit2 ACT: Open Data Policy; Open Government in the ACT NSW: Open Government; Open Data Policy Qld: Qld Universities Open Data Strategy SA: Open Data Declaration Vic: DataVic Access Policy
  6. 6. There are three elements of openness: 1. Accessible – available online to anyone, anywhere, anytime at zero cost 2. Technical – in a format that allows downloads and reuse 3. Legal – with a license that protects copyright and gives permission to anyone to reuse it 1. Definitions from AOASG and SHERPA RoMEO <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/guidance/authors.html#whatoa> What is open access (OA)? Open access is making research results freely available to anyone with an internet connection
  7. 7. Open Educational Resources (OER) Educational resources that are openly licenced for reuse by anyone, anywhere, anytime. Any resource can be made open: creative and scholarly works, research data and code, educational resources, and some corporate data. Open Access Repositories Open Access repositories can hold digital versions of published works (articles, media, books, code etc.) and make them freely available. Most universities have open access repositories, and there’s 2,700+ open access repositories worldwide with over 64 million works1. Open Access Journals A way of providing Open Access is to publish in an Open Access Journal. These journals are available $free$ to anyone, anywhere, anytime. About 65% are free to publish in2, but others require payment to publish (to be discussed) There’s 10,000+ peer reviewed OA journals worldwide containing 1,734,051 articles3. There’s 120+ Australian OA journals. 1. http://www.opendoar.org/find.php 2. July 2013 in http://aoasg.org.au/open-access-journals-in-australia/ 3. http://doaj.org/ icons from thenounproject.com
  8. 8. What open access isn’t Does not exclude peer review OA works are not poor quality or 2nd rate OA is not a convoluted, complicated and confusing process OA does not increase plagiarism Banksy Follow your dreams’ image: Chris Devers ‘https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdevers/4602805654/ CC BY-NC-ND
  9. 9. All open licences are not the same BY = Attribution Credit the author NC = NonCommercial use Seek permission for commercial use SA = Sharealike Any reuse must apply same ‘SA’ open licence ND = No Derivatives No remixing of the work. Seek permission to remix it Text, images, code, multimedia Software GNU GPL General Public Licence or BSD 3-Clause Software Licence Berkeley Software Distribution Data CC0 = Public Domain Dedication or Public Domain Mark* Or CC BY in Australia * not licences
  10. 10. deposit an open access copy of the published work in a repository or publish in a journal that is available at zero cost to the public 1. http://www.opendoar.org/find.php 2. http://aoasg.org.au/open-access-journals-in-australia/ 3. http://doaj.org/ icons from thenounproject.com How to open access
  11. 11. 1. http://www.opendoar.org/find.php 2. http://aoasg.org.au/open-access-journals-in-australia/ 3. http://doaj.org/ icons from thenounproject.com GREEN GOLD How to open access deposit an open access copy of the published work in a repository or publish in a journal that is available at zero cost to the public
  12. 12. Green open access 1. Publish ‘anywhere’* through traditional process (peer review etc.) 2. and deposit a version of the published paper in an open institutional repository (or in a repository openly). * can publish anywhere, paywalled or open access journal. If publishing in a free open access journal, simply link to the published version in your repository entry.
  13. 13. Green open access Modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Retain licence to deposit in open archive Published articles behind $paywalls$ in Australian legal jurisdiction Embargo….. Author deposits a version of the paper in an open access repository Public access to the version in the repository, linked by Google Scholar ………………
  14. 14. Green open access Modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Retain licence to deposit in open archive Published articles behind $paywalls$ in Australian legal jurisdiction Embargo….. Author deposits a version of the paper in an open access repository Public access to the version in the repository, linked by Google Scholar ………………
  15. 15. Gold open access Image: modified from Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to Open Access journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication
  16. 16. Gold open access Image modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to Open Access journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication
  17. 17. Gold open access Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to Open Access journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. May retain rights Image modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0
  18. 18. Gold open access Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to Open Access journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. May retain rights Author $pays$ APC Image modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0
  19. 19. What’s an APC? Article processing charge, or upfront payment for costs of publication incl.: editorial (manuscript handling), technical support (journal platform and manuscript handling systems); production (copy editing (although this may be provided for free by peers?), formatting, marking up and indexing; marketing; profit; customer service (permissions management, responding to reader questions); and may also carry the cost of print infrastructure, paywalls, authentication systems, bespoke complex licence creation costs, litigation, PR and lobbying, world travel, expensive dinners … Image: Superior Ace Printing Press by sanickles https://www.flickr.com/photos/9137715@N05/2047070491/ CC BY-NC-ND
  20. 20. In 2013, 35% of open access journals were gold open access. 65% of open access journals require no APC, they’re free to publish in Source: http://aoasg.org.au/open-access-journals-in-australia/
  21. 21. Gold open access Image: modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 1. http://aoasg.org.au/open-access-journals-in-australia/ Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to Open Access journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. May retain rights Author $pays$ APC Public reuse Openly licenced
  22. 22. Hybrid (type of gold) open access Image modified from : Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/ CC BY 4.0 Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Rarely retain rights
  23. 23. Hybrid (type of gold) open access Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Rarely retain rights Image modified from : Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/ CC BY 4.0
  24. 24. Hybrid (type of gold) open access Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Rarely retain rights Author $pays$ APC Image modified from : Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/ CC BY 4.0
  25. 25. Hybrid (type of gold) open access Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Rarely retain rights Author $pays$ APC Public reuse Openly licenced Image modified from : Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/ CC BY 4.0
  26. 26. Hybrid (type of gold) open access Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Rarely retain rights Author $pays$ APC Public reuse Openly licenced Image modified from : Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/ CC BY 4.0
  27. 27. General differences at a glance Traditional Green Gold Hybrid Copyright ownership Journal Author/Uni Depends Depends Peer Review Yes Yes Yes Yes Findability Paywalled Open Open Unclear Reuse Paywalled Anyone, anywhere, anytime Anyone, anywhere, anytime Anyone, anywhere, anytime (but perhaps not marked as such, it’s complex) Embargo No Potentially No Unclear Google Scholar? ? Yes Yes ? Financial Cost $0 $0 $$ $$$ + $$$ Public benefit Slow, low Highest High Not as high (muddy)
  28. 28. Progress check Image excerpt from: gulia.forsythe ‘Occupy OpenEd11’ https://www.flickr.com/photos/gforsythe/6283629230/ CC BY-NC-SA
  29. 29. Type SHERPA RoMEO into your search engine
  30. 30. Type SHERPA RoMEO into your search engine
  31. 31. SHERPA RoMEO search <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/>
  32. 32. SHERPA RoMEO search result <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/>
  33. 33. SHERPA RoMEO search <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/>
  34. 34. SHERPA RoMEO search result
  35. 35. SHERPA RoMEO search <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/>
  36. 36. SHERPA RoMEO search result <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/>
  37. 37. SHERPA RoMEO search <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/>
  38. 38. SHERPA RoMEO search result <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/>
  39. 39. Article versions Published version 1 Postprint Preprint 1. used under s40 of Copyright Act 1968
  40. 40. Article versions Published version (Publisher PDF) The version ‘as published’ in the journal (sometimes called the ‘publisher’s PDF’). This version generally includes value added by the publisher, such as hyperlinked references, typesetting (into columns) and pagination. Only a small proportion of all publishers will allow this version to be made open access, even after an embargo. Postprint (Accepted version) The final version of an academic article or other publication - after it has been peer-reviewed and revised into its final form by the author. As a general term this covers both the author's final version and the version as published, with formatting and copy-editing changes in place. It has the SAME content as the published version. Preprint (Submitted version) In the context of Open Access, a preprint is a draft of an academic article or other publication before it has been submitted for peer-review or other quality assurance procedure as part of the publication process. Preprints cover initial and successive drafts of articles, working papers or draft conference papers. Sources: SHERPA RoMEO and AOASG
  41. 41. Article versions Published version (Publisher PDF) The version ‘as published’ in the journal (sometimes called the ‘publisher’s PDF’). This version generally includes value added by the publisher, such as hyperlinked references, typesetting (into columns) and pagination. Only a small proportion of all publishers will allow this version to be made open access, even after an embargo. Postprint (Accepted version) The final version of an academic article or other publication - after it has been peer-reviewed and revised into its final form by the author. As a general term this covers both the author's final version and the version as published, with formatting and copy-editing changes in place. It has the SAME content as the published version. Preprint (Submitted version) In the context of Open Access, a preprint is a draft of an academic article or other publication before it has been submitted for peer-review or other quality assurance procedure as part of the publication process. Preprints cover initial and successive drafts of articles, working papers or draft conference papers. Sources: SHERPA RoMEO and AOASG
  42. 42. Q: What’s the difference between the Accepted version and Publisher version?
  43. 43. Q: What’s the difference between the Accepted version and Publisher version? A: • Accepted version is the postprint • Postprint is formatted simply and this enables easier reuse • Content is exactly the same as published version • Published version has publisher formatting • Different DOIs • Published version may be what citation metrics measure
  44. 44. Q: A publisher says they allow preprints to be archived, but SHERPA RoMEO claim they allow postprints, why is the SHERPA RoMEO entry wrong? Source: SHERPA RoMEO FAQs <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/faq.php>
  45. 45. Q: A publisher says they allow preprints to be archived, but SHERPA RoMEO claim they allow postprints, why is the SHERPA RoMEO entry wrong? A: Publishers may use the term preprint to define all forms of the article prior to print publication. SHERPA follows an academic practice of defining preprints as a draft of an academic article or other publication before it has been submitted for peer-review or other quality assurance procedure as part of the publication process. Preprints cover initial and successive drafts. Note again that SHERPA RoMEO focusses only on journals. Source: SHERPA RoMEO FAQs <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/faq.php>
  46. 46. Questions on the different versions? Published version 1 Postprint Preprint 1. used under s40 of Copyright Act 1968
  47. 47. 1. Simply put a version of your research outputs in an open access repository 2. Try to retain copyright when you sign publishing agreements, and minimise embargoes – difficult but necessary 3. Consider using OA journals/OER in your research and teaching – it simplifies the process if your work because they have fewer use restrictions 4. Familiarise yourself with the CC licences 5. Include introductions to open access in inductions and orientations 1. Don’t get distracted – many problems of OA are problems of publishing in general and not specific to OA 2. Avoid confusing open access licences: if you don’t understand it, don’t sign it 3. Don’t overthink it – done well it’s a simple process. How to go OA - tips
  48. 48. Information and support AOASG – www.aoasg.org.au and the email list Creative Commons licences: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ / Uni Copyright Officer SHERPA http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/ includes: RoMEO - Publisher's copyright & archiving policies JULIET - Research funders archiving mandates and guidelines DOAR: Directory of Open Access Repositories Open access journals: http://doaj.org/ Open access books: http://www.doabooks.org/ Open academic works: http://www.opendoar.org/search.php or Google Scholar OER Commons: https://www.oercommons.org/ OER Consortium: http://oerconsortium.org/
  49. 49. Upcoming AOASG webinars Funder OA policies & requirements: Wed 22 Oct 12:30pm AEDT Understanding publisher agreements: Wed 22 OCT 2:30pm AEDT The changing publishing landscape: Thurs 23 Oct 12:30pm AEDT Register at http://aoasg.org.au/aoasg-webinars-2014/
  50. 50. AOASG member institutions • Australian National University • Charles Sturt University • Curtin University • Griffith University • Macquarie University • University of Newcastle • Queensland University of Technology • University of Western Australia • Victoria University The Patron of the AOASG is Emeritus Professor Tom Cochrane, Faculty of Law at QUT. aoasg.org.au
  51. 51. Questions? Image: TimothyJ https://flic.kr/p/6gYcL CC BY 2.0
  52. 52. Following slides are parked and will be removed before the presentation
  53. 53. The publishing landscape in +10 years? Aidan Byrne - CEO ARC believes the dominant future structure will be green. University University University PublisherGreen Gold (incl. vanity pubs) Green Crowd sourced works THE WEB Byrne, A. 2013. Opening Address, Open Access and Research Conference, QUT, Brisbane, 30 October
  54. 54. PLOS fee types http://www.plos.org/publications/publication-fees/open-access-funds/
  55. 55. Traditional publishing Modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Lose their copyright Libraries $purchase$ or public $pays$ $Readers$ may only read or print article – no text mining etc.………………. Articles behind $paywalls$ in Australian legal jurisdiction
  56. 56. Traditional publishing Modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Lose their copyright Libraries $purchase$ or public $pays$ $Readers$ may only read or print article – no text mining etc.………………. Articles behind $paywalls$ in Australian legal jurisdiction
  57. 57. Traditional publishing Modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 ………………. Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Lose their copyright Libraries $purchase$ or public $pays$ $Readers$ may only read or print article – no text mining etc.………………. Articles behind $paywalls$ in Australian legal jurisdiction
  58. 58. Traditional publishing Modified from: Callan, P. & Brown, S. QUT 2014 http://aoasg.org.au/what-is-open-access/ CC BY 4.0 ………………. Public funded research results are written up Manuscript sent to subscription journals for peer review Manuscript accepted for publication Authors sign publishing contract. Lose their copyright Libraries $purchase$ or public $pays$ $Readers$ may only read or print article – no text mining etc.………………. Articles behind $paywalls$ in Australian legal jurisdiction
  59. 59. OA Publishing models GREEN GOLD Fully OA Journal + link from institutional repository Hybrid OA option+ link from institutional repository Traditional subscription publisher + full version in institutional repository $0 cost Open Access Journal + link from institutional repository

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