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• Was introduced by Piaget (1981) AND
• They gave stress to knowledge
discovery of new meaning/
concepts/principles in the learning
While knowledge is constructed by the individual
learner in constructivism, knowledge can also be
• It is an effort to show that the construction
of knowledge is governed by social, historical
and cultural contexts.
• The Psychologist Vygotsky stressed that
learning is affected by social influences.
• Dewey sees language as a medium for social
coordination and adaptation.
– Human learning is really human languaging that
occurs when students socially share, build and
agree upon meanings and knowledge.
The Computer’s Capability
Given its present-day, speed, flexibility
and sophistication, the computer can
provide access to information, foster creative
social knowledge-building, and enhance the
communication of the achieved project
The teacher can employ the computer
• An information tool
• A communication tool
• A constructive tool
• As co-constructive tool
• A situating tool
• The computer can provide vast amount of
information in various forms, such as text,
graphics, sound and video. Even
multimedia encyclopedias are today
available on the internet.
• Given the fact that the internet can serve
as a channel for global communication,
the computer can very well be the key tool
for video teleconferencing session.
• The computer itself can be used for
manipulating information, visualizing one’s
understanding, and building new
• Students can use co-constructive tools to
work cooperatively and construct a shared
understanding of knowledge. One way of
co-construction is the use of the electronic
whiteboard where students may also co-
edit the same document from their homes.
• By means of virtual reality (RS) extension
systems, the computer can create 3D
images on display to give the user the
feeling that are situated in a virtual
• A flight situation program is an example of
a situating tool which places the user in a
simulated flying environment.
IT in Support of Student-Centered
The traditional classroom
• Usually arranged with neat columns and rows
of student chairs
• The teacher stands in front of the classroom
or sit behind his/her desk
The SCL classrooms
• Schools in the developed countries desire
to gain effective, efficient and economic
administration and instruction have
adopted the use of ICT.
• The students have now become active
learner rather than passive learners
• Learners can interact with other learners,
demonstrate independence and self-aware
in their learning process.
The new school classroom environment is
characterized by student individually or in
• Performing computer word processing for text
and graphs presentation
• Preparing power point presentation
• Searching for information on the Internet
• Brainstorming on ideas, problems and project
plans as needed.
• Also called as NET
• It is the largest and far-flung network system-
• It is not really a network but a loosely
organized collection of about 25,000 networks
accessed by computers on the planet.
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
• Standardized protocol (set of rules for
• a computer or computer program that manages access
to a centralized resource or service in a network.
• Originally developed and still subsidized by the United
• Connects not only commercial, industrial, scientific
establishments but all other sectors including
education and its libraries, campuses and computer