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# Division of logic

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# Division of logic

THE THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

THE THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

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### Division of logic

1. 1. THE DIVISIONS OF LOGIC From out from the historical development of logic, we can say that Logic may be devided into main divisions-the Traditional Logic and the Symbolic Logic. Traditional Logic is the first known method in order to attain a certain demostrated knowledge. this is also to be called the Aristotelian logic as this is the logic that is invented by Aristotle. It uses syllogistic method, hich is typically deductive because it reasons out from universal into particular or less universal idea.
2. 2. This kind of argument is parallel to the kind of reasoning and attitude Euclidean Geometry, which is precise and seemingly absolute. Aristotelian argumentation makes use of syllogism as a primary instrument for the establishment of a new true contention. For instance, A1 All Filipinos are respectable individuals. But the Badjaos are Filipinos. Therefore, the Badjaos are respectable individuals.
3. 3. Symbolic Logic is also known as mathematical logic, which may also be deductive in its approach. However, unlike the traditional logic, symbolic logic uses symbols in the analysis of the arguments in order to easily determine the validity of such given arguments. Going back to the discussion on the aristotelian or the traditional logic, let us have these arguments. A2 All orchids are flowers; But waling-walingis an orchid. Ergo, waling-waling is a flower.
4. 4. A3 Love is blind But god is love Therefore, God is blind. We can notice from these two arguments (A2 and A3) that they share common scheme, form, or structure. In A2, the conclusion “waling-waling is an orchid” has an internal and an exteranal consistency with the premises. How ever, in the second argument (A3), the conclusion “ God is blind” does not follow necessarily from premises although this argument (A3 may have the same structure as the other argument (A2).
5. 5. The error in A3 lies on the fact that there is something wrong with the meaning of the terms used in the premises of A3, particularly the term “love”. From the given examples,it becomes reasonable to devide logic into two:the formal logic and the material logic. Formal logic is that division of Aristotelian logic Aristotelian logic which concerned it self with the rules governing the structure and the validity f argument forms or patterns.
6. 6. On the other hand, material logic is concerned with the meaning and truth of the concept and sentences, which comprise a syllogism. To simplify this idea, formal logic is concerned with the aspect of form or structure, which has something to do with the correctness of sequence or the following of rules.
7. 7. In this case, if we say A4 All human being are God's creature and Juan de la Cruz is a human being; it follows that Juan de la Cruz is God's creature, this argument (A4) is considered to be valid as it follows a sequence.
8. 8. Nevertheless, if we say, A5 All Filipinos are God-fearers. But Jose Rizal is Filipino Ergo, Apolinario Mabini is a God-fearer, This argument (A5) does not follow the rules of logical reasoning because it has no sequence. For this reason, this argument will be considered illogical.
9. 9. As mentioned earlier, material logic is concerned with the aspect of subject matter, content, or truth. If we are going to look at the example in A4, we can say that this argument is true only insofar as Juan de la Cruz is taken here as puppet, and we are actually referring to the puppet which we named Juan de la Cruz, then A4 can be considered invalid due to the error in meaning.
10. 10. Eventually, the discussion on formal logic should be related to the three orders of rational operation, which are also known as the three acts of the mind: 1. Simple apprehension, i.e., the grasping of an object or an essence of a thing without affirming or denying something about it. 2. Judgement,i.e., affirming or denying something of s omething else. 3. Reasoning,i.e., the act of proceeding to new knowledge from a previous knowledge.
11. 11. These three acts of the mind suggest a natural threefold division of formal logic into: • 1. THE TERM OR CONCEPTS • 2. PROPOSITIONS • 3. ARGUMENTS
12. 12. THE THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE • 1. INFORMATIVE • LANGUAGE IS BEING INFORMATIVELY WHEN IT IS USED TO COMMUNICATE INFORMATION. INFORMATION LANGUAGE IS USED TO EXPRESS A TRUTH CLAIM..i..e.. TO CLAIM THAT WHAT IS ASSERTED IS TRUE.
13. 13. 1. INFORMATIVE • EXAMPLE: • THE ONLY PURPOSE FOR WHICH POWER CAN BE RIGHTFULLY EXERCISED OVER ANY NUMBER OF A CIVILIZED COMMUNITY, AGAINST HIS WILL, IS TO PREVENT HARM TO OTHERS. HIS OWN GOOD, EITHER PHYSICAL OR MORAL, IS NOT A SUFFICIENT WARRANT. • JOHN STUART MILL • ON LIBERTY (1859)
14. 14. 2.EXPRESSIVE FUNCTIONS • LANGUAGE HERE IS USED IN ORDER TO EXPRESS CERTAIN EMOTIONS THAT THE POET FELT VERY KEENLY AND EVOKE SIMILAR FEELINGS IN THE READER OR IN LISTENER. • LANGUAGE SERVES THE EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION WHENEVER IT IS USED TO VENT OR TO AROUSE FEELINGS OR EMOTIONS.
15. 15. 2.EXPRESSIVE FUNCTIONS EXAMPLE: “YESTERDAY I WAS A SINGING BIRD, SOARING FREELY HERE AND THERE IN FIELDS. TODAY I AM SLAVE, TO FICKLE WEALTH, SOCIETY;S RULES, THE CITY'S CUSTOMS, AND PURCHASED FRIENDS, PLEASING THE PEOPLE BE CONFORMING TO THE STRANGE AND NARROW LAWS OF MEN. -KAHLIL GIBRAN TEARS AND LAUGTHER
16. 16. 3. DIRECTIVE FUNCTIONS  WHEN IT IS INTENDED TO CAUSE OR TO PREVENT ACTIONS.  IT MAY SEEN IN THE ISSUING OF COMMANDS, REQUESTS, INSTRUCTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS.
17. 17. 3. DIRECTIVE FUNCTIONS EXAMPLE: “ AM YOURSELVES OF NOBLE HEARTS. ARM YOURSELVES. DRIVE AWAY THE PATIENT TOLERATION OF SUFFERINGS. “ - EMILIO JACINTO PAHAYAG (1897)