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OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (OSHA)
SEMESTER II (2014/2015)
LIGHT AND VISION
NAME UK NUMBER
CHEAH HUA TONG UK 29537
FATIN SAMIRA BT MOHD KHALID UK 29546
NOR FADHILAH BT MOHD ZUKI UK 29933
KHAIRUNNISA BT ABDUL KHALIL UK 30047
NUR AKLEMA BT SA’AID UK 30052
All activities of human life depends on the light
that exists in their environment .
According to Statistics Annual Report Perkeso 2003,
7,940 number of treachery cases due to the eyes ,
ears , mouth and nose.
Level of comfort and worker satisfaction depends
on the quality of ventilation, lighting , acoustics
and other aspects of the environment of the
workstation ( Tarcan et al . , 2004)
LIGHT AND VISION
Light affects humans in at least two ways:
It enables us to see
It regulates our bodies' rhythms such as the sleep/wake
Different types and levels of light can affect a person's ability
To see clearly,
Identify people and objectsdrive safely. It can also
increase sleep efficiency of older adults and reduce
symptoms of seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, felt by
many people during winter months. 3
Light is the power source from sun, lamp and other
else which allows an object can be seen.
Light have vary of wavelength in visible spectrum
which is about 380µm to 780µm.
Normal human eye can receive wavelength of visible
spectrum light around 400µm to 700µm.
Lighting is an essential provision for any workplace. 4
It is preferable to provide uniform illumination
over the entire workplace by combining both
natural and artificial lighting.
Light that illuminates the work area is caused by
the electric light.
A comfortable lighting level is needed in jobs that
require precise vision and focus.
Good lighting helps us to see and to recognize
It can reduce visual strain and discomfort.
Poor lighting may affect workers performance
and health as poor visibility increases the chances
of errors being made.
TYPES OF LIGHTING
General lighting provides fairly
uniform lighting. An example would
be ceiling fixtures that light up large
Localized-general lighting uses
overhead fixtures in addition to
ceiling fixtures to increase lighting
levels for particular tasks.
GENERAL LOCALIZED - GENERAL
Local (or task) lighting increases light levels
over the work and immediate surroundings.
Local lighting often allows the user to adjust
and control lighting and provides flexibility
for each user.
LOCAL (OR TASK)
TYPES OF LIGHT EXPOSURE
The exposure that was received at work place due to
the unresponsible situation of the operation
Exposure towards radon and types of works that
related to the prevention of radionuclide material in
the small quantity is not consider as working
exposure unless been stated by the authorities.
This exposure is reserved for those that
undergoes diagnosis and medical treatment
and those who in the context of assisting
patients that undergoes diagnosis and
Parents are always advised to hold and
handle their children while doing x-ray.
Else than included in the medical and working
In light protection management, only working
protection and exposure is take into concern.
The harm from the medical exposure must be
ensured by the medical practioner and the
patients must not receive and limits the light
exposure not more than yearly dosage. 12
Design of lighting system
This factor affect the spread of light throughout the
space. A good design can avoid the corner or space that
The distribution of light that is not uniform into the room
will raises the dark corner and space.
The reflection of light is depends on the
color and finishing.
The wide area is more efficient in utilize the
lighting than the small area.
SIGNS OF POOR LIGHTING
Difficulty seeing document or screen (too much light or glare, or too
little light or shadows)
Dry burning eyes, and
Computer Vision Syndrome 15
LIGHTING EFFECTS ON
The blue component of electromagnetic spectrum can
harm the retina but this is only caused by accidental
exposure to sunlight or to very high intensity artificial
lights so it is rare.
Exposure to light at night while awake, such as in shift
work, or light in late evening or early morning may be
associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and
also cause sleep, gastrointestinal, mood and
Light itself has an effect on alertness, sleep, mood and
the circadian rhythms regardless of the type of lamp
LIGHT PROTECTION SYSTEM
Consist of two light protection. These systems
is divided based on the working condition.
The two systems are :
Suggested practice and currently on going
This light protection system is applied on normal
working condition .
In this working condition, light protection system
principle consider all the works should be put in this
Comply with individual dosage limit and risk dosage.
SUGGESTED AND ON GOING PRACTICE
Is the action that is taken in exceptional circumstances
such accidents and emergency.
Intervention must give a better results than without the
For the application of justification, intervention made
based on the disaster and cost of intervention.
Shape, scale, duration of intervention should be
optimum, so the profit from dose reduction can be
LIGHT PROTECTION OBJECTIVES
Protect human and its surrounding from
unwanted light exposure and received the
benefits of light.
Prevent side effects of no stochastic and limits
the stochastic effects from the light exposure
LIGHT PROTECTION PRINCIPLE
Light protection principle system emphasize on
prevention and light hazard control with :
Get rid of or minimize mengion light risk
Ability to interpret information from the optical
light to the eyes.
Many parts of physiological involve in vision is
referred collectively as the visual system.
Studies have found that majority individuals who
work at a computer experience eye-related
discomfort and /or visual problems.
FACTORS OF AFFECTING VISION
Small object need more concentration by eye
than the large object.
Duration of observation
The longer the time is taken to focus an
object, the more better the vision to focus.
Age of worker
Aged workers have limited visibility in
Color brightness because of the reflection of light
State of worker vision
Poor computer design
Highly demanding visual task 24
GOOD VISUAL ENVIRONMENT
Have sufficient light, coming from the right
direction and not cause obscuring shadows
Provide good (but not excessive) contrast
between the task and the background
Limit glare and extreme contrasts
Provide the right type of light.
NON-VISUAL EFFECTS OF POOR
When people are exposed to glare or have
uncorrected vision problems, they tend to lean
forward or backward in an attempt to compensate.
An awkward body position leads to eye strain and
accelerates postural fatigue
In turn, it contributes to musculoskeletal injuries
Musculoskeletal injury (MSI) is an injury or
disorder of the muscles, tendons, ligaments,
joints, nerves, blood vessels or related soft
tissue including a sprain, strain and
inflammation, that may be caused or
aggravated by work.
PREVENTION TO EYESIGHT
Most jobs now a days were carried out using a computer
cause the user receive light and excessive glare from the
screen monitor. As prevention:
Make sure there are plenty of light brighten the office
without many shadows on desk
Reduce brightness level of screen monitor
Put the finishing on the office window as wood blinds
or vertical blinds if there be sunlight that directly into
Use the protection goggle when doing a job that involve of
lighting (eg. Welding)
ACT RELATED TO LIGHTING
Laws of Malaysia, Factories and Machinery Act 1967
Part II (Safety, Health and Welfare), Section 22
(provisions relating to health), Subsection 1 (e)
An effective provision shall be made for securing
and maintaining sufficient and suitable lighting,
whether in natural or artificial, to every part of
factory which where the person are working or
Part II (Safety, Health and Welfare), Section 22
(provisions relating to health), Subsection 1 (e) (ii).
The minister may prescribe a standard that adequate
and suitable lighting for factory or for any class or
description of factory or its part or any process;
MALAYSIAN STANDARD FOR
LIGHTING IN WORK PLACE
Guidelines on Safety and Occupational Health in
Office 1996 (DOSH)
The background lighting for the office is 200
Routine place of daily office work is 100 lux
Work place with reading space and bad
eyesight is 600 lux
Lighting is one of most significant
environmental factors that affect the
visibility of workers and quality of work
at the workplace.
Therefore, it is important for
organizations to ensure appropriate
environment with individuals who will
perform the task. 32
Muhammad Muhammad Isa and Huda Zainuddin. (2014). International Journal of
Business, Humanities and Technology. Effect of Human and Technology Interaction:
Computer Vision Syndrome among Administrative Staff in a Public University, Vol.
4 (No. 3), 39-44.
Persuruhjaya Penyemak Undang-Undang Malaysia. (2006). Undang-undang Semula.
Akta Kilang dan Jentera 1967 (Akta 139).
Tuan Haji Abd. Hamid bin Osman. (2014). Info sihat bahagian kesihatan
persekitaran jabatan kerajaan tempatan: Fungsi dan Faktor Ergonomik di
Baharudin Mastari. (2011). Panduan Pengurusan Persekitaran, Keselamatan dan
Kesihatan Pekerjaan (OSHE).