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From plato cave to aristotle and ayn rand

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A visit at the Lyceum
2 Nov. 2019

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From plato cave to aristotle and ayn rand

  1. 1. From Plato Cave to Aristotle and Ayn Rand Skyscrapers Overview on the ideas of the great philosophers of ancient Greece in relation to Ayn Rand literature and Philosophy Boaz Arad Lyceum, Athens Nov. 2nd 2019
  2. 2. Subjects • Brief history of the Lyceum • Plato and Aristotle the Architects of the western culture • The importance of philosophy (Ayn Rand) • The five brunches of philosophy and the unique contribution of Aristotle • Allegory of the Cave and Anthem by Ayn Rand • Aristotle and Ayn Rand
  3. 3. The Lyceum site. Roman Baths, The floor (on the Left) has been removed to reveal the empty space where the hot air flowed through to heat the floor. Photo: Boaz Arad
  4. 4. MAP 1: Detail of "Plan of Athens, for the Travels of Anacharsis, May 1784” by Jean-Denis Barbié du Bocage (1760-1825).
  5. 5. MAP 2: French guide book map of Athens by L. Thuillier, 1896, showing the site of the Lyceum (right). The "Palais Royal" (Royal Palace) is now known as the Vouli, the home of Greece's parliament on Syntagma Square. The "Jardins Royal" (Royal Gardens) are now the National Gardens. Guides Joanne, Hachette & Cie., Paris, 1896.
  6. 6. Raphael, School of Athens, 1509- 1511, fresco (Stanza della Segnatura, Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican), painted between 1509 and 1511 in the Vatican, Rome.
  7. 7. Raphael, detail of Plato and Aristotle, School of Athens, 1509-1511, fresco (Stanza della Segnatura, Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican)
  8. 8. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle time line. Source: Khan Academy Classical Greece Socrates Plato and Aristo (Overview)
  9. 9. Charles DeGeorge's, La Jeunesse d'Aristotle (Aristotle's Youth), a marble sculpture from 1875.(Musee d'orsay, paris) Photo: Boaz Arad
  10. 10. Above: "That most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle tutoring the future conqueror Alexander“, Illustration by Charles Laplante [fr], 1866 Right: Aristotle tutors Alexander the Great. From Animals and their Uses/Kitab na't al-hayawan wa-manafi'ihi by Aristotle, this edition by ibn Bakhtishu'(?), Middle East, 13th century. (From the British Museum)
  11. 11. Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Socrates (French: La Mort de Socrate) 1787. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. See in Wikipedia
  12. 12. The allegory of the cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a–520a). See in Wikipedia
  13. 13. Plato's forms exist as universals, like the ideal form of an apple. For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing. See in Wikipedia Plato VS. Aristotle's theory of Universals
  14. 14. © Sandra J. Shaw illustration for the Hebrew edition of Ayn Rand’s novella Anthem. See: https://www.sandrajshaw.com/anthem.html Ayn Rand’s view on Plato and Aristotle “It is dark here. The flame of the candle stands still in the air. Nothing moves in this tunnel save our hand on the paper. We are alone here under the earth. It is a fearful word, alone. The laws say that none among men may be alone, ever and at any time, for this is the great transgression and the root of all evil. But we have broken many laws. And now there is nothing here save our one body, and it is strange to see only two legs stretched on the ground, and on the wall before us the shadow of our one head.” Ayn Rand, Anthem 1938, (Part I)
  15. 15. Ayn Rand’s Metaphysics: Objective Reality (Primacy of existence)
  16. 16. Aristotle Metaphysics Aristotle, Metaphysics, IV, 3 (W. D. Ross, trans.) Book 7 of the Metaphysics: Ens dicitur multipliciter- the word 'being' is meant in many ways. From a manuscript of William of Moerbeke's translation (Wikipedia)
  17. 17. Ayn Rand view on Aristotle Metaphysics
  18. 18. Ayn Rand view on Aristotle
  19. 19. Thank you boaz@aynrand.org.il