Contenu connexe


Floor finishes - flooring and finish types

  1. FLOOR FINISHES BCM IV GROUP 2 Aiman Shafat Anqa Parvez Ayman Ganaie Fatima Masnoon Hamra Hanief SOA KASHMIR
  2. FLOOR FINISHES Floors are horizontal elements of building structures which divide building into different levels for the purpose of creating more accommodation. Floor finish is a general term for a finish covering applied over floor surface. Various types of floor finishes: • PCC • Terrazzo • Brick and Terracotta • Stone • PVC • Timber • Ceramic Wall and Floor tiles
  3. PCC FLOOR FINISH The mixture of cement, sand and aggregate is Plain Cement Concrete. The chief advantage of concrete floors is the tremendous design versatility they offer. Concrete floors can be: • Coloured or stained to match any hue. • Finished to resemble tile, slate, or marble. • Enhanced with decorative stenciled borders, medallions, or custom graphics. Properties • Unlimited creative options. • Requires little maintenance. • Will last for decades (50+ years). • Resists moisture and stains. • Free of VOCs (volatile organic compounds).
  4. • Staining: Acid- or water-based stains impart rich colour to concrete surfaces. Stains are semi- transparent and enhance the surface. • Dyes and other topical colours: Dyes offer more vibrant colours and can be mixed and blended for colour matching or custom blends. • Stenciling: Using stencils allows to add attractive, yet economical, colour and texture to indoor concrete surfaces. With hundreds of patterns available, and the ability to create custom stencils is endless. • Polishing: The polished concrete is a superior low- maintenance flooring option. It results in a floor with a smooth, high- luster finish that resembles polished stone, yet never requires waxing. • Metallic Coatings: Add shimmer and shine to your concrete floor with a metallic coating. Available in multiple colours, these create a contemporary, upscale look for interior floors. FINISH OPTIONS FOR CONCRETE FLOORS
  5. HOW TO FINISH CONCRETE FLOORS • Prep work and cleaning: How this is done will vary depending on the finish to be applied. For instance, you can’t clean the surface with muriatic acid if you’re planning on using an acid-based stain, and cracks or holes may need to be repaired for some finishes, but can be left as is for others. For new concrete, prep work is minimized. • Staining, polishing, or application of a coating: Obviously, the process will vary based on the chosen finish. Some require the use of equipment, such as polishing, others are simply products applied to the surface, such as stains, dyes, or coatings. • Sealing or other protective treatment: Similar to prep and cleaning, which sealer you use— or if one is even needed—will be determined by the finish that was applied. Polished floors may not require a sealer, but stained or coloured floors should be protected.
  6. TERRAZZO FLOOR FINISH • Terrazzo is capable of forming many unique finishes. Terrazzo is described as a composite material, polished to give a smooth surface. It is used for flooring, base, walls, stair treads, countertops, and other custom products. • Terrazzo consists of chips of marble, granite, quartz, glass, shell or other suitable materials. It uses either a cement or epoxy matrix as the binder. • The various types of terrazzo are Cementitious, Polyacrylate, Epoxy, Sealed Polished Finish, Machine Polished Finish, Honed Anti-Slip Finish.
  7. Used in • Schools • Entrances & Lobbies • Restrooms • Fire Stations • City Buildings • Fine Homes • Stair Cases • Restaurants • Airports • Churches • Garages • Warehouses Properties • Easiest to clean: No scouring, polishing or scrubbing. • The speckled texture and strong base material make them difficult to stain. • When properly sealed, it becomes non-porous and resistant to moulding. • Highly durable, which is why it is used so often in institutional and commercial buildings. • Elegant and timeless, with endless design possibilities. • Excellent chemical resistance. • Better colour consistency and performance. • In-site applications ensure a monolithic surface and saves space, time, freight cost etc. • Terrazzo floors can virtually last the life of the building and thus contributes to the essence of green building. • Known to offer better anti-slip characteristics.
  8. TERRAZZO FLOORING: PREPARATION, INSTALLATION AND FINISHING • Preparing the floor: Concrete floor is swept and the floor is damped down with water. The area is divided into suitable panels by use of strips. • Laying of tiles: The semi- dry cement is placed on concrete and spread to the correct level. • Grouting: Grout is a neat mix of cement, water and colour pigments to either match the colour of the tile or offer a contrast grout line. • Curing: The surface is cured under standing water for 2 days. • Grinding and Finishing: Mechanically ground and polished on site. • Sealing: Tiles can be sealed using penetrating sealer.
  9. BRICK FLOORING. • THIS type of flooring is commonly provided in warehouses, stores and go downs or in places where heavy articles are stored. • The flooring may be done with brick laid flat or on edge arranged in herring bone fashion or set at right angle to the walls. • The flooring should be cured for a minimum period of seven days before use.
  10. PROPERTIES: • The low maintenance requirements of brick flooring make it very popular in kitchens. • Durability: Brick is one of the hardest and most durable flooring materials available. • It requires little to no maintenance, and an installation can last for years. DIFFERENT BRICK FLOORING PATTERNS:
  11. LAYING METHODS: • The earth filling is properly consolidated. • 10cm thick layer of dry clean sand is evenly laid. • 10cm thick layer of LIMECONCRETE (1:4:8) or LEAN CEMENTCONCRETE (1:8:16) is laid, compacted and cured to form abase concrete. • Well soaked bricks are laid in CEMENTMORTAR (1:4) in any desired bond pattern e.g. Herring Bond, Diagonal Bond or any other suitable bond. • In case the pointing is not to be done , the thickness of joints should not exceed 2mm and the mortar in joints is struck off flush with at trowel. • In case the pointing is to be done, the minimum thickness of joints is kept 6mm and the pointing maybe done as specified.
  12. TERRACOTTA TILES • The broad category of clay ceramic tiles contains several subcategories, and one of the oldest is terracotta. • Terracotta translates from Italian as "baked earth," and as a category of ceramic tile, it refers to tiles created from a particularly porous and easily shaped clay with a high iron content that gives the tiles their characteristic reddish/brown color. • Terracotta is fired at a relatively low temperature (600 to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and its surface remains quite porous unless it is glazed.
  13. PROPERTIES: • Terracotta is one of the most distinct type of clay you will find, given its rich , rust red/orange coloring. • Fired terracotta is a porous clay(not watertight) ,but a layer of glaze can make it watertight. • Other properties of Terracotta includes: fire protection , durability ,cost effective, light in weight , environment friendly.
  14. LAYING OF TILES: Terracotta tiles can be laid using either adhesives or mortar. • With Mortar • Sprinkle the laying surface with a fine covering of cement powder. " Begin to lay the tiles, taking care to maintain the direction of the dod (the cut side of the tile should always correspond to the same side of the adjacent tile) • Leave a space between tiles. The width of this space should not, in any case, be less than 10mm. • The flooring must have expansion joints, capable of compensating for tolerances caused by thermal movement. In the case of small indoor areas, it is sufficient to put in a joint along the outer perimeter of the room. In the case of larger areas however, it is advisable to put in a joint roughly every 7 meters, both the length and the width of the area. Outside, considering the increased exposition of the tiles to thermal movement, it is advisable to lay a 10 mm joint approximately every 4 meters both the length and the width of the area. • Tamp the floor evenly to ensure better tile adherence to the mortar bed. • WITH ADHESIVE: • Follow the same precautions for laying with mortar.
  15. STONE FLOOR FINISHES • Stone flooring comes in variety of types and finishes depending upon the requirement and emplacement. • Common stone flooring includes Marble, Granite, Slate, Travertine etc. • Stone flooring is laid on prepared sub-grade of concrete or RCC floor slab. The subgrade is cleaned, wetted and mopped properly. Layer of bedding mortar (1:4 cement mortar) or lime mortar (1:1:1) is spread in average thickness. The stone tiles or slab are laid and pressed and tapped with wooden mallet. Marble Granite Slate Travertine
  16. STONE IS AVAILABLE IN A VARIETY OF FINISHES: POLISHED • Done by grinding, sanding, buffing or crystallization. • Poor slip resistance. • Scratch easily, but more stain resistant. • Applying high temperature flame to stone surface, creating thermal shock causing inherent crystals to fracture. • Deeply textured, high slip resistance • Created by stopping before the last polishing stage. • Good slip resistance. • Dull, smooth finish, scratch resistant. HONED THERMAL FINISH
  17. BRUSHED • Worn out look achieved by applying heavy duty plastic or metal brushes to stone surface. • Creates a shine from natural reflection of stone crystals. • Takes shine off polished stones and leaves small pits on the surface. • Gives a more rustic or antique appearance and shows fewer scratches. • Achieved by putting stones together in a machine and tumbled. • Creates smooth or slightly pitted surface, broken and rounded edges and corners. TUMBLED ACID-WASHED
  18. PVC FLOOR FINISHES • PVC floors are made of synthetic polymer polyvinyl chloride and are broadly used in public and private domain. • PVC designs can perfectly imitate natural materials like wood, stone or metal in appearance. • It is economical, durable, easy to maintain and install. • Two general types: Homogenous PVC floors and Heterogenous PVC floors.
  19. • Layout of PVC tiles or sheet is marked and the tiles are cut along the pattern. • Adhesive of specified make is applied to the base floor and the back of the PVC tiles with a notched trowel. • When adhesive is set, tiles are laid and pressed with wooden rollers or hammer. • There are also self adhesive (stick and paste) PVC tiles that are installed directly on the sub-floor. METHOD OF LAYING
  20. • PVC floors are available in variety of forms, which include PVC sheets, planks or tiles and also gives freedom of aesthetic effects- available in wide range of colors, prints and can be embossed finished too. PVC Sheet PVC Planks PVC Tiles PVC embossed tile
  21. TIMBER FLOOR FINISHES • Timber flooring is any product manufactured from timber that is designed for use as flooring, either structural or aesthetic. • It is a common choice as a flooring material due to its environmental profile, durability, and restorability. • It is used in interiors as well as exteriors. • LAYING: Over the finished floor, wooden planks with tongue and groove are placed. The tongue and groove are jotted into each other similarly the whole flooring is laid.
  22. SOLID HARDWOOD • One of easiest ways to add value to a home. • Cost effective, durable and classy, solid wood floors are one of the few long-lasting home fixtures • Made of planks milled from a single piece of timber. • Can be self installed without calling the professional. ENGINEERED HARDWOOD • Most common type of wood flooring used globally. • Composed of two or more layers of wood in the form of a plank • This gives the flooring better structural stability and bonded together under heat and pressure. • More suitable in high moisture areas or in areas of frequent temperature changes. • It does not warp or cup during climatic changes. TYPES OF WOODEN FLOORING
  23. WOOD FLOOR FINISHES: • Wood Floor Finishes are very popular as they are durable, water-resistant, and require minimal maintenance. • These finishes allow the boards to move individually. • The occurrence of split boards or edge bonding and wide gaps are minimized. • These are blends of synthetic resins. • Most popular modern finishes for wood flooring are oil-modified Urethane and water-based polyurethane.
  24. OIL MODIFIED URETHANES (OMU’s) • This floor finish bears the strength of both polyurethane and oil seals. • It allows movement in the timber and provides a reasonable wear resistance. • The splitting of boards and edge bonding are prevented. • It is more durable than Tung oil. • OMU is a mixture of plasticizers, synthetic resins and other film forming ingredients. • It is moisture-resistant and very durable. • OMU’s are used widely as a great solution for timber sports floors. NATURAL OIL/PENETRATING OIL: • This type of floor finish penetrates deep into the timber to provide a rich and deep color. • It enhances the timber’s natural characteristics and texture. • High solid oil that can achieve a high quality finish while being environment-friendly at the same time. • Natural oils are also available in colored versions to change the appearance of timber floor if desired. METHODS
  25. POLYURETHANE – SOLVENT BASED • Solvent based polyurethanes offer the highest gloss. • Solvent based polyurethane is scratch and moisture resistant. • The strong odor may be present during its application but it will subside as it dries up. POLYURETHANE–WATER BASED • This quick-drying floor finish utilizes water as its base solvent instead of a petroleum based solvent. • The absence of strong chemicals in a water-based polyurethane floor finish makes it low in odor upon application and provides a more natural look. • Water-based polyurethanes are the best for light colored timbers since they effectively minimize yellowing. • They are highly durable and minimize the chance for edge bonding. METHOD S
  26. CERAMIC TILES • Ceramic tiles are manufactured from fired clay • Major clay materials used include kaolin and ball clay with added flux • Glaze is applied before the tile enters the kiln; it then fuses to the surface of the porcelain body during the firing process • Are laid on a concrete floor levelled with a 1:3 cement and sand screed; after the latter has partially set the tiles are bedded on a 6mm thick 1:1 cement and sand bedding
  27. STONEWARE • Manufactured from fireclays blended with an added flux like feldspar • On firing to between 1200°C and 1300°C, it vitrifies, producing an impermeable product with high chemical resistance • Large panels are manufactured as cladding units • For floor tiles, a granular glaze is applied within the kiln to produce an impervious finish
  28. EARTHENWARE • Produced from a mixture of kaolin, ball clay and flint with added flux. • When fired at 1100°C, becomes porous and requires glaze to prevent water absorption.
  29. VITREOUS CHINA • Made from a blend of china and ball clay with added materials. • Has a glass-like body which limits water absorption through any cracks or damage in the glaze to a minimum. • Unglazed tiles may be smooth or polished, alternatively textured, ribbed or bush hammered to give non-slip properties. • Anti-pollutant and anti-bacterial properties are based on incorporated titanium dioxide.
  30. • Marl floor tiles: • From Erutria marl • Firing to 1130°C produces sufficient vitrification to give highly durable, chemical and frost resistant product. • Mosaics: • Glazed or unglazed, are hard- wearing, frost proof and resistant to chemicals • Unglazed mosaics may be used for exterior use where good slip resistance is important.
  31. BIBLOGRAPHY • Materials for Architects and Builders – Arthur Lyons. • Building Construction - Sushil Kumar. • Building Construction vol 3 – W.B McKay • Building Materials 3rd edition – S.K Duggal • BARRY- Construction of buildings vol 4. • Building Construction – Rangwala.