Floors are horizontal elements of building structures
which divide building into different levels for the
purpose of creating more accommodation.
Floor finish is a general term for a finish covering
applied over floor surface.
Various types of floor finishes:
• Brick and Terracotta
• Ceramic Wall and Floor tiles
PCC FLOOR FINISH
The mixture of cement, sand and aggregate is Plain Cement
The chief advantage of concrete floors is the tremendous
design versatility they offer. Concrete floors can be:
• Coloured or stained to match any hue.
• Finished to resemble tile, slate, or marble.
• Enhanced with decorative stenciled borders, medallions,
or custom graphics.
• Unlimited creative options.
• Requires little maintenance.
• Will last for decades (50+ years).
• Resists moisture and stains.
• Free of VOCs (volatile organic compounds).
• Staining: Acid- or
impart rich colour to
Stains are semi-
enhance the surface.
• Dyes and
and can be
• Stenciling: Using
stencils allows to
add attractive, yet
and texture to
and the ability to
stencils is endless.
• Polishing: The
is a superior low-
flooring option. It
results in a floor
with a smooth,
high- luster finish
polished stone, yet
shimmer and shine
to your concrete
floor with a metallic
coating. Available in
these create a
upscale look for
FINISH OPTIONS FOR CONCRETE FLOORS
HOW TO FINISH CONCRETE FLOORS
• Prep work and cleaning: How this is done will vary depending on the finish to be applied.
For instance, you can’t clean the surface with muriatic acid if you’re planning on using an
acid-based stain, and cracks or holes may need to be repaired for some finishes, but can be
left as is for others. For new concrete, prep work is minimized.
• Staining, polishing, or application of a coating: Obviously, the process will vary based on the
chosen finish. Some require the use of equipment, such as polishing, others are simply
products applied to the surface, such as stains, dyes, or coatings.
• Sealing or other protective treatment: Similar to prep and cleaning, which sealer you use—
or if one is even needed—will be determined by the finish that was applied. Polished floors
may not require a sealer, but stained or coloured floors should be protected.
• Terrazzo is capable of forming many unique finishes. Terrazzo is described as a composite material,
polished to give a smooth surface. It is used for flooring, base, walls, stair treads, countertops, and
other custom products.
• Terrazzo consists of chips of marble, granite, quartz, glass, shell or other suitable materials. It uses
either a cement or epoxy matrix as the binder.
• The various types of terrazzo are Cementitious, Polyacrylate, Epoxy, Sealed Polished Finish, Machine
Polished Finish, Honed Anti-Slip Finish.
• Entrances &
• Fire Stations
• City Buildings
• Fine Homes
• Stair Cases
• Easiest to clean: No scouring, polishing or scrubbing.
• The speckled texture and strong base material make
them difficult to stain.
• When properly sealed, it becomes non-porous and
resistant to moulding.
• Highly durable, which is why it is used so often in
institutional and commercial buildings.
• Elegant and timeless, with endless design possibilities.
• Excellent chemical resistance.
• Better colour consistency and performance.
• In-site applications ensure a monolithic surface and
saves space, time, freight cost etc.
• Terrazzo floors can virtually last the life of the building
and thus contributes to the essence of green building.
• Known to offer better anti-slip characteristics.
TERRAZZO FLOORING: PREPARATION, INSTALLATION AND FINISHING
• Preparing the floor: Concrete floor is swept
and the floor is damped down with water. The
area is divided into suitable panels by use of
• Laying of tiles: The semi- dry cement is
placed on concrete and spread to the correct
• Grouting: Grout is a neat mix of cement,
water and colour pigments to either match
the colour of the tile or offer a contrast grout
• Curing: The surface is cured under standing
water for 2 days.
• Grinding and Finishing: Mechanically ground
and polished on site.
• Sealing: Tiles can be sealed using
• THIS type of flooring is commonly provided in warehouses, stores and go
downs or in places where heavy articles are stored.
• The flooring may be done with brick laid flat or on edge arranged in herring
bone fashion or set at right angle to the walls.
• The flooring should be cured for a minimum period of seven days before use.
• The low maintenance requirements of brick flooring make it very popular in kitchens.
• Durability: Brick is one of the hardest and most durable flooring materials available.
• It requires little to no maintenance, and an installation can last for years.
DIFFERENT BRICK FLOORING PATTERNS:
• The earth filling is properly consolidated.
• 10cm thick layer of dry clean sand is evenly laid.
• 10cm thick layer of LIMECONCRETE (1:4:8) or LEAN
CEMENTCONCRETE (1:8:16) is laid, compacted and cured
to form abase concrete.
• Well soaked bricks are laid in CEMENTMORTAR (1:4) in any
desired bond pattern e.g. Herring Bond, Diagonal Bond or any
other suitable bond.
• In case the pointing is not to be done , the thickness of joints
should not exceed 2mm and the mortar in joints is struck off
flush with at trowel.
• In case the pointing is to be done, the minimum thickness of
joints is kept 6mm and the pointing maybe done as specified.
• The broad category of clay ceramic tiles contains several subcategories, and one of the
oldest is terracotta.
• Terracotta translates from Italian as "baked earth," and as a category of ceramic tile, it
refers to tiles created from a particularly porous and easily shaped clay with a high iron
content that gives the tiles their characteristic reddish/brown color.
• Terracotta is fired at a relatively low temperature (600 to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and its
surface remains quite porous unless it is glazed.
• Terracotta is one of the most distinct type
of clay you will find, given its rich , rust
• Fired terracotta is a porous clay(not
watertight) ,but a layer of glaze can make
• Other properties of Terracotta includes:
fire protection , durability ,cost effective,
light in weight , environment friendly.
LAYING OF TILES:
Terracotta tiles can be laid using either adhesives or mortar.
• With Mortar
• Sprinkle the laying surface with a fine covering of cement powder. " Begin to lay the tiles,
taking care to maintain the direction of the dod (the cut side of the tile should always
correspond to the same side of the adjacent tile)
• Leave a space between tiles. The width of this space should not, in any case, be less than
• The flooring must have expansion joints, capable of compensating for tolerances caused by
thermal movement. In the case of small indoor areas, it is sufficient to put in a joint along the
outer perimeter of the room. In the case of larger areas however, it is advisable to put in a
joint roughly every 7 meters, both the length and the width of the area. Outside, considering
the increased exposition of the tiles to thermal movement, it is advisable to lay a 10 mm joint
approximately every 4 meters both the length and the width of the area.
• Tamp the floor evenly to ensure better tile adherence to the mortar bed.
• WITH ADHESIVE:
• Follow the same precautions for laying with mortar.
STONE FLOOR FINISHES
• Stone flooring comes in variety of types and finishes depending upon the requirement and
• Common stone flooring includes Marble, Granite, Slate, Travertine etc.
• Stone flooring is laid on prepared sub-grade of concrete or RCC floor slab. The subgrade is
cleaned, wetted and mopped properly. Layer of bedding mortar (1:4 cement mortar) or lime
mortar (1:1:1) is spread in average thickness. The stone tiles or slab are laid and pressed
and tapped with wooden mallet.
Marble Granite Slate Travertine
STONE IS AVAILABLE IN A VARIETY OF FINISHES:
• Done by grinding,
sanding, buffing or
• Poor slip resistance.
• Scratch easily, but more
• Applying high
temperature flame to
stone surface, creating
thermal shock causing
inherent crystals to
• Deeply textured, high
• Created by stopping
before the last polishing
• Good slip resistance.
• Dull, smooth finish,
HONED THERMAL FINISH
• Worn out look achieved
by applying heavy duty
plastic or metal brushes
to stone surface.
• Creates a shine from
natural reflection of
• Takes shine off polished
stones and leaves small
pits on the surface.
• Gives a more rustic or
antique appearance and
shows fewer scratches.
• Achieved by putting
stones together in a
machine and tumbled.
• Creates smooth or
slightly pitted surface,
broken and rounded
edges and corners.
PVC FLOOR FINISHES
• PVC floors are made of synthetic polymer polyvinyl chloride and are broadly used in public
and private domain.
• PVC designs can perfectly imitate natural materials like wood, stone or metal in
• It is economical, durable, easy to maintain and install.
• Two general types: Homogenous PVC floors and Heterogenous PVC floors.
• Layout of PVC tiles or sheet is marked and the tiles are cut along the pattern.
• Adhesive of specified make is applied to the base floor and the back of the PVC tiles with a
• When adhesive is set, tiles are laid and pressed with wooden rollers or hammer.
• There are also self adhesive (stick and paste) PVC tiles that are installed directly on the
METHOD OF LAYING
• PVC floors are available in variety of forms, which include PVC sheets, planks or tiles and
also gives freedom of aesthetic effects- available in wide range of colors, prints and can be
embossed finished too.
PVC embossed tile
TIMBER FLOOR FINISHES
• Timber flooring is any product
manufactured from timber that is
designed for use as flooring,
either structural or aesthetic.
• It is a common choice as a
flooring material due to its
environmental profile, durability,
• It is used in interiors as well as
• LAYING: Over the finished floor,
wooden planks with tongue and
groove are placed. The tongue
and groove are jotted into each
other similarly the whole flooring
• One of easiest ways to
add value to a home.
• Cost effective, durable
and classy, solid wood
floors are one of the few
long-lasting home fixtures
• Made of planks milled
from a single piece of
• Can be self installed
without calling the
• Most common type of wood
flooring used globally.
• Composed of two or more
layers of wood in the form of a
• This gives the flooring better
structural stability and bonded
together under heat and
• More suitable in high moisture
areas or in areas of frequent
• It does not warp or cup during
TYPES OF WOODEN FLOORING
WOOD FLOOR FINISHES:
• Wood Floor Finishes are very popular as they are durable, water-resistant, and require
• These finishes allow the boards to move individually.
• The occurrence of split boards or edge bonding and wide gaps are minimized.
• These are blends of synthetic resins.
• Most popular modern finishes for wood flooring are oil-modified Urethane and water-based
OIL MODIFIED URETHANES (OMU’s)
• This floor finish bears the strength of both
polyurethane and oil seals.
• It allows movement in the timber and
provides a reasonable wear resistance.
• The splitting of boards and edge bonding
• It is more durable than Tung oil.
• OMU is a mixture of plasticizers, synthetic
resins and other film forming ingredients.
• It is moisture-resistant and very durable.
• OMU’s are used widely as a great solution
for timber sports floors.
• This type of floor finish
penetrates deep into the timber
to provide a rich and deep color.
• It enhances the timber’s natural
characteristics and texture.
• High solid oil that can achieve a
high quality finish while being
environment-friendly at the
• Natural oils are also available
in colored versions to change
the appearance of timber floor if
• Solvent based
polyurethanes offer the
• Solvent based
polyurethane is scratch
and moisture resistant.
• The strong odor may be
present during its
application but it will
subside as it dries up.
• This quick-drying floor finish
utilizes water as its base solvent
instead of a petroleum based
• The absence of strong chemicals
in a water-based polyurethane floor
finish makes it low in odor upon
application and provides a more
• Water-based polyurethanes are the
best for light colored timbers since
they effectively minimize yellowing.
• They are highly durable and
minimize the chance for edge
• Ceramic tiles are manufactured from
• Major clay materials used include
kaolin and ball clay with added flux
• Glaze is applied before the tile enters
the kiln; it then fuses to the surface of
the porcelain body during the firing
• Are laid on a concrete floor levelled
with a 1:3 cement and sand screed;
after the latter has partially set the tiles
are bedded on a 6mm thick 1:1 cement
and sand bedding
• Manufactured from fireclays blended with
an added flux like feldspar
• On firing to between 1200°C and 1300°C, it
vitrifies, producing an impermeable product
with high chemical resistance
• Large panels are manufactured as cladding
• For floor tiles, a granular glaze is applied
within the kiln to produce an impervious
• Produced from a mixture of kaolin, ball clay
and flint with added flux.
• When fired at 1100°C, becomes porous
and requires glaze to prevent water
• Made from a blend of china and ball clay with added materials.
• Has a glass-like body which limits water absorption through any cracks or damage in the
glaze to a minimum.
• Unglazed tiles may be smooth or polished, alternatively textured, ribbed or bush hammered
to give non-slip properties.
• Anti-pollutant and anti-bacterial properties are based on incorporated titanium dioxide.
• Marl floor tiles:
• From Erutria marl
• Firing to 1130°C produces
sufficient vitrification to give
highly durable, chemical and
frost resistant product.
• Glazed or unglazed, are hard-
wearing, frost proof and
resistant to chemicals
• Unglazed mosaics may be
used for exterior use where
good slip resistance is
• Materials for Architects and Builders – Arthur Lyons.
• Building Construction - Sushil Kumar.
• Building Construction vol 3 – W.B McKay
• Building Materials 3rd edition – S.K Duggal
• BARRY- Construction of buildings vol 4.
• Building Construction – Rangwala.