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According to Cas Mudde we live in a “populist Zeitgeist”. It will be argued in my paper that not only the 21th century but the 20th century is about populism. In the first section I elaborate the theoretical background of my paper: the various notions of populism have been analysed here and I will refer the biopolitical framework of populism. After that, I explore the populism of the Horthy era (1920-1944) in the context of Communist populism. Then I bring up the case of Communist populism in Hungary (1948-1989), which has been analysed here from several aspects. In the context of the working class and the bourgeois elite; the regime biopolitical character; goulash communism as a populist legitimacy; and the point of view of socialist patriotism. I conclude this paper with the usefulness of investigating historical populism in conjunction with contemporary tendencies.