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Copyright © Anthony Sublett, 2011. All rights reserved.
INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDY OF CORROSION RESISTANT COATING
FOR A
HYDRAUL...
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………… 3
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………….. 4
ABSTRACT……………………………...
3
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Number Description of Figure Page
Figure 1 Oxyfoam spray testing ………………………………..……… 17
Figure 2 Ox...
4
LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table 1 Common factors that affect corrosion…………..………. 11
Table 2 Plating compositions for motors te...
5
ABSTRACT
This technical report serves as a blueprint for the design, testing and manufacturing
requirements of a materia...
6
1 INTRODUCTION
Introduction and Background:
Since a trade secret was obtained for this coating process by the subject
co...
7
2 OBJECTIVE
The objective of this project was to theoretically define a new process for the
design, testing, and manufac...
8
3 EXPERIMENTS
The first phase of the investigation was to define what chemicals or airborne
particles that caused the mo...
9
exposing them to the cleaning agent, then none was seen after exposure to the
cleaning agents. However further oxidation...
10
an oxidation process. FCC structures are close packed and 74 % of the volume
of the unit cell is occupied by atoms on a...
11
current and on top of the metal surface at low enough values so that the extent of
the corrosion damage is minimized [4...
12
The Stanley Procter Iron base nickel plated motors were the original motors
mounted on the food processing machines tha...
13
Electrocoat primers, baking enamels and powder coating systems are often used
for in industry. Epoxy is more durable in...
14
facility which is maintained at temperatures between 60°F and 110°F in the
organization until they are retrieved for in...
15
3. What is the longevity of expected life cycle of the coating in environmental
degradation caused by corrosion, salt w...
16
of acids and bases for the cleaning solutions prior to dipping the motors in the
electrolytic bath. In addition the pro...
17
MOTOR FOAMED
Figure 1
Figure 1 above shows one of the test specimen that is coated in a red rubber polymer
where causti...
18
JOHNSON DIVERSEY
OXOFOAM
HOSE END HAND FOAMER
Oxofoam was foamed
at a 10% solution
with a mix of 12.8 oz
to 1 US gal.
F...
19
Post Test Hypothesis and Path Forward:
Conceptual Design:
After the current Nickel platting of the Stanley Proctor moto...
20
Table 2
The following plating configurations were tested as denoted in the aforementioned
paragraphs:
Plating Configura...
21
Figure 3 Saline Containment Chamber shown above used test hydraulic motors in
offsite Saline Spray Test. The coating co...
22
Figure 4 shows motors below at 0 Hrs of exposure as they appear prior to introducing
them to offsite Saline Testing. No...
23
Figure 4 continued
24
In Figure 5 below After 8 hours of offsite Saline Testing surface acidity developing on
WKCV-4T5 sample, the S-5 Zn pla...
25
Figure 5 cont.
26
Figure 6 below show the motors after 78 hours of offsite Saline Testing where surface
acidity has completely engulfed t...
27
Figure 6 cont
28
Figure 7 below show the motors after 168 hours of offsite Saline Testing
S-7 Novelak Epoxy and S-9 plated with Novelak ...
29
30
Figure 7 above
31
Figure 8 below shows the motors after 250 hours of offsite Saline Testing.
The S-7 Novelak Epoxy and S-9 plated with No...
32
In figure 9 below at 409 hrs no further change at the macroscopic level was evident and
the Novelak with Zn S-6 sample ...
33
Engineering Path Forward:
As a result of the successful testing, engineering has changed the plating configuration
to t...
34
1. SCOPE
1.1This specification covers cleaning, priming and painting of bare metal surfaces. The
system recommended is ...
35
4.4 Strain all primers and topcoats through a nylon strainer bag prior to use.
4.5 These products need no induction tim...
36
7.1 Both the primer and topcoat are low VOC, non-flammable coatings and use soap
and water for cleanup. Clean equipment...
37
Appendix A
In House Chemical Testing of Stanly Proctor Motors Set 1
Parker Motor -2562 Paquin Motor 1
#/Date Chemical/T...
38
In House Chemical Testing of Stanly Proctor Motors Set 1
Parker Motor -2563 Paquin motor 2
#/Date Chemical/Time Tested
...
39
S - 5 Zinc
/2008 Chemical/Time Tested
#/Date OXOFOAM VF5 By Comments
1.) 5/1 15 Min. Air Dry
2.) 5/1 15 Min. Air Dry
3....
40
S - 2 Copper/Nickel Motor
/2008 Chemical/Time Tested
#/Date OXOFOAM VF5 By Comments
1.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry
2.) 4/25 1...
41
S3 Stainless Steel & Red Motor
/2008 Chemical/Time Tested
#/Date OXOFOAM VF5 By Comments
1.) 4/15 15 Min. Air Dry
2.) 4...
42
Appendix B
TEL: 360-887-8819
FAX: 360-887-8825
600 S. 74
th
Place, Suite 108
Ridgefield, WA 98642
www.burkeindustrialco...
43
Appendix C
Routing: Stein Stein International Northfield Frigo North America
Helsingborg
Bulletin Number Product Revisi...
44
The following plating configurations were tested as denoted in the
aforementioned paragraphs :
Plating Configuration Re...
45
Validation Saline Test Results:
Pictures of zinc
with Novelak
Epoxy and our
current nickel-plate
motor after caustic
te...
46
Summary and Conclusion:
Because the zinc with Novelak plating outlasted
our current nickel plating by over 400 hours in...
47
References
1. CliffsNotes.com, ―What is the chemical composition of saltwater?‖; 10 Jun 2008
<http://www.cliffsnotes.co...
48
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ISU CREATIVE COMPONENT Final Draft

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  1. 1. Copyright © Anthony Sublett, 2011. All rights reserved. INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDY OF CORROSION RESISTANT COATING FOR A HYDRAULIC MOTOR by Anthony Sublett A Creative Component submitted to the graduate faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Program of Study Committee: Palaniappa A. Molian, Major Professor Chandra Abhijit Gemmile Douglas D Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 2011
  2. 2. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………… 3 LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………….. 4 ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………. 5 CHAPTERS: 1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………….. 6 2 OBJECTIVE …………………………………………………………. 7 3 EXPERIMENTS……………………………………………………… 8 4 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION…………………………………. 19 APPENDIXES A In house Oxifoam, Caustic and Air Trials…………………………….. 37 B Burke Industrial USDA Certification Letter………………………….. 42 C Engineering Bulletin Launching new Coating Process……………. 43 REFERNCES……………………………………………………………………… 47
  3. 3. 3 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number Description of Figure Page Figure 1 Oxyfoam spray testing ………………………………..……… 17 Figure 2 Oxyfoam testing Ni and Cr plated motor……………….……. 21 Figure 3 Saline Containment Chamber ……………………………….. 18 Figure 4 After 0 Hrs exposure in saline containment chamber………. 22 Figure 5 After 8 Hrs exposure in saline containment chamber ………. 24 Figure 6 After 78 Hrs exposure in saline containment chamber ………26 Figure 7 After 168 Hrs exposure in saline containment chamber……. 28 Figure 8 After 250 Hrs exposure in saline containment chamber……. 31 Figure 9 After 409 Hrs exposure in saline containment chamber……. 32
  4. 4. 4 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 Common factors that affect corrosion…………..………. 11 Table 2 Plating compositions for motors tested in Saline Test………. 22
  5. 5. 5 ABSTRACT This technical report serves as a blueprint for the design, testing and manufacturing requirements of a material that could be used as a coating for the hydraulic motors that are used in the food processing machines at the organization(name of company will be kept confidential in lieu of possible legal ramifications). The material selected is resistant to corrosion when exposed to the environment of sea air and salt water with temperatures ranging between 50o F and 120o F and food processing cleaning agents[Chlorofoam Cleaner used as chlorinated liquid foam cleaner and Sanigard used as a double chain quat sanitiser].The organization was able to obtain a trade secret on coating process developed form this research. The first chapter of this report provides a brief overview of the issues, specific to corrosion, with motors as they prevailed or were experienced at the organization. Chapter 2 depicts the design requirements and the definitive theory behind why it was chosen. Chapter 3 outlines the manufacturing, plating, and testing phases that were implemented that ultimately led to the final selection of the new coating process defined below. Chapter 3 provides the cost of the new coating process, highlights of the salient testing, conclusion, and recommendations.
  6. 6. 6 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction and Background: Since a trade secret was obtained for this coating process by the subject company and for the protection of confidentiality the subject organization has been kept confidential throughout the document for non disclosure purposes. The subject organization used a vendor that supplied the company with nickel-plated hydraulic motors. These motors were used on breading, conveyers, ovens, and other food processing machines that were sold both internationally and domestically in the United States. Recently, in the last five years, it has come to the attention of the organization that the following anomalies have occurred: 1. Many of the nickel-plated motors after sitting on the shelves at the manufacturing facility at the organization for as little as two months have shown major signs of ferrous oxide (rust). 2. The nickel-plated motors mounted on machines and shipped over-seas (after exposure to salt air and water) arrived at the final destination with key parts of the motor being rusted. As the project engineer at the organization I had not received an acceptable answer with specific reference as to why this occurs from the motor vendor or any pertinent JBT personal. No immediate remedy for the prevention of material-environment interactions resulting in environmental degradation or corrosion had been provided by the vendor that sources them. A customer recently received a brand new machine valued at $80,000, with the motors rusted. Unless this situation was attended to and a technically sound and logical remedy found in the near to immediate future, the customer base of the organization would have likely diminished and the reputation of the company as a leading manufacturer of food processing machinery would have been tarnished. Thus, the development of a new coating material was warranted. A coating material that would protect the motors from the aforementioned environmental conditions and that was cost effective for this specific application was the targeted design objective.
  7. 7. 7 2 OBJECTIVE The objective of this project was to theoretically define a new process for the design, testing, and manufacturing requirements of a material that could be used as plating or coating for hydraulic motors used on stainless steel food processing machines at the organization. This coating would be required to protect the hydraulic motors against corrosion when exposed to sea air and salt water, and domestic water at temperatures ranging between 50o F and 1200 F. The coating material was required to cost less than $168 per motor.
  8. 8. 8 3 EXPERIMENTS The first phase of the investigation was to define what chemicals or airborne particles that caused the motors to corrode. Saltwater and sea air were some of the chemicals and air born contaminants that the motors were exposed to that caused the motors to rust in an electrochemical corrosion process. The composition of salt water, the electrochemical corrosion process, and food processing facility cleaning agents are depicted below: Chemical Compositions: I. Salt Water: Salts (both ordinary table salt and other salts) are chemicals that fall apart into electrically charged particles (called ions) in water. One big difference between salt water and plain water is that these ions make the saltwater conduct electricity much better than pure water. In addition to water (made up of hydrogen and oxygen atoms — H2O), seawater in the ocean has more than 70 elements dissolved in it but only six make up more than 99% of all the dissolved salts and all occur as ions — that is, electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms: Sodium (Na+), Chloride (Cl−), Magnesium (Mg+), Potassium (K+), Sulfate (SO4−) and Calcium (Ca). One of the truly intriguing things about saltwater is that things float in it more easily than in regular water. For example, there's an especially high concentration of salt in the Dead Sea, so it's very easy to float there [1]. II. Food Processing Facility Cleaning Agents: Oxifoam, caustic, and domestic water, which is the standard FDA approved required cleaners used to clean stainless steel food process machines, where the other contaminants that the hydraulic motors were exposed to on a daily bases every 24 hours. The current hydraulic motors that the organization uses are Stanley Proctor motors with a cast iron (note, iron has a Face Center Cubic Crystal structure) base metal that are dipped an electrolytic bath for Nickel Plating. Note if no visible corrosion was seen on the nickel coated motors prior to
  9. 9. 9 exposing them to the cleaning agent, then none was seen after exposure to the cleaning agents. However further oxidation could be seen on motors after being exposed to the cleaning solution if oxidation was already underway. A key initiative performed during this phase was a plant visit by the organization’s project engineer (me) to the facility in Akron Ohio that performs the plating of the hydraulic motors. The project engineer conducted an interview with the foreman of the shop and asked the following questions and obtained the listed related responses. Fundamental Considerations: I. Effect of Crystal Structures on Motor Coatings: A. Current Plating Configuration: The initial platting configuration for the organization’s motors are Stanley Proctor motors made with cast iron (Fe) base metal housings that are dipped in an electrolytic bath for nickel (Ni) plating, where the Ni served as a sacrificial layer for the Fe. The part is submerged in a bath containing metals, salts, a reducing agent, and various additives that act like catalyst in the promotion in reducing the metal ions to form the coating. However a key observation made at the plating facility was the quantity of contamination contained in the cleaning solution that was applied to the base metal. In addition no high pressure jet was used to apply the cleaner, and no ultrasonic transducer was used to agitate the aqueous cleaning fluid [2]. Without the proper application of degreaser and cleaner inclusions can be captured in the coating after the solvent has been applied to the solute or base metal. These inclusions result in the coating alloy not being distributed uniformly over the solute alloy and more importantly these inclusions leave microscopic holes in the coating where derogation and crack propagation occurs. B. Crystal Structure: Iron and Nickel’s lattice type is face center cubic (FCC) with atoms at each corner and in the center of each cell. Primary bonding energy in FCC is a very strong Ionic bond where the unit cell compact is less likely to lose an electron in
  10. 10. 10 an oxidation process. FCC structures are close packed and 74 % of the volume of the unit cell is occupied by atoms on a hard sphere model opposed to 68 % packing for a bcc unit cell and 52 % of the volume occupied by atoms in the simple cubic unit cell [6]. Note that the attractive force between ions is depicted by: F= -α Q1 Q2 r2 where α = is a proportionality constant which is equal to 1(4πεo ) εo = is the permittivity of the vacuum (8.5 X 10-12 F/m) Q1 and Q2 are the respective charges of ions 1 and 2 r = is the ionic separation Ionic bond strengths are between 40 and 200 kcal/mol, ionic bonds are non saturating and non directional and are relatively difficult to break during slip processes that often control plastic behavior. The resultant molecule of the ionic bond between iron and oxygen is Fe2O3. Ni is a hard and ductile metal with a Face Center Cubic crystal structure, which makes it resilient to corrosion, can readily be applied as a platting material for components with sharp grooves and deep crevices. Ni distinguishes its ability to withstand high temperatures in corrosive environments due to its face center cube lattice structure. Its highly order crystal structure allows it to withstand operating conditions in manufacturing and production environments where the metal is exposed to natural fresh water, temperatures, and deaerated non- oxidizing acids, and has excellent resistance to corrosion by caustic alkalis. The ability of an alloy used for platting to protect a base metal is enhanced when that given alloy’s (solute’s) crystal structure is similar to the base metal or (solvent) for which it is protecting. Ni in general is a good plating element that is able to withstand harsh temperature, corrosive, and stress environments for given industrial applications. However this plating configuration does not possess passivity, the ability to provide a protective barrier that keeps the corrosion
  11. 11. 11 current and on top of the metal surface at low enough values so that the extent of the corrosion damage is minimized [4]. II. Type of Corrosion: In general the rate of corrosion of an un-plated or protected material occurs due the presence of moisture unwanted gaseous mixtures, ammonia, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and oxides of nitrogen that are present in the atmosphere. Corrosion is a change in the material on the molecular level due to reactions which resulting the creation of ionic species by either loss or gain of electrons. For example in the case of rusting of iron, where metallic iron is converted into various oxides or hydrogen after being exposed to moist air; the equations for this reaction commonly referred to as oxidation process is listed as follows: 2Fe (solid) + 2H2O (liquid) +O2 (gas) → 2Fe+2 (solid) +4OH- → Fe (OH)2 (solid) Where the Iron cation has lost 2 electrons to Oxygen the anion [5]. Factors Conductors Nature of the material or alloy surface condition/roughness Conductor configuration Conductor-conductor spacing Substrate Composition Moisture absorptivity Structure Nature of any reinforcement Environment Table 1 common factors that affect corrosion.
  12. 12. 12 The Stanley Procter Iron base nickel plated motors were the original motors mounted on the food processing machines that were exposed to salt water and sea air for durations of two to three weeks while being shipped to Asia and Europe. The salt water and sea air induced electrochemical corrosion (which occurs in an aqueous and atmospheric environment where the formation of oxides due to two half cell reactions at the anode and a reduction reaction at the cathode that result in transfer of electrons between the metal surfaces of the coating and the aqueous electrolyte solution) gained access to the base metal Fe through crevice corrosion due to part of the base metal Fe being shielded in a fashion in which it had limited access to the surrounding environment. In essence an electrochemical corrosive cell is formed from the couple between the unshielded surface and the crevice interior that is exposed to a lower oxygen concentration opposed to that which is provided to the surrounding medium. The aqueous and atmospheric acidic environment provided by the ocean in addition to being the anode of a corrosion cell where repassivation was nonexistent in turn made the interior crevices of the motor housing subject to corrosive attack. Secondly, continuous abrading of the thin film oxide layer provided by the Ni plating of the Stanley Proctor motor was another variable that played a role in the corrosion. In addition the non uniform Ni coating application which resulted from inclusions and grease not being removed in an inadequate cleaning process prior to plating also was a factor in the electrochemical corrosion that occurred [4]. III. Metal Plating Verses Epoxy Durability and Corrosion: The differences in metal plating verses epoxy in regards to application, durability, and combating corrosion is that the epoxy must have a primer added and then a polyurethane coating, which is sometimes applied in two layers. Epoxy can be applied at any paint facility that has the primer, epoxy and oven to bake the epoxy. Ni plating is applied in most frequently with an electrolytic bath.
  13. 13. 13 Electrocoat primers, baking enamels and powder coating systems are often used for in industry. Epoxy is more durable in terms of application since the epoxy is relatively thin and is applied by spraying it can readily be applied to parts with crevices and groves opposed to Ni which does not flow as easily into groves and tight fillets. Durability of epoxy is affected by small particles that impact and derogate the surface which leaves a void in the coating. The void in the coating allows moister or unwarranted gases to penetrate the coating and undertake an electrochemical corrosion process. Three related epoxy application phases were found to be the main cause of corrosion being promoted in the substrate. They are inadequate corner coverage, wet on –wet painting, and high temperature forced curing. Forced curing, which is practiced in industry by 95 % of the army contractors, is the most efficient process. The tack free time of the epoxy primer in army applications is generally 15 minutes [7]. Epoxy paint when used in military marine applications can be applied to vehicles by pre-treating the surface with a blast or by applying zinc phosphate pretreatment which yield the highest level of durability. The bench mark for durability of Epoxy with pretreatment, primer, is the coatings ability to withstand 336-hr of neutral salt spray as defined in ASTM D1654 [7]. Electroless Ni plating can also be applied in even distributions to complex geometries. The key to enhancing the corrosion resistance of Electroless Ni is enhancing the phosphorous concentration in the alloy. A high phosphorous content of 11% will not be magnetic and will highly resistant to corrosion. Electroless Ni is highly durable without follow up treatment and possesses good hardness. When a crack or defect occurs moister can seep in and cause crack propagation which leads to plating failure. IV. Type of Environment Hydraulic Motors Are Exposed Too: Prior to being mounted on the machines the hydraulic motors are stored are individual plastic package (which is not vacuum sealed) which are place inside cardboard boxes, the boxes are place on shelves in an enclosed warehouse
  14. 14. 14 facility which is maintained at temperatures between 60°F and 110°F in the organization until they are retrieved for installation. After the motors have been installed on the food processing machines, the machines are then crated in wooden boxes and shipped overseas at which time they are exposed to salt water and sea air for two to three week durations. Sea water has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L) meaning for every 1 kg of seawater has 35 grams of salt. The salt water acts as a catalyst in the oxidation of Iron and Nickel. Regular water can promote acidic transformations in metals but saltwater is a more. enhanced electrolyte that facilitates rust. Sea water in general usually contains 1- 3 ppb of iron. The sea water, which has a PH ranging from 7.5 to 8.4 enhances the electrochemical process where an anode (piece of Fe metal) oxidation rates are strongly by influenced by the ocean’s PH rates. However Iron solubility is low , generally ranging in the polar and low nano polar level, which are temperature dependent, and also greatly affected by the biological presence in that body of water. Humic and fulvic acids in addition to iron binding organic compounds are present in coastal waters. Test have been conducted in ocean environments where the changes in PH levels from 7.77- 8.21 – up to 7.94-8.26, a suggested increase of 40 % in solubility of Fe with a decrease in PH from 7.77- 8.21 [5]. Plant Visit: Akron Platting Questions and Answers: On March 9, 2008 Gordon Scott (Stanley Proctor representative) and I visited the plating facility in Akron and met with the shop supervisor to discuss the plating process that they currently used for the Organization hydraulic motors. The following questions were asked and responses given regarding the plating process: 1. What is the composition of the current coating? Response: Definitive % composition unknown. 2. What is the thickness of the platting? Response: .00012 in
  15. 15. 15 3. What is the longevity of expected life cycle of the coating in environmental degradation caused by corrosion, salt water, and sea air? Response: Unknown 4. What could we do to increase that life cycle? Response: No response 5. What do you anticipate would occur if you added thickness to the plating and how would that affect FMC’s cost? Response: It would flake due to thickness and double the costs. 6. What is the crystal structure of the elements used (i.e. FCC, BCC, and Hexagonal)? Response: No response 7. If the elements are not similar crystal structures would it be advantageous to use elements with similar crystal structure in lieu of obtaining a more homogeneous plating material? Response: No response 8. What are the melting temperatures TM of the elements? Response: No response 9. What temperatures are you heating your coating materials too? Response: No response Visual Observations Made: The following visual observations were made at the plating facility: The electrolytic bath did not have uniform composition and temperature, and the quality of the bath and the time of exposure for the motors were called into question by organization’s project engineer. The shop foreman did not use a consistent composition
  16. 16. 16 of acids and bases for the cleaning solutions prior to dipping the motors in the electrolytic bath. In addition the process of rinsing each motor after being cleaned with water was inconsistent, which negated the electrolysis from providing and even flow of Zn which could be seen on the macroscopic level by the absence of zinc in some places. Suggested Path forwards with Existing Plating: The Stanley Proctor motor representatives and I talked to the platters and suggested doubling the Nickel, but I insisted it would make it more brittle and the Nickel would not flow evenly over the edges and provide a uniform layer of coating, resulting in the edges becoming corroded and contaminating the corrosion from the inside out. At that point we decided added a layer of (.000001 thick) Cr, which would add 6-$7 to each motor and four more hours more lead time (L.T.);. I had theorized it would protect the Nickel but could still have surface rust. Original Concept or Design Testing: Two plating configurations one Ni plated motor with a rubber polymer coating and a second Ni plated motor with (.000001) Cr undergo the caustic chemical test process (see Figure 1) where the motors are sprayed with oxyfoam for 15 minutes and air dried for 15 min then sprayed with caustic for 15 minutes and air dried at the organization’s lab for the hours specified in a in Table 2. In addition motor samples with the given plating compositions defined in Table 2 were tested as well and are shown in Figures 1 thru 9 on the following pages. Due the insignificant changes that took place during exposure 10 in house oxyfoam and caustic test trials all nine motors showed little affects after exposure and were moved to the second phase off site saline testing. During the onsite ten trial caustic test the motors were exposed to the caustic and oxyfoam solutions that the motors are normally exposed to in the field:
  17. 17. 17 MOTOR FOAMED Figure 1 Figure 1 above shows one of the test specimen that is coated in a red rubber polymer where caustic is being applied with the spray apparatus for a 15 minute application. This process was applied to all the samples listed in Table 2. There were no changes observed in any of the samples after all 10 test trials except for both the orginal plating configuration of electoless Ni plated and another motor with chromium added to the electoless Ni. These motors shell and unexposed surface rusted as well as the shafts after 8 hours of exposure to the caustic.
  18. 18. 18 JOHNSON DIVERSEY OXOFOAM HOSE END HAND FOAMER Oxofoam was foamed at a 10% solution with a mix of 12.8 oz to 1 US gal. Figure 2 above shows the oxyfoam and the sprayer used for the in house spray test of 10 applications of the caustic and oxyfoam.
  19. 19. 19 Post Test Hypothesis and Path Forward: Conceptual Design: After the current Nickel platting of the Stanley Proctor motor failed the chemical analysis test, the design team researched other vendors and possibilities. The coatings used during this period resulted in oxidization of the motor in crevices and other areas. Later a Novelak or Epoxy coating was discovered and viewed as a possible solution. Research was conducted to make sure that the temperature during the process of the hot spray zinc was less then 140F to ensure the integrity of the seals would not be jeopardized. Zinc (which posses a hexagonal crystal structure)was applied on top of the Iron (which also possesses a face centered cubic crystal structure)and used as a sacrificial layer, the epoxy (including primers) were applied on the Zn and served as the primary level of corrosion protection [2]. The Novelak Epoxy was deemed suitable food grade material per the letter from the epoxy manufacturer referenced in Appendix B. 4 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Phase one testing was conducted in the lab facility on site of the organization where all of the motors listed in Table 2 showed no adverse affects from the in house test defined in Appendix A. Therefore all samples were put through the second phase of testing. Phase two testing was to send the motors to a lab and have them exposed to salt air in a chamber closed to atmosphere for defined time period in accordance with test requirements defined in reference 3. The motors with the various coatings listed below were all pulled and pictures were taken by the lab assistant and sent back to the organization’s project engineer for evaluation and documentation of results.
  20. 20. 20 Table 2 The following plating configurations were tested as denoted in the aforementioned paragraphs: Plating Configuration Hrs of Testing Test Stopped After hrs of Testing Base line: Ni Plated 8 24 S2 Cu-Ni 57 78 WKCV-4TV Bright Zinc 168 195 S1 Red Motor Rubber/Polymer 195 219 S5 Zinc Plated 195 S7 Novelak Epoxy only 219 409 S9 Ni plated w Novelak Epoxy 250 409 Fire Spray Zn 409 409 S6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy --- 409 Results: S6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy never showed signs of failure. A picture of the saline test compartment where the motors were exposed to the saline spray and atmosphere test is shown below:
  21. 21. 21 Figure 3 Saline Containment Chamber shown above used test hydraulic motors in offsite Saline Spray Test. The coating composition, hours of exposure, analysis and pictures for each motor included in this test are listed in the figures below:
  22. 22. 22 Figure 4 shows motors below at 0 Hrs of exposure as they appear prior to introducing them to offsite Saline Testing. Note the red coloring on the bolts of the S-9 motor is from the red covered motor, and this transference of material did not take place in the Saline test chamber. Figure 4
  23. 23. 23 Figure 4 continued
  24. 24. 24 In Figure 5 below After 8 hours of offsite Saline Testing surface acidity developing on WKCV-4T5 sample, the S-5 Zn plated motor shows more surface acidity than that which has developed on WKCV-4T5. The shaft on S-7 Novelak Epoxy coated and S-6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy motor shows a lot of rust but is not a concern since the shaft would not be exposed in its normal design configuration. The Ni plated (on far left) shows signs of corrosion and surface rust. S-2 Copper/Ni showed slight coating derogation. Fire sprayed zinc sample showed slight surface acidity as evidence by the splotched discolorations. After 24 hours of offsite Saline Testing surface acidity developed on the WKCV-4T5 motor had tripled, the S-5 Zn plated motor surface acidity had increased proportionally with that which has developed on the WKCV-4T5 motor. The shafts on S- 7 Novelak Epoxy coated and S-6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy motor showed slightly increase in rust in addition to that which was observed after 8.The Ni plated (on far left) showed greater increased signs of corrosion and surface rust. S-2 Copper/Ni showed increased coating derogation and evidence of coating failure forthcoming. Fire sprayed zinc sample showed increased surface acidity as evidence by the fully splotched discolored housing. Figure 5
  25. 25. 25 Figure 5 cont.
  26. 26. 26 Figure 6 below show the motors after 78 hours of offsite Saline Testing where surface acidity has completely engulfed the coating on the WKCV-4T5 motor. Half the shafts on S-9 Novelak Epoxy coated and S-6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy motors are oxidized but the housing of S-6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy motor continues to be unblemished. However the housing on S-9 Novelak Epoxy coated is starting to show signs of corrosion around the bolted areas where deep groves are located. This is due to there not being a sacrificial component as found in the S-6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy motor. The coating on the red motor above is starting to deteriorate to the point that the coating appears to be melting away. The S-5 Zn plated motor surface acidity has increased to the point that the coating is beginning to show signs of derogation. Fire sprayed zinc sample shows further increased surface acidity. The S-2 Cu Ni plated motor is showing extreme evidence of coating failure and oxidation penetration in the groove housing of the motor; this motor was removed from the test sequence at this juncture. Figure 6
  27. 27. 27 Figure 6 cont
  28. 28. 28 Figure 7 below show the motors after 168 hours of offsite Saline Testing S-7 Novelak Epoxy and S-9 plated with Novelak Epoxy show no dramatic change although the bolts on the motor head have continued to oxidize and the shafts are completely oxidized. Note surface acidity has completely engulfed the coating on the WKCV-4T5 motor. Half the shafts on S-9 Novelak Epoxy coated and S-6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy motors are oxidized, the housing of S-6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy motor continues to be unblemished. This is due to there not being a sacrificial component as found in the S-6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy motor. The coating on the red motor continues to deteriorate rapidly and the bolt holes begin to show sign of corrosion as well. The S-5 zinc plated motor is starting to show corrosion on top of the acid which has taken over the coating. The fire spray Zn coated motor shows continued acid take over.
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30 Figure 7 above
  31. 31. 31 Figure 8 below shows the motors after 250 hours of offsite Saline Testing. The S-7 Novelak Epoxy and S-9 plated with Novelak Epoxy showed no dramatic change but the bolts on the motor head have continued to oxidize even more along with the WKCV-4T5 and S-5 Zn plated motor had failed the test and been removed from the sample all of which were not shown below. Fire Sprayed Zn was considered failed in figure below at this point and removed from the sample. Since there was no further change evident for the Novelak Epoxy motors after 290 hours they were also not shown below for this reason. Figure 8
  32. 32. 32 In figure 9 below at 409 hrs no further change at the macroscopic level was evident and the Novelak with Zn S-6 sample was selected since it showed no signs of corrosion. Figure 10
  33. 33. 33 Engineering Path Forward: As a result of the successful testing, engineering has changed the plating configuration to the following: electro-deposited zinc as the substrate, applied 0.0012 inch thick in accordance with the requirements for Grade B coatings in SAE Standard AMSQQN290, with three coats of two-part epoxy paint supplied by Burke Industrial Coating Recommended New Plating Design: A blue print of the chemical composition, micro structure, and properties of elements used for the current plating process of the motors that were rusting is defined below. As a result of the successful testing, engineering has changed the plating configuration to the following: electro-deposited zinc as the substrate, applied 0.0012 inch thick in accordance with the requirements for Grade B coatings in SAE Standard AMSQQN290, with three coats of two-part epoxy paint supplied by Burke Industrial Coating. The zinc substrate will serve as a sacrificial mechanism that would protect the motor against corrosion if the epoxy surface is derogated [2]. The zinc possesses the ability to flow evenly in thin layers and divert into tight voids of the motor housing. The Fe-Zn alloy had an iron content measured close too ½ wt accuracy and did not include any sub- situational or interstitial elements that would affect the crystal structure or micro structure’s properties [2]. With Zinc and Three Coat/ Two Part Epoxy Paint Component: Zinc 1. SCOPE This specification covers the requirements for Electro deposited zinc on steel hydraulic electric motors for the organization. Application Process: Electro deposited zinc in accordance with AMS-QQ-N-290 Grade B .0012 inch thick All requirements, testing, inspection, and quality should meet the standards specified in AMS-QQ-N-290 SYSTEM #3, EXTREME DUTY LIQUID EPOXY STAINLESS STEEL PAINTING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
  34. 34. 34 1. SCOPE 1.1This specification covers cleaning, priming and painting of bare metal surfaces. The system recommended is suitable for long-term protection of the units. 1.2This system is a complete water base painting system. 2. DESCRIPTION 2.1 This system consists of cleaning areas to be painted followed by one coat of high performance water base primer and one coat of a high performance water base topcoat pigmented with 316L Stainless Steel Flake, followed by one coat of a water base CE Series clear epoxy. 3. SURFACE PREPARATION 3.1 Spray all surfaces with Burke’s BC 4000 Cleaner/degreaser thinned 9 parts water to one part cleaner. Let set one to two minutes and then remove by washing with water or hand wiping with clean rags. 3.2 Make sure all water and cleaner is completely removed. 3.3 Visually inspect all areas to be primed and/or painted to make sure that they are clean and have no contaminants on them. 4. APPLICATION 4.1 Stir all products thoroughly with a mechanical stirrer or shaker prior to use. 4.2 While the primer and topcoats recommended in this specification can be applied by brush or roller, it is recommended to apply these products by spray application for best appearance and most consistent film build. These products will spray through conventional, airless, air-assisted airless and HVLP spray equipment. Follow equipment manufacturer’s recommendations for tip size for use with medium to heavy viscosity paints. 4.3 Apply primers and topcoats and heat cure according to the Burk Heat Formula by performing the following: Apply primers and topcoats when air and surface temperatures exceed 50°F and are less than 95°F and the relative humidity is less than 85%. At 70°F and 50% R.H., these coatings will dry to touch in 45-60 minutes. They can be recoated approximately 1 hour after they are dry to touch. This system must also be heat cured by allowing each coat to flash off for 15 minutes, then heat cure for 20 minutes with the oven temperature set at 175°F. Each coat must be heat cured before applying the next coat.
  35. 35. 35 4.4 Strain all primers and topcoats through a nylon strainer bag prior to use. 4.5 These products need no induction time prior to use. 5. PRODUCTS SPECIFIED 5.1 Primer: BURKE INDUSTRIAL COATINGS Steel Plus Epoxy Primer, product # 30- 0860, two component, water base, zinc phosphate, rust inhibitive primer. 5.1.1 Apply one coat at 5.5-6.5 mils wet to achieve 2.5-3.0 mils dry film thickness. Take care to maintain millage on hard to coat areas such as bolt threads, edges and angles. Check film build with a dry film thickness gauge in multiple locations and record the average film thickness. Areas that fall below 2.5 mils dry film shall be given an additional coat and retested for adequate film build. 5.2 Topcoat: BURKE INDUSTRIAL COATINGS Steel Plus CE-316 Stainless Epoxy, product # 10-808, two component, water base, rust inhibitive coating pigmented with 316L Stainless Steel Flake supplied in metallic gray. 5.2.1 Apply one coat at 6-7 mils wet film to achieve 2.5-3.0 mils dry film thickness. Take care to maintain millage on hard to coat areas such as bolt threads, edges and angles. Check film build with a dry film thickness gauge in multiple locations and record the average film thickness, which should be 5-6 mils total for primer and topcoat. Areas that fall below 5 mils shall be given another topcoat and retested for adequate film build. 5.3 Topcoat: BURKE INDUSTRIAL COATINGS Steel Plus CE Clear Epoxy, product # 20-0450, two component, water base, high gloss finish. 5.3.1 Apply one coat at 8 mils wet film to achieve 2.5mils dry film thickness. Take care to maintain millage on hard to coat areas such as bolt threads, edges and angles. Check film build with a dry film thickness gauge in multiple locations and record the average film thickness, which should be 7.5 mils total for primer and topcoats. Areas that fall below 7.5 mils shall be given another topcoat and retested for adequate film build. 6. INSPECTION 6.1 All work and materials supplied under this specification shall be subject to timely inspection by the owner or their authorized representative. The painter shall correct such work that is found to be defective under this specification. 7. CLEANUP
  36. 36. 36 7.1 Both the primer and topcoat are low VOC, non-flammable coatings and use soap and water for cleanup. Clean equipment IMMEDIATELY after use. 8. SAFETY INFORMATION 8.1 Specific safety information is found in the Product Data Sheet and the MSDS sheets that are supplied with each shipment of product. Those sheets should be attached and made a part of this specification. 8.2 The vendor or applicator is required to comply with all governmental regulations. 8.3 These products are designed for industrial application by qualified, professional applicators. 9. STORAGE INFORMATION 9.1 Keep containers closed when not using. 9.2 Keep containers away from children. 9.3 Store containers in an area that can maintain temperatures between 45°F and 90°F. 10. NOTES 10.1 While every precaution is taken to insure that all the information furnished in BIC guides is as accurate, complete and useful as possible, it is up to the customer to make sure that these recommendations work within their application systems. Summary: In conclusion the new plating process was developed and a trade secret obtained on the coating process listed the prior paragraph. The engineering bulletin in Appendix C was presented and released to the organization to implement the process within the organization and define changes warranted in the production system. The document that was issued to department heads and presented to the organization to implement the new hydraulic motor coating process which cost the company an additional $13 per motor on average is shown in Appendix C.
  37. 37. 37 Appendix A In House Chemical Testing of Stanly Proctor Motors Set 1 Parker Motor -2562 Paquin Motor 1 #/Date Chemical/Time Tested 2008 Fatsolve D-Trol Saltwater By Comments 1.) 1/25 15 Min. 15 Min. Gotschall 2.) 1/25 15 Min. 15 Min. Gotschall Air dry 3.) 1/29 15 Min. 15 Min. Gotschall 4.) 1/29 15 Min. 15 Min. Gotschall 5.) 1/29 15 Min. 15 Min. Gotschall Air dry 6.) 1/30 24 Hr. Gotschall Air dry 7.) 2/4 24 Hr. Gotschall Air dry 8.) 9.) 10.) 11.) 12.) 13.) 14.) 15.) 16.) 17.) 18.) 19.) 20.) Notes: The test was to simulate one week of cleaning. The part was soaked in two solutions, Fatsolve (soft metal safe, heavy-duty cleaner) and D-Trol (sanitizer). The chemicals were mixed at the highest concentration recommended by Johnson Diversey. The part was soaked for 15 minutes for a normal foam time. The part was washed with hot water after each soak period in both chemicals. The salt water test was to simulate sea water when the part is shipped over seas. The part was not washed after the soak period. During first 24 hour time the part was submerged in the salt water solution. The second 24 hours the part was not submerged, and the water was heated to 70 degrees Celsius to create condensation. The mix of the salt water is 1/2 cup salt to one gallon of water.
  38. 38. 38 In House Chemical Testing of Stanly Proctor Motors Set 1 Parker Motor -2563 Paquin motor 2 #/Date Chemical/Time Tested 2008 Fatsolve D-Trol Saltwater By Comments 1.) 1/25 15 Min. 15 Min. 2.) 1/25 15 Min. 15 Min. Air dry 3.) 1/29 15 Min. 15 Min. 4.) 1/29 15 Min. 15 Min. 5.) 1/29 15 Min. 15 Min. Air dry 6.) 1/30 24 Hr. Air dry 7.) 2/4 24 Hr. Air dry 8.) 9.) 10.) 11.) 12.) 13.) 14.) 15.) 16.) 17.) 18.) 19.) 20.) Notes: The test was to simulate one week of cleaning. The part was soaked in two solutions, Fatsolve (soft metal safe, heavy-duty cleaner) and D-Trol (sanitizer). The chemicals were mixed at the highest concentration recommended by Johnson Diversey. The part was soaked for 15 minutes for a normal foam time. The part was washed with hot water after each soak period in both chemicals. The salt water test was to simulate sea water when the part is shipped over seas. The part was not washed after the soak period. During first 24 hour time the part was submerged in the salt water solution. The second 24 hours the part was not submerged, and the water was heated to 70 degrees Celsius to create condensation. The mix of the salt water is 1/2 cup salt to one gallon of water.
  39. 39. 39 S - 5 Zinc /2008 Chemical/Time Tested #/Date OXOFOAM VF5 By Comments 1.) 5/1 15 Min. Air Dry 2.) 5/1 15 Min. Air Dry 3.) 5/1 15 Min. Air Dry 4.) 5/2 15 Min. Air Dry 5.) 5/2 15 Min. Air Dry 6.) 5/2 15 Min. Air Dry 7.) 5/5 15 Min. Air Dry 8.) 5/5 15 Min. Air Dry 9.) 5/5 15 Min. Air Dry 10.) 5/5 15 Min. Air Dry 11.) 12.) 13.) 14.) 15.) 16.) 17.) 18.) 19.) 20.) Notes: The test was to simulate two weeks of cleaning. The part was foamed with one solution, Johnson Diversey's OXOFOAM. The chemical was mixed at double the highest concentration recommended by Johnson Diversey. The part was foamed and had 15 minutes of contact time. The part was washed with hot water after each of the contact time and left to air dry. Oxofoam was foamed at a 10% solution with a mix of 12.8 oz to 1 US gal.
  40. 40. 40 S - 2 Copper/Nickel Motor /2008 Chemical/Time Tested #/Date OXOFOAM VF5 By Comments 1.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 2.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 3.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 4.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 5.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 6.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 7.) 4/28 15 Min. Air Dry 8.) 4/28 15 Min. Air Dry 9.) 4/29 15 Min. Air Dry 10.) 4/29 15 Min. Air Dry 11.) 12.) 13.) 14.) 15.) 16.) 17.) 18.) 19.) 20.) Notes: The test was to simulate two weeks of cleaning. The part was foamed with one solution, Johnson Diversey's OXOFOAM. The chemical was mixed at double the highest concentration recommended by Johnson Diversey. The part was foamed and had 15 minutes of contact time. The part was washed with hot water after each of the contact time and left to air. Oxofoam was foamed at a 10% solution with a mix of 12.8 oz to 1 US gal.
  41. 41. 41 S3 Stainless Steel & Red Motor /2008 Chemical/Time Tested #/Date OXOFOAM VF5 By Comments 1.) 4/15 15 Min. Air Dry 2.) 4/15 15 Min. Air Dry 3.) 4/15 15 Min. Air Dry 4.) 4/15 15 Min. Air Dry 5.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 6.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 7.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 8.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 9.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 10.) 4/25 15 Min. Air Dry 11.) 12.) 13.) 14.) 15.) 16.) 17.) 18.) 19.) 20.) Notes: The test was to simulate two weeks of cleaning. The part was foamed with one solution, Johnson Diversey's OXOFOAM. The chemical was mixed at double the highest concentration recommended by Johnson Diversey. The part was foamed and had 15 minutes of contact time. The part was washed with hot water after each of the contact time and left to air.
  42. 42. 42 Appendix B TEL: 360-887-8819 FAX: 360-887-8825 600 S. 74 th Place, Suite 108 Ridgefield, WA 98642 www.burkeindustrialcoatings.com USDA Certification for Steel Plus CE Series Clear Epoxy This is to certify that Steel Plus CE Series Clear Epoxy, product number 20-450, meets the current requirements of the Food Safety and Inspection Service of USDA for use in Federally Inspected Meat and Poultry Plants. Steel Plus is manufactured by BIC Corporation-Ridgefield, dba Burke Industrial Coatings at the address on this letterhead. When used in conjunction with the recommended primer and applied according to label and product data directions, Steel Plus CE Series is suitable for use on food processing and packaging equipment and will not result in the adulteration of food products. Steel Plus CE Series will perform well under a daily regimen of rigorous cleaning, temperature change and wet conditions, is impervious to moisture and is a Clear finish that will not obscure detection of debris or unsanitary conditions. Steel Plus CE Series contains no known carcinogens, mutagens or teratogens classified as hazardous substances, heavy metals or other toxic substances and is not considered a pesticide, nor does it have pesticidal characteristics. Should FSIS ever require the complete chemical composition for Steel Plus CE Series, it will be submitted upon their request for that information. Certified by: Darrell Badertscher Vice-president/Technical Director DB/dj 20-450USDA
  43. 43. 43 Appendix C Routing: Stein Stein International Northfield Frigo North America Helsingborg Bulletin Number Product Revision Date Author Approved By: Engineering Contacts 20008/7/14 New Plating Design for Hydraulic Motors All Hydraulic Breaders, Batter Applicators, and Conveyers Anthony Sublett Anthony Sublett New Plating Design for Hydraulic Motors Reason for Change Project Introduction: ORGANIZATION currently uses nickel-plated hydraulic motors on breaders, batter applicators, and conveyers that are sold both domestically and internationally. It has come to the attention of the organization that many of the motors are rusting after sitting on the shelves at some customers’ manufacturing facilities for as little as two months, or after shipping overseas. The current nickel plating corrodes when exposed to caustic, sea air and salt water. Project Scope: The Coating Line Team has team has taken on and successfully completed the task of developing a new plating configuration for hydraulic motors that is capable of withstanding exposure to the caustic cleaning solutions, salt water, and sea air. Battery of Tests Performed: Preliminary Caustic Test: Nine different plating (coating) configurations were tested in a caustic test here at Organization to simulate two weeks of cleaning. The part was foamed with one solution, Johnson Diversey's OXOFOAM® . The chemical was mixed at double the highest concentration recommended by Johnson Diversey. The part was foamed and had 15 minutes of contact time. The part was washed with hot water after each of the contact times and left to air dry. This process was repeated nine times. All nine plating configurations that were tested passed the caustic test. Saline Test: The second phase of testing was a saline test, in accordance with ASTM B117, performed at CTL labs, in which the nine specimens were kept in a chamber and sprayed with a salt spray consisting of +/-5 parts by mass of NaCl (sodium chloride) in 95 parts of water. During the test, drops of solution were allowed to accumulate on the ceiling and drop down onto the motor. The nickel plating (our current plating configuration) failed after eight hours of the salt test, but the zinc with Novelak Epoxy coating survived 409 hours of salt test (see tests results and pictures below).
  44. 44. 44 The following plating configurations were tested as denoted in the aforementioned paragraphs : Plating Configuration Red Dust Hrs of Testing Test Stopped After hrs of Testing Base line: Ni Plated 8 24 S2 Cu-Ni 57 78 WKCV-4TV Bright Zinc 168 195 Red Motor 195 219 S7 Novelak Epoxy only 219 409 S9 Ni plated w Novelak Epoxy 250 409 Fire Spray Zn 409 409 S6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy --- 409 Results: S6 Zn with Novelak Epoxy never showed signs of failure. Future Tests: Even though these preliminary tests indicate that this plating will not corrode when exposed to caustic, salt water, or sea air, engineering will be testing the zinc with Novelak in a more vigorous caustic test that will simulate life cycle exposure, during which the sample will sit in caustic for 24 hours. This test will be photographed and documented, and this cycle will be repeated for several iterations. This test will also allow us to evaluate different shaft materials as they are exposed to the caustic over a long duration. Description of Change Path Forward: As a result of the successful testing, engineering has changed the plating configuration to the following: electro-deposited zinc as the substrate, applied 0.0012 inch thick in accordance with the requirements for Grade B coatings in SAE Standard AMSQQN290, with three coats of two-part epoxy paint supplied by Burke Industrial Coating. The zinc substrate will protect the motor against corrosion if the epoxy surface is derogated.
  45. 45. 45 Validation Saline Test Results: Pictures of zinc with Novelak Epoxy and our current nickel-plate motor after caustic test but prior to saline test. After 8 hrs of saline testing note that the nickel- plated motor (our current plating configuration) has failed, as opposed to the zinc with Novelak Epoxy-plated motor, which is unblemished. After 409 hrs of saline testing the zinc with Novelak Epoxy- plated motor is still unblemished.
  46. 46. 46 Summary and Conclusion: Because the zinc with Novelak plating outlasted our current nickel plating by over 400 hours in the latest testing, the new plating configuration is expected to be many times stronger than what we currently specify for our hydraulic motors. For this reason, engineering recommends switching to the zinc with Novelak plating. Affected Part Numbers Old Part No. Rev Description New Part No. 406-90-0024 Motor, Hydraulic, Main Belt, 2.4 GPM 406-10-0150 406-90-88 Motor Hydraulic, Hopper, 1.1 GPM 406-10-0151 406-90-0023 Motor Hydraulic, Cross Feed /Spreader, 4.6 GPM 406-10-0149 406-90-0022 Motor Hydraulic, Vertical Screw, 7.1 GPM 406-10-0148 406-10-0076 Motor Hydraulic, Breader Feeder, 0.2 GPM 406-10-0154 406-00-0075 Motor Hydraulic, Rotating Vibrator, 1.2 GPM 406-10-0153 Comments The aforementioned part numbers are only for the breaders, however this plating will be applied to all hydraulic motors. Other Affected Parts Part No. Part No. Part No. Part No. All Hydraulic Motors Notes: Affected Customers Customer Name Comments Inghams Lisarow, Ingham’s E.P. and all future customers Test results and pictures illustrate using zinc as a substrate with the 3 coats of two-part epoxy paint would be the best plating configuration for the company’s hydraulic motor application.
  47. 47. 47 References 1. CliffsNotes.com, ―What is the chemical composition of saltwater?‖; 10 Jun 2008 <http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-305406,articleId-8202.html>. 2. John A. Shey;‖Introduction to Manufacturing Processes‖; Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Waterloo, Ontario Canada; 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill Services in mechanical engineering 2000. 3. ASTM Designation: B 117 – 03 Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus,‖ G 85 Practice for Modified Salt Spray (Fog) Testing‖; ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. 4. Jerome Kruger;‖Electrochemistry of Corrosion‖; John Hopkins University Baltimore Maryland 21218 April 2001. http://electrochem.cwru.edu/encycl/art- c02-corrosion.htm. 5. Martin Tarr, ―Corrosion‖; http://www.ami.ac.uk/course/topics/0157_corr/index.htmlelectrochem.cwru.edu/e ncycl/art-c02-corrosion.htm. 6. George Dieter, ‖Mechanical Metallurgy‖; 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill Services in Materials Engineering 1987. 7. George Shaw, ―Optimizing Paint Durability, Part 1‖; US Army, tank Automotive and Armaments Command, Warren, MI. 2011.http://www.gieringmetalfinishing.com/Optimozing_Paint_Durability.pdf
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