2. What is climate "Climate" is a very
general term that has a
variety of closely related
"climate" refers to the
average, or typical,
observed over a long
period of time for a
Weather is the combined short-term conditions found in the lower
These conditions include precipitation, or rain and snow, as well as
wind, pressure, storminess, cloudiness, and various other
Weather is a every changing short-term, localized phenomena.
4. In India there are SIX climatic zones
Hot & Dry
Warm & Humid
Cold & Sunny
Cold & Cloudy
5. Warm & Humid
Warm- Humid climate are
found in a belt near the equator
extending to about 150* North
Air Temperature reaches mean
maximum during the day of
between 27* and 32*C.
At night the mean minimum
varies between 21* and 27*C
6. The warm and humid zone covers the
coastal parts of the country, such as Kerala,
Tamilnadu & Goa. The main design criteria
in the warm and humid region are to
reduce heat gain by providing shading, and
promote heat loss by maximizing cross
Warm & Humid
(climate in India)
7. Warm & Humid
(zones in India)
2. Tamil Nadu
5. Andhra Pradesh
9. West Bengal
8. CHARACTERSTICS OF
WARM AND HUMID CLIMATE
High humidity, strong sun, glare from
the sky and horizon.
There are long monsoon periods with
The breezes, especially in coastal areas,
can alleviate discomfort considerably.
9. Basic terms used in
Warm & Humid
1. Mean Temperature
Summer Midday = 30-35*C Night = 25-30*C
Winter Midday = 25-30*C Night = 20-25*C
11. 3. Landscape and Vegetation
Generally low altitude and latitude.
Relatively flat region with abundant vegetation.
12. 4. Precipitation
High generally in excess
Usually 1 or 2 prevailing
direction with velocity
ranging from extremely
low to very high.
13. 6. Sky Condition
High humidity and low
variations cause great
discomfort, if air
movement is not there.
Design Objectives :
1. Resisting heat gain
a) Decreasing surface area of building exposed to
b) Using that material that take longer time to heat
c) Increasing shading of the building in general.
d) Using material that reflect heat.
2. Promoting heat loss
a) Appliances used are well ventilated.
b) Proper ventilation occurs throughout the day.
C) Humidity levels are reduced as much as possible.
General recommendations for building
design in warm & humid climate:
*For flat sites, for design
consideration for the
landform is immaterial.
*In case of slopes and
building should be
located on windward
side or crest to take
advantage of cool
b) Open spaces & build form
*Buildings should be
spread out with large
open spaces in between
for unrestricted air
*In cities, buildings on
stilts can promote
ventilation and cause
cooling at ground level.
c) Water bodies
*Water bodies are not
essential as they would
tend to further increase
d) Street width & orientation
*A north-south direction is ideal
from the point of view of blocking
*The width of street should be
such that the intense solar
radiation during late morning and
early afternoon is avoid during the
18. 2. Orientation & Platform
a) As temperature is not
very high, free plants ca
be evolve as long as
house is under protective
b) An obstructed air path
through the interiors ate
important to ensure
c) The buildings could be
long and narrow to allow
cross-ventilation. A singly
loaded corridor plan.
a) Heat and moisture
producing areas like toilets
and kitchens must be
ventilated and separated
from the rest of structure.
b) Semi open spaces such as
balconies & porches can
be used advantageously
for day time activity..
c) In multistoried building a
central courtyard can be
provided with vents at
higher level to draw away
rising hot air.
3. Building Envelope
* In addition to provide
shelter from rain and heat,
the form of roof should be
planned to promote air flow.
* Vents at the rooftop
effectively induce ventilation
and draw hot air out.
* Insulation doesn’t provide
any additional benefit.
* A double roof with a
ventilated space in between
can also be used to promote
* The walls must also be
designed to promote air
flow so as to counter
the prevalent humidity.
* Baffle walls, both inside
and outside the
building can help to
divert the flow of wind
* They should be
protected from the
heavy rainfall prevalent
in such areas.
* Cross ventilation is of
utmost importance in
warm and humid
* All doors & windows
should preferably be
kept open for maximum
ventilation for most of
* These must be provided
with venetian blinds to
shelter the rooms from
the sun and rain, as well
as for control of
a) The opening should be
shaded by external
b) Outlets at higher level
serve to vent hot air.
In next slide you will see how the air
movement within a room can be better
d) Color & Texture
* The walls should be painted light pastel
shades or whitewashed, white surface of
the roof be of broken tile to reflect
sunlight back to the environment, and
hence reduce heat gain.
* The surface finish should be protected
from effects of moisture.
* The use of appropriate colors & surface
finishes is a cheap & very effective
technique to lower indoor temperature.
* Ceiling fans are effective in reducing
level of discomfort in this climate.
* In case of air conditioned buildings,
dehumidification plays an important role
in design of plant.
* Careful water proofing & drainage of
water are essential consideration of
building design due to heavy rainfall.
* Desiccant cooling techniques can be
employed as they reduce the humidity
27. Example of
Warm and Humid
It responds to the climate with
steep sloping high tiled roofs,
with deep eaves.
The sides are open to the breeze,
and air ventilates up through the
porous tile roofs, ensuring that
the indoor temperature does not
28. • Using open slatted or perforated
timber screens on sides of
verandahs cuts out glare,
ensures privacy but allows the
breeze flow across the rooms.
• Walls are white to reflect the
sun, and often completely
shaded by the verandahs.
• For a cluster of buildings, an
openness of planning, to allow
the natural breeze to flow
through them is of paramount
• Kerala architecture can be broadly
divided into distinctive areas based
on their functionality, each guided
by different set of principles.
• The gabled roof and ceiling roof
works are prime features of Kerala
• Primarily patronized by temples of
Kerala as well as several old
churches, mosques etc.
• The circular roofs of temple are
direct legacy of Buddhist influences
in Ancient Kerala Architectural
The natural building materials available for
construction in Kerala are stones, timber,
clay and palm leaves. Granite is a strong
and durable building stone; however its
availability is restricted mostly to the
highlands and only marginally to other
zones.. Lime mortar can be improved in
strength and performance by admixtures of
vegetable juices. Such enriched mortars
were used for plastering or for serving as
the base for mural painting and low relief
work. Timber is the prime structural
material abundantly available in many
varieties in Kerala - from bamboo to teak.
Clay was used in many forms - for walling,
in filling the timber floors and making
bricks and tiles after plugging and
tempering with admixtures. Palm leaves
were used effectively for thatching the roofs
and for making partition walls.