Any relatively permanent change in behavior
brought about by experience or practice.
•When people learn anything, some part of their
brain is physically changed to record what they
•AQUIRED THROUGH SMOKING
3. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING-:
Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the
original natural stimulus other that normally produces the reflex.
A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that
would not ordinarily produce such a response.
• Unconditioned stimulus
• Unconditioned response
• Conditioned stimulus
• Conditioned response
UNCONDITIONAL STIMULUS – A natural occurring stimulus that leads
to an involuntary response.
UNCONDITIONAL RESPONSE - An involuntary response to a naturally
occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
CONDITIONED STIMULUS - Stimulus that becomes able to produce a
learned reflex response by being paired with the original
CONDITIONED RESPONSE – A learned reflex response to a
7. OPERANT CONDITIONING(skinner)-:
The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and
unpleasant consequences to responses.
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or
prevents a punishment.
8. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
ALBERT BANDURA AND ROTTER
People can learn through observation and direct experience.
Social learning theory posits that learning is a cognitive process that takes
place in social context and can occur purely through observation or direct
instruction even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement.
His theory added a social element arguing that people can learn new
information and behavior by watching other people known as observational
9. Social Learning TheorySocial Learning Theory
Learn by observing others and through direct experiences
Models have influence when the following processes occur:
10. NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE
• The extent to which we are exposed to notice the behaviour.
• For a behaviour to be imitated it has to grab our attention.
• We observe many behaviour on a daily basis and many of these are not note
• Attention is therefore extremely important in whether a behaviour has a influence
on others imitating it.
Retention is described as how well the behaviour is
The behaviour maybe noticed; but not always remembered
which obviously prevents imitation.
It is important therefore that a memory of the behaviour is
formed to be performed later by the observer.
Even if the behaviour is reproduced shortly after seeing it ;
there needs to be a memory to refer to.
12. 3. Reproduction:-
This is the ability to perform the behaviour that we retain.
We see much behaviour on a daily basis that we would like to be
able to imitate but that this is not always possible.
We are limited by our physical ability and for that reason ; even if we
wish to reproduce the behaviour ; we cannot.
This influences our decision whether to try and imitate it or not.
13. 4. Motivation:-
The will to perform the behaviour is motivation.
The rewards and punishment that follows a behaviour
will be considered by the observer.
If the perceived reward outweighs the perceived cost
then the behaviour will be more likely to be imitated
by the observer.
If the vicarious reinforcement is not seen to be
important enough to the observer then they will not
imitate the behaviour.
14. Shaping Behaviour
It is a process of Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the
Reinforcement helps a lot in changing the behavior of individual ;as people repeat behaviors that leads
to positive feelings.
To change the behavior you must first find the right reward i.e. something which the person values or
Same reward may not work for everyone.
The timing of reward affects learning, speed and permanence.
The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
16. •Cognitive Learning Theory is a theory that explains
thinking and differing mental processes and how they
are influenced by internal and external factors in order
to produce learning in individuals.
•These cognitive processes are: observing,
categorizing, thinking and forming generalizations
about our environment.
17. MYRE’S BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
• MBTI is a tool that helps one know about the personality.
• The best reason to choose the MBTI instrument to discover your personality type is that
hundreds of studies over the past 40 years have proven the instrument to be both valid and
Favourite world: Do you prefer to focus on the outer world or on your own inner world? This
is called Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I).
Information: Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take in or do you prefer to
interpret and add meaning? This is called Sensing (S) or Intuition (N).
Decisions: When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at logic and consistency or
first look at the people and special circumstances? This is called Thinking (T) or Feeling
Structure: In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you
prefer to stay open to new information and options? This is called Judging (J) or Perceiving
20. Thorndike’s law of effect
A law developed by Edward L. Thorndike that states,
"responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation
become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses
that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again
in that situation."
21. Types of reinforcement
• Negative reinforcement serves to encourage a certain positive behavior by
taking away a negative stimulus.
• Example: If someone does something wrong, they get a thumbs down. Then
they know they did something wrong.
• Positive reinforcement involves anything that follows a behavior that makes
it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future.
• Example: If someone does something right, they get thumbs up. Then they
know that they did something right and they will continue to do so.
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable
Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its
23. "The schedule of reinforcement for a particular behaviour
specifies whether every response is followed by reinforcement
or whether only some responses are followed by
- Miltenberger (2007, p.86)
Schedules of Reinforcement
24. Continuous Schedule of Reinforcement (CRF)
Within an educational setting, a CRF would mean that the
teacher would deliver reinforcement after every correct response from
their student/s. For example, if you were teaching a student to read the
letters A, B, C, and D, then everytime you presented one of these letters
to your student and they correctly read the letter then you would
25. Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating
but not every time it is demonstrated
There are four basic types of intermittent schedules of reinforcement and
Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule.
Fixed Interval (FI) Schedule.
Variable-Ratio (VR) schedule.
Variable-Interval (VI) schedule.
26. Fixed-Ratio Schedule (FR)
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement means that reinforcement should be
delivered after a constant or “fixed” number of correct responses.
27. Variable-Ratio Schedule (VR)
When using a variable-ratio (VR) schedule of reinforcement the
delivery of reinforcement will “vary” but must average out at a
29. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
It can be defined as a theory that explains
learning in terms of antecedents and
consequences of behavior.
It is also known as operant conditioning and
It represents the application of reinforcement
concept of individuals in the work setting.
33. REWARD SYSTEM
Reward is the attractive and motivational property of a
stimulus that induces appetitive behavior.
Reward system consists of al organizational components
involved in allocating compensation and benefits to
employees in exchange for their contribution to the
34. PURPOSE OF REWARD SYSTEM
Motivating enhance performance
Developing employee skill
35. TYPES OF REWARD
Intrinsic reward - An intrinsic reward is an intangible award of recognition, a sense of
achievement, or a conscious satisfaction.
For example, it is the knowledge that you did something right, or you helped
someone and made their day better. Because intrinsic rewards are intangible, they
usually arise from within the person who is doing the activity or behavior.
Extrinsic reward - An extrinsic reward is an award that is tangible or physically given
to you for accomplishing something. It is a tangible recognition of ones endeavor.
For example, it’s a certificate of accomplishment, a trophy or medal for winning the
race, a badge or points for doing something right, or even a monetary reward for
doing your job. Because extrinsic rewards are tangible, they are usually given to the
person doing the activity; as such, they are typically not from within the person.
36. DIRECT AND INDIRECT PAY
Direct pay is the money directly paid to employees in exchange for their labor. Direct
compensation includes wages, salaries, bonuses, tips and commissions.
Indirect pay is a benefit given to an employee that has financial value, but is not a
direct monetary payment. It is often referred to as a noncash benefit. In certain
circumstances, these noncash benefits may be more valuable to an employee than a
high salary or wage.
37. Government and pay
In Europe and North America, the government has a very strong
influence over employee reward. Taxes reduce the size of the direct
pay received by employees. Yet even indirect pay can be taxed: in
some countries, such as Finland, the tax on benefits such as company
cars is so high, that many employees who qualify for them prefer to
Government also has an indirect influence over pay. Fiscal and
monetary policy will affect the economy, and change worker income.
For example, more government subsidies to small businesses may
decrease unemployment; as unemployment approaches zero, the cost
of labour will rise as it becomes more scarce. In addition, the public
sector, which typically employs a lot of people in western
democracies, can impact pay trends by exercising tight control over
their own pay levels.