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The Siloization of the IoT: A Guide out of the App trap

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This keynote at the SSN workshop (https://ssn2018.github.io) presents the new W3C/OGC SOSA/SSN ontology and discusses challenges and issues with metadata standards in the Internet of Things.

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The Siloization of the IoT: A Guide out of the App trap

  1. 1. The Siloization of the IoT: A Guide out of the App trap Armin Haller Australian National University
  2. 2. “We expect to see 20 billion internet-connected things by 2020.” [Gartner 2017] Gartner 2017: Leading the IoT. Available from: https://www.gartner.com/imagesrv/books/iot/iotEbook_digital.pdf
  3. 3. … but what do they look like
  4. 4. Enabled through common standards … • Physical Communication Bluetooth, 802.11 Wi-Fi, LPWAN, etc. • Network/Transport TCP/IPv4/IPv6, 6LowPAN etc. • Data Protocols HTTP/CoAP, Zigbee, Websocket, AMQP, MQTT etc.
  5. 5. … but many silos on the App level …
  6. 6. Some proprietary proposals … … for Discovery (e.g. Physical Web, HyperCat, UPnP) … …but standards are needed.
  7. 7. Remember? UDDI SOAP Service Provider Service Consumer W SDL W SDL Service Registry
  8. 8. Envisioned Web Service protocol stack Adopted from: F. Curbera, R. Khalaf, N. Mukhi, S. Tai, and S. Weerawarana. The next step in web services. In Commun. ACM, pages 29–34, 2013. Business Processes QoS Description and Discovery Messaging BPEL4WS WS- Security WS-Reliable Messaging WS-Addressing WS-Transaction WS-Coordination UDDI WS-Policy WSDL SOAP XML Transport HTTP SMTP
  9. 9. Business Processes QoS Description and Discovery Messaging BPEL4WS WS- Security WS-Reliable Messaging WS-Addressing WS-Transaction WS-Coordination UDDI WS-Policy WSDL SOAP XML Transport HTTP SMTP Real Web Service protocol stack
  10. 10. Adding semantics to Web Service stack
  11. 11. Adding semantics to Web Service stack
  12. 12. Reality JSON Service Provider Service Consumer OpenAPISpec(OAS) Schema .org Swagger
  13. 13. W3C SSN-XG 2012 W3C SOSA/SSN 2017
  14. 14. SOSA/SSN ontology onion-layers owl:imports (extends) normative non-normative Sensor Observation Sample and Actuator (SOSA)
  15. 15. SOSA core concepts Procedure observes forProperty madeBySensor madeBySampler madeByActuator hasFeatureOfInterest observedProperty actsOnPropoerty usedProcedure FeatureOfInterest time:TemporalEntity phenomenonTime xsd:dateTime resultTime isFeatureOfInterestOf madeObservation madeSampling madeActuation isObservedBy hasResult hasSimpleResult rdfs:Literal isResultOf implements implementedBy Actuator Sampler Sensor ActuatableProperty ObservableProperty Actuation Sampling Observation Result Sample isSampleOf hasSample hasProperty isPropertyOf
  16. 16. sosa:Platform nest/D1AA22A8211 sensor/927 sosa:hosts airTemperature sosa:observes observation/235714 sosa:observes sosa:observedProperty sosa:Sensor sosa:Observation 2018-09-15T14:35:13Z sosa:resultTime sosa:phenomenonTime _:b1 23:9 DEG sosa:hasSimpleResult house/134/bedroom sosa:hasFeatureOfInterest house/134 sosa:isSampleOf sosa:Sample sosa:FeatureOfInterest
  17. 17. Events PROV Actuatable Properties (Actions) Sensors/ Actuators FoIs Procedures System Capabilities Unit of Measures Observable Properties Thing DescriptionSOSA/SSN Geonames UM QUDT OWL-S Temporal Extent OWL Time Basic Geo DCAT Result Spatial Extent
  18. 18. Missing pieces • Standardized Taxonomy of Observable Properties (Quantities) – e.g. weight, height, temperature, color • Controlled Vocabulary of Features of Interest (Phenomena) per domain – e.g. waterbody, air, arm, heart, soil, fire • Industry Controlled Vocabulary of Sensor/Actuator types – e.g. scale, thermometer, pedometer, flame detector • Standardized Industry Procedures (i.e. computational, voice, gesture processes) – e.g. on/off, louder/quieter, twisting
  19. 19. Micro data RDFa … at the very least JSON Service Provider Service Consumer Actions Sensors/ Actuators FoIs Procedures System Capabilities Unit of Measures Observable Properties SCHEMA .ORG Temporal Extent Result Spatial Extent Events JSON -LD
  20. 20. Conclusion • Interoperability only guaranteed through the use of the Web platform (HTML5, HTTP) • Standardized metadata required to know how to interact with IoT devices • Established metadata standards (ontologies) still missing … schema.org may plug the gap in the short- term
  21. 21. QUESTIONS? http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/

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