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  1. 1. Anatomy of Female reproductive organs Submitted to: Dr K K Chopra Dr. Meenu Submitted by: Deepakshi baweja BAMS 3rd yr
  2. 2. 2 EXTERNAL GENTILIA  The vulva refers to those parts that are outwardly v isible  The vulva includes:  Mons pubis  Labia majora  Labia minora  Clitoris  Vestibule  Perineum
  3. 3. 3 The external genital structures o f the mature female
  4. 4. 4 MONS PUBIS(MONS VENERIS)  The triangular mound of fatty tissue that cove rs the pubic bone  It protects the pubic symphysis  During adolescence sex hormones trigger the growth of pubic hair on the mons pubis  Hair varies in coarseness curliness, amount, c olor and thickness
  5. 5. 5 LABIA MAJORA  Referred to as the outer lips  They have a darker pigmentation  The Labia Majora FUNCTION:  Protect the introitus and urethral openings  Are covered with hair and sebaceous glands  Mass of fat, plexus of veins It is homologous to scrotum in male
  6. 6. 6 LABIA MINORA (Nymphae)  Referred to as the “inner lips”  Made up of erectile, connective tissue that da rkens and swells during sexual arousal  Located inside the labia majora  They are more sensitive and responsive to to uch than the labia majora Lower portion fuses across midline to for m fold of skin called fourchette
  7. 7. 7 CLITORIS  Highly sensitive organ composed of nerves, bl ood vessels, and erectile tissue  It is made up of glans, a body , and two crura  Becomes engorged with blood during sexual s timulation  Urethral opening is located directly below c litoris
  8. 8. 8 Vestibule . Triangular space bounded anteriorly by clitoris p osteriorly by fourchette and on either side by labi a minora . It has four openings 1) urethral opening 2) vaginal oriface and hymen 3)opening Of Bartholin's ducts 4) skene's glands
  9. 9. 9 a) Urethral opening: It is situated in the midline just in front of vaginal orific e b) Vaginal orifice and hymen: It lies in posterior end of vestibule and is closed by sep tum of mucus membrane called hymen c) opening of Bartholin's ducts: It is two in number situated in the superficial perineal p ouch Secretes alkaline mucus which help in lubrication d) Skene's gland: These are largest paraurethral glands which is homolog ous to prostate in males
  10. 10. 10 PERINEUM  The muscle and tissue located between the v aginal opening and anal canal  It supports and surrounds the lower parts of t he urinary and digestive tracts  The perinium contains an abundance of nerve endings that make it sensitive to touch  An episiotomy is an incision of the perineum used during childbirth for widening the vagina l opening
  11. 11. 11 INTERNAL GENITALIA The internal genitalia consists of the:  Vagina  Cervix  Uterus  Fallopian Tubes  Ovaries
  12. 12. 12 Female Internal Reproductive Sys tem (side view)
  13. 13. 13 Female Internal Reproductive Sys tem (front view).
  14. 14. 14 VAGINA  The vagina connects the cervix to the externa l genitals  It is located between the bladder and rectum  It functions :  As a passageway for the menstrual flow  For uterine secretions to pass down through t he introitus  As the birth canal during labor  With the help of two Bartholin’s glands becom es lubricated during sexual intercourse
  15. 15. 15 CERVIX  The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina  The cervical opening to the vagina is small  This acts as a safety precaution against foreig n bodies entering the uterus  During childbirth, the cervix dilates to accom modate the passage of the fetus  This dilation is a sign that labor has begun
  16. 16. 16 UTERUS  A pear shaped organ  Located between bladder and rectum  Length: Nulliparous(6 to 8),Multiparous(9 to 10)  It is made up of the endometrium, myometrium and peri metrium  The powerful muscles of the uterus expand to accommo date a growing fetus and push it through the birth canal  It consists of 3 parts  a)Body or corpus b) Isthmus c) cervix
  17. 17. 17 Body : It has fundus , which lies above the openings of uter ine tubes and It is triangular Isthmus : It is constricted part between body and cervix Cervix : It is cylindrical in shape which extends from and ope ns into vagina The part above vagina is supravaginal and the part which lies within vagina is called vaginal part
  18. 18. 18 FALLOPIAN TUBES  Length:8 to 14 cm  Serve as a pathway for the ovum to the uteru s  Are the site of fertilization by the male sperm  Portions: Interstitial, isthmus, ampulla, infund ibulum  Fertilized egg takes approximately 6 to 10 da ys to travel through the fallopian tube to impl ant in the uterine lining
  19. 19. 19 OVARIES  Almond-shaped organs, development and ext rusion of ova, synthesis and secretion of stero id hormones  A woman is born with approximately 400,000 immature eggs called follicles  During a lifetime a woman release 400 to 500 fully matured eggs for fertilization  The follicles in the ovaries produce the female sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen  These hormones prepare the uterus for impla ntation of the fertilized egg
  20. 20. 20 ARTERIES  Uterine and ovarian art  Uterine art:  Internal iliac (Hypogastric) art  Ovarian art:  Direct branch of Aorta
  21. 21. 21 VEINS  Uterine veins ; Internal iliac vein ; Co mmon iliac vein  Right ovarian vein ;IVC  Left ovarian vein ;Left renal vein
  22. 22. स्त्री शरीर रचना महिला प्रजनन प्रणाली की वणणनात्मक शारीररक रचना आयुवेद में इतना स्त्पष्ट निीीं िै भग (vulva) डल्िण स्त्मसतपर या भगशशशशि्नका (clitoris )डल्िण याेनन (vagina) डल्िण, भावशमश्र, अष्टाींगसींग्रिकार गभाणशय (uterus) डल्िण, भावशमश्र, अष्टाींगसींग्रिकार,काश्यप,अष्टाींगहृदय 22
  23. 23. भग एवीं स्त्मसतपर या भगशशशश ि्नका  द्वादशाड्गुलानन भगववस्त्तारः...... सु. सींेसू 35/12  vulva is 12 angulas acc. To commentator dalhana.  स्त्मसतपर is situated in upper portion of the organ resembling leaf of pippala (vulva)  Below this is the orifice for discharge of menstrual blood 23
  24. 24. याेनन  अन्यानन च रीणण स्त्रीणाीं स्त्तनाेै रक्तपथश्च | (अष्टाींग)  आकृ ति  याे ननस्त्तु शड्खनाभ्याकृ नतस्त्रयावताण तस्त्यास्त्तृतीय अेावते. ........... गभणशय्या | (अष्टाींग) 24
  25. 25. याेनन  बहिमुणख (external orifice)  Females have three extra external orifices, two in breasts (one in each breast) and one downwards to excrete artava, situated below the smaratapatra(clitoris).  It resembles shankhanabhi (hollow portion of conch shell) in shape and has three avartas(envelopes) garbhashaya is situated in third avarta. 25
  26. 26. याेनन की नाडडयाीं  तीन नाडडयाीं:-  समीरणा  चन्रमुखी  गाेैरी 26
  27. 27. गभाणशय  स्त्रीणाीं गभाणशयाेअष्टम इनत| (सुश्रुत)  स्त्रीणाीं गभाणशयाेअष्टमः|| (काश्यप)  स्त्रीणाीं वपत्तपक्वाशयाेमर्ध्ये गभाणशयाेअष्टमः|| (अष्टाींग)  शड्खनाभ्याकृ नतयाेननस्त््यावत्ताण सा प्रकीनतताण|तस्त्यास्त्तृतीय त्वावतते गभणशय्या प्रनतव ि्ठता || (सुश्रुत) 27
  28. 28. गभाणशय  Women posses one extra eighth asaya as garbhasaya ,which is situated behind in third avarta of yoni ,behind the urinary bladder in between pittasaya and pakwasaya or in between uipula kundala of srotas (multiple coils of intestine) covered with jarayu(peritoneum). 28
  29. 29. गभाणशय  Dalhana says that it is hollow inside just like mouth of rohita fish ,the vasti(urinary bladder) is behind the bhaga (vulva) and uterus is above this. 29
  30. 30. आतणववि स्राेतस ि्  आतणववि द्व, तयाेमूणलीं गभाणशय आतणववाहिन्यश्च धमन्यः  तर ववर्ध्दायाीं वन्धयात्वीं मैथुनासहिष्णुत्वमातणवनाशश्च || [सु. शा. 9/22]  These are two in number, having roots in garbhashya and artavavahi dhamanis ,injury to these produce infertility, dysperunia, amenorrhea. 30
  31. 31. 31 Thank you