definition: HF in ability of the heart to pump adequate amount of blood to meet the
metabolic need of the body.
most patient with systolic heart failure have low ejection fraction,(less than 55%).
is a complex clinical syndrome that represents the end stage of many of the
Coronary artery disease is the commonest cause of heart failure.
Associated with a risk of sudden death ( 6 to 9 times higher than seen in the general
HF regarded as major cause of morbidity and mortality. Only 50% of patients are alive 5
years after diagnosis.
• The incidence of HF is 2-4% between 35 and 64 years, and 10% in patients over 65 years.
• Heart failure accounts for 5% of admissions to hospital medical wards.
Left ventricular failure inability of the left ventricle to a pump adequate amount of blood into aorta
and systemic arterial circulation,.
results in inadequate emptying of the left ventricles during systole or incomplete filling of the
ventricles during diastole.
with subsequent pulmonary venous congestion and pulmonary edema .
In right ventricular failure : it result in
systemic venous congestion and peripheral edema .
• Local changes: dilation and hypertrophy of the
• neurohurmonral responses:
stimulation of the renin- angiotensin system
Antidiuretic hormone secretion.
sympathetic nervous system activation.
THE EFFECTS OF THESE RESPONSES INCLUDE:
increased heart rate
increase myocardial contractility.
increased peripheral resistance.
sodium and water retention.
redistribution of blood flow to the heart and brain.
compensated HF : asymptomatic patient.
decompensated HF. Symptomatic patient.
CAUSES OF HEART FAILURE
Most Common Causes of Heart Failure
Coronary heart disease.
Valvular heart disease. Infective endocarditis
Congenital heart disease.
CAUSES OF LEFT HEART FAILURE
• ischaemic heart disease (the most common
• systemic hypertension.
• mitral and aortic valve disease.
CAUSES OF RIGHT SIDE HEART FAILURE
left heart failure
chronic lung disease (cor pulmonale)
pulmonary hypertension(PE &MVD).
tricuspid valve disease
pulmonary valve disease
CHD with left-to-right shunts (e.g. atrial or
ventricular septal defects)
isolated right ventricular cardiomyopathy
Left side heart failure
SOB on exertion .(SOB at rest in severe HF).
Orthopnea is dyspnea, which is precipitated or
worsened by a recumbent position.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) ( is an attack
of sudden, severe shortness of breath that awakens
the patient from sleep, usually within 1 to 3 hours after
the patient goes to bed, and resolves within 10 to 30
minutes after the patient arises.
fatigue is a common, nonspecific symptom of HF.
PHYSICAL SIGNS OF LV FAILURE:
Cardiomegaly demonstrated by displaced apex
Auscultation reveals :3rd & 4th heart sound a
Dilatation of the mitral anulus results in functional
Crackles are heard at the lung bases.
alternating cycles of rapid, deep breathing
(hyperventilation) and periods of central apnea,
called Cheyne-Stokes respiration
RIGHT SIDE HEART FAILURE: CLINICAL
• Symptoms fatigue.
• anorexia and nausea,abdominal pain.
• leg edema.
jugular venous distension (± v waves of tricuspid
tender smooth hepatic enlargement
dependent pitting oedema
development of free abdominal fluid (ascites)
pleural transudates (commonly right-sided).
Dilatation of the right ventricle produces
cardiomegaly and may give rise to functional
tricuspid regurgitation. Tachycardia and a right
ventricular third heart sound are usual.
Blood tests - full blood count, liver biochemistry,
urea and electrolytes, cardiac enzymes AND plasma
lipid measurment .
Chest X-ray .
Electrocardiogram - evidence of ischaemia,
hypertension or arrhythmia.
Natriuretic peptide (B-type NP (BNP) or N terminal
(NTproBNP)). A normal plasma level excludes heart
Stress echocardiography .
Nuclear cardiology. Radionuclide angiography
(RNA) provides accurate measurements of left,
and to a lesser extent, right ventricular ejection
fractions, cardiac volumes and regional wall
. Cardiac catheterization
Cardiac biopsy for infiltrative disease, e.g.
NYHA FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY CLASSIFICATION
OF HEART FAILURE
Class I: No limitation of physical activity. No
dyspnea, fatigue, or palpitations with ordinary
physical activity.extra ordinary work.
Class II: Slight limitation of physical activity.
These patients have fatigue, palpitations, and
dyspnea with ordinary physical activity but are
comfortable at rest.
Class III: Marked limitation of activity. Less than
ordinary physical activity results in symptoms,
but patients are comfortable at rest. •
Class IV: Symptoms are present at rest, and
any physical exertion
ACC & AHA STAGING OF HEART FAILURE
Stages A patients at high risk for (HF) but without
structural heart disease or symptoms of HF). such as
CAD high BP and DM but who do not have any
symptoms of HF. Or any structural changes.
The stages B patients at high risk for (HF) with
structural heart changes like left ventricular
hypertrophy (LVH) or dilatation but asymptomatic .
• Stage C represent patients present symptoms of HF
and associated with underlying structural heart
• stage D designates patients with refractory HF(end
stage HF) who might be eligible for specialized,
advanced treatment .
• Depend on :
• Stage of HF.
• Underlying causes,
• Associated risk factors.
• Associated Comorbidity.
STAGE A :
encourage smoking cessation.
treat lipid disorders.
encourage regular exercise,.
discourage alcohol intake .
Avoid drug like NSAID .
Treat hypertension .
Good control of DM
• Provide all measures for stage A.
• ACE inhibitors (or ARBs) in appropriate
• Beta-blockers in appropriate patients.carvidelol.
• Provide all measures for stages A and B.
• dietary salt restriction.
• use of ACE inhibitors beta-blockers.
• Add diuretics.frusemide ,aldactone,thiazide
• Venodilator drug iosordil.
• • Provide appropriate measures from stages
A, B, and C.
• Use heart transplant.
• chronic inotropes.
• permanent mechanical support.
WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF DENTAL
CARE IN UNCONTROLLED HF.
• symptoms could abruptly worsen and result in
acute failure with increasing SOB.
• fatal arrhythmia.
• cardiac arrest
• myocardial infarction.
DENTAL CARE OF HF.
• The dentist must be able to identify these patients
with HF on the basis of history and clinical findings.
• refer them for:
• medical diagnosis .
• identify the underlying cause .
• Proper management.
• All medications that are being taken should be
identified as well.
• Determine the functional capacity of patient with
HF according to NYHA classification.
• Those with class I can be managed in out patient
• Those with classes II, III, and IV).
• patients who are NYHA class I may receive routine outpatient
• Many patients who are NYHA class II may undergo routine
treatment in an outpatient setting after approval from the
• while patient with NYHA class III & and class The dentist must
make a determination the benefits of treatment outweigh the
• generally they are not candidates for elective dental care, and
treatment should be deferred until medical consultation can be
• They are best treated in a special care facility, such as a
hospital dental clinic with continuous monitoring.
• Schedule short, stress-free appointments.
• Patients with HF may not tolerate a supine chair
position because of pulmonary edema and will need
a semi supine or upright chair position.
• Watch for orthostatic hypotension, make position
or chair changes slowly, and assist patient into and
out of chair.
• avoid gag reflex.
For patients taking digitalis, avoid epinephrine;(it aggravate arrhythmia) if considered
essential, use cautiously (maximum 0.036 mg epinephrine of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000
epinephrine) or 0.20 mg levonordefrin).
avoid erythromycin and clarithromycin, which may increase the absorption of digitalis and lead
Avoid the use of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) because they can exacerbate
symptoms of HF.
• For patients with NYHA class III and IV congestive heart failure, avoid use of vasoconstrictors;
if use is considered essential, discuss with physician.
• Avoid epinephrine-impregnated retraction cord.
• Nitrous oxide plus oxygen may be used for sedation .• Nitrous oxide/oxygen used with a
minimum of 30% oxygen
Apparemment, vous utilisez un bloqueur de publicités qui est en cours d'exécution. En ajoutant SlideShare à la liste blanche de votre bloqueur de publicités, vous soutenez notre communauté de créateurs de contenu.
Vous détestez les publicités?
Nous avons mis à jour notre politique de confidentialité.
Nous avons mis à jour notre politique de confidentialité pour nous conformer à l'évolution des réglementations mondiales en matière de confidentialité et pour vous informer de la manière dont nous utilisons vos données de façon limitée.
Vous pouvez consulter les détails ci-dessous. En cliquant sur Accepter, vous acceptez la politique de confidentialité mise à jour.