It is a psycho-physical ability that defines
performance and created by muscle tension
enabling to overcome relatively high
resistance. The force is produced by the
muscles which create movement and win over
resistance with the help of the joints and
system of bones.
In the thickening of the muscles the period of
tension plays a crucial role while the measure
of tension depends on the number of
stimulated motor units and relates to the
magnitude of force exerted. (Harsanyi, 2001)
Strength training is the functional application
of Newton's second law of physics, which
defines force as the product of a mass and
its acceleration (Force = MA)
strength is the ability to accelerate a mass
from a state of rest, which results in the
production of muscular force
4. From a physiological perspective, strength is
the ability to activate muscle motor neurons and
their attached muscle fibers (together called a
motor unit) to generate the force necessary to
achieve a specific outcome.
To achieve a strength-based goal, it is
important to first define the specific type of
strength required for success and then design
an exercise program to develop that strength.
5. The magnitude and rate of force production
are determined by the efficiency at which all
of the involved muscle motor units are
Both intramuscular coordination (the ability to
recruit all of the motor units within a specific
muscle) and intermuscular coordination (the
ability to have a number of different muscles
working together to generate a force) are
required to achieve optimal levels of
6. Five Factors That Determine
No matter how hard you train, you may face
limitations when it comes to developing muscle
strength. Two people following the same diet
and training schedule may never achieve the
same level of strength. To understand why this
occurs, it's helpful to know how strength is
affected by external factors, over which you may
have no control.
Although genetics can be overcome with hard
work and determination, there is no denying that
heredity plays at least some part in your athletic
strength and ability.
You may inherit your grandfather's leaping skills
on the basketball court, or your mother's strong
athletic thighs, and this can give you a distinct
advantage over someone else who has no athletic
skills in the family tree.
Atlas Sports Genetics even offers a test that
screens for the ACTN3 gene, which is linked to the
alpha-actinin-3 muscle protein associated with
high-speed, powerful muscle contractions
Training is an important factor in developing
strength and endurance in any sport or physical
If you don't continue to work the muscles on a
regular basis, you may lose the strength you built.
Returning to a sport or physical activity after an
extended absence, you may notice that you feel
weak and tired much sooner. Typically, with a little
perseverance, you can regain that strength.
Although there are exceptions, gender also plays
a factor in strength.
Certainly there are many females who are
measurably stronger than some men, but
generally speaking, the male physique is
genetically predisposed to having more muscle
A higher quantity of muscle can affect strength,
and it may even supersede muscle quality, notes
Chad Tackett, president of Global Health and
Age also has some influence over your level of
strength. As your body ages, muscle mass
begins to decrease.
Leading an active lifestyle can preserve your
muscle tissue and physical strength well into
your golden years, but it cannot cure the natural
muscle deterioration that comes with aging.
Even with regular training, you may lose muscle
strength as you get older
As part of the body's innate fight or flight
response, adrenaline is a hormone secreted by
the adrenal glands during high-stress situations.
Adrenaline jump-starts the heart rate and
contracts blood vessels throughout the body to
increase blood flow to the muscles. Although the
effects may be temporary, adrenaline can give
your body a boost to power through a workout. In
rare cases, it has been known to give an
individual incredible strength and stamina.
12. Why Strength ?
Strength training: Get stronger, leaner,
Strength training is an important part of an
overall fitness program
With a regular strength training program, you
can reduce your body fat, increase your lean
muscle mass and burn calories more efficiently.
13. Use it or lose it……..
Muscle mass naturally diminishes with age. "If
you don't do anything to replace the lean
muscle you lose, you'll increase the percentage
of fat in your body,"
says Edward Laskowski, M.D., a physical
medicine and rehabilitation specialist at Mayo
Clinic, Rochester, Minn., and co-director of the
Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center. “
But strength training can help you preserve and
enhance your muscle mass — at any age."
14. Strength training also helps
you: Develop strong bones. By stressing your bones,
strength training increases bone density and reduces
the risk of osteoporosis.
Control your weight. As you gain muscle, your body
gains a bigger "engine" to burn calories more
efficiently — which can result in weight loss. The
more toned your muscles, the easier it is to control
Reduce your risk of injury. Building muscle helps
protect your joints from injury. It also contributes to
better balance, which can help you maintain
independence as you age.
Boost your stamina. As you get stronger, you won't
fatigue as easily.
15. Strength training also helps
Manage chronic conditions. Strength
training can reduce the signs and symptoms
of many chronic conditions, including arthritis,
back pain, depression, diabetes, obesity and
Sharpen your focus. Some research
suggests that regular strength training helps
improve attention for older adults.
18. AGILE STRENGTH
The ability to decelerate, control and generate
muscle force in a multiplanar environment.
Traditional strength training focuses on
producing a shortening muscle action to move
a load through a single plane of motion;
however, many tasks require the ability to
move a mass through gravity in multiple
planes of motion.
Examples: Picking up and carrying a young
child, laundry basket or duffle bag
19. AGILE STRENGTH…………………….
Generate the force required to move objects from one location to
Improve resiliency of muscle and connective tissue to reduce the
risk of injuries such as sprains or muscle pulls.
Enhance performance of specific sports or activities of daily
Exercise selection: Multiplanar movements using a variety of free
weights (dumbbells, medicine balls, sandbags, etc.) or cable
Intensity: Low-to-moderate, approximately 50-75% of the
estimate 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for a particular exercise
Tempo: Variable speeds: slow to fast
Rest interval: 30-90 seconds
20. STRENGTH ENDURANCE
The ability to maintain muscular contractions
or a consistent level of muscle force for
extended periods of time.
Relies upon aerobic efficiency to supply
oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles
while removing metabolic waste.
Examples: An endurance event like a 10K,
marathon or triathlon; doing yard work or
other vigorous household chores; high
volume bodybuilding-type training
Maintain good postural stabilization for an extended
period of time.
Improve the aerobic capacity of working muscles.
Enhance ability to perform many functional tasks and
Exercise selection: Compound and single-joint
movements using a variety of equipment; body-weight
Intensity: Low-to-moderate, approximately 40-80% of
Tempo: Consistent: slow to moderate
Rest interval: 30-60 seconds
22. EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH
Produce a maximal amount of force in a minimal
amount of time; muscle lengthening followed by
rapid acceleration through the shortening phase.
Focus is on the speed of movement through a
range of motion (ROM).
Explosive strength is based on the ability of the
contractile element to rapidly generate tension,
while power enhances the ability of elastic tissue
to minimize the transition time from lengthening
to shortening during the stretch-shorten cycle.
Examples: Throwing a shot-put, Olympic lifts
such as the snatch and clean-and-jerk; quickly
moving out of the way of danger
Improve the speed of motor unit recruitment and
enhance intramuscular coordination.
Reduce reaction time.
Improve the resiliency of muscle and connective
Activate type II muscle fibers.
Exercise selection: Compound and single-joint
movements using a variety of free weights
Intensity: 40-75% 1RM
Tempo: Fast as possible
Rest interval: 30-90 seconds
25. MAXIMUM STRENGTH
The highest level of muscle force that can be
produced, maximum strength is the ability of a
muscle or specific group of muscles to recruit
and engage all motor units to generate maximal
tension against an external resistance.
Requires high levels of neuromuscular efficiency
to enhance both intra- and intermuscular
Examples: Powerlifting, squat, deadlift and
bench press and strongman competitions
Activate type II (fast twitch) muscle fibers capable of
generating high levels of force.
Increase levels of muscle-building hormones.
Increase bone density and strength.
Improve performance in many sports and ADLs.
Exercise Selection: Compound and single-joint
movements using free weights or selectorized machines
Intensity: 90-100% 1RM
Tempo: Slow-to-fast (even though the lifter is attempting
to use maximum speed the weight is moving slowly)
Rest interval: 2-4 minutes
27. RELATIVE STRENGTH
Amount of force generated per unit of bodyweight.
Can be increased by using all of the various types of
strength training to improve the magnitude of force
production while maintaining or reducing total body
If neuromuscular efficiency and muscle force
production increase while maintaining a consistent
body mass, relative strength will increase.
Example: Two women each weigh 154 pounds.
The first can do 4 pull-ups and dead lift 200 pounds,
while the second can do 8 pull-ups and deadlight
220 pounds. Therefore, the second woman is
capable of producing more force per pound of body
28. Consider this example:
Badar weighs 125 pounds and can
lift 130 pounds during a weight
Abdullah weighs 160 pounds and
can lift 150 pounds on the same
Abdullah is stronger in the absolute sense, but Badar is stronger in the
relative sense because he exerts more strength per pound of body weight.
29. formula for calculating relative muscular strength:
Relative Muscular Strength = Weight lifted (lb.)
Body weight (lb.)
Badar 130 lbs ÷ 125 lbs = 1.04
Abdullah 150 lbs ÷ 160 lbs = 0.93
Improve performance in many sports or
Maximize motor unit recruitment.
Improve neuromuscular efficiency.
Relative strength results from using all
different types of strength training methods to
be capable of generating greater levels of
force at a consistent body weight.
31. Absolute muscular Strength
The maximum force you are able to develop
regardless of size, age, or weight.
Absolute muscular strength is the first type
of muscular strength.
A person able to lift 100 pounds is stronger in
absolute muscular strength than a person able
to lift only 80 pounds.
32. SPEED STRENGTH
The maximal force capable of being produced
during a high-speed movement; trained with
either bodyweight or a minimal amount of
resistance, allowing the movement to be
executed as fast as possible.
Examples: Throwing a baseball, swinging a
golf club, running a sprint
Minimize reaction times.
Enhance athletic performance.
Reduce time of the stretch-shorten cycle.
Exercise selection: Compound movements using
a variety of free weights; unloaded body-weight
Intensity: 30-50% 1RM
Tempo: Fast, explosive
Rest interval: 30 seconds - 2 minutes
34. STARTING STRENGTH
Produce force at the beginning of a movement
without momentum or a pre-stretch to load
mechanical energy; start moving from a
An isometric contraction creates tension, which
allows the surrounding elastic fascia and
connective tissue to lengthen and store
mechanical energy for a rapid rate of force
Examples: A track start, a football linemen in his
stance before the ball is snapped, getting up
from a seated position
Improve the ability of muscle and connective tissue to
increase the rate of force production.
Reduce starting time for sports that require an athlete to
move from a stationary position.
Enhance the ability to transition from seated to standing.
Exercise selection: Compound and single-joint movements
using a variety of types of resistance to focus on force
production in the initial ROM from a stationary position.
Intensity: 50-90% 1RM
Tempo: Fast, explosive
Rest interval: 45 seconds - 3 minutes
36. FUNCTIONAL STRENGTH
Functional strength has a use or purpose
beyond the training itself, whether for sport,
fighting or life in general. It is characterized by
all-round strength, not just one type, and
generally goes hand-in-hand with good fitness
Functional strength training therefore includes
all the types of strength training identified
above: maximal, explosive and endurance.
37. Functional training is defined as movements or
exercises that improve a person’s ability to
complete their daily activities or to achieve a specific
A quality program focuses on weak areas and sets
specific goals for the client. It is important to
how to progress someone from simple smaller
targeted movements to more complex multi joint
movements. Training someone functionally can range
from having a tennis player lunge to a chop
or a body builder do a slow curl for bigger biceps; its
all about the goal. Keep in mind performing
complex movements before the client is ready will do
more harm than good.
38. Proponents of functional strength often
incorporate objects from life, such as tyres,
sledgehammers and sandbags, to highlight
the functionality of the training.
Trainees are encouraged to use whatever is
around them or build up their own gym at
home. Using one’s own bodyweight as
resistance is a key part of functional strength
training – what could be more convenient or
Functional strength training is often used to
train fighters, soldiers and law enforcement
39. Methods of Strength
Simple Method or System
Combination Method or System
Super set system