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HOW TO PREPARED FOR FARMYARD MANURE IN AGRICULTURE

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HOW TO PREPARED FOR FARMYARD MANURE IN AGRICULTURE

  1. 1. FARMYARD MANURE UTTARANCHAL UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF APPLIED & LIFE SCIENCES ( S A L S ) ( SUBMITTED TO ) Dr. HIMANI BADONI ( SUBMITTED BY ) NAME = ASHISH SINGH COURSE = B.SC ( HONS) MICROBIOLOGY
  2. 2. https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.fao.org%2Ffileadmin%2Ftemplates%2Fnr%2Fsustainability_pathways%2Fdocs%2FCompilation_techniqu es_organic_agriculture_rev.pdf&psig=AOvVaw1LJ2AEXzl1KLKrPvWpSQad&ust=1664715419828000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAwQjRxqFwoTCODPrK2Kv_oCF QAAAAAdAAAAABAi
  3. 3. FARMYARD MANURE . FARMYARD MANURE . COMPOSITION OF MANURE . COMPOST . GREEN MANURE
  4. 4. https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Ffigure%2FThe-animal-manure-soil-feed-and-fodder- cycle_fig2_340691655&psig=AOvVaw1LJ2AEXzl1KLKrPvWpSQad&ust=1664715419828000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAwQjRxqFwoTCODPrK2Kv_oC FQAAAAAdAAAAABAD
  5. 5. FARMYARD MANURE 1. Farm yard Manure is prepared basically using cow dung, cow urine, waste straw and other dairy wastes. It is highly useful and some of its properties are as follows. FYM is rich in nutrients. A small portion of N is directly available to the plants while a larger portion is made available as and when the FYM decomposes . When cow dung and urine are mixed, a balanced nutrition is made available to the plants. Availability of Potassium and Phosphorus from FYM is similar to that from inorganic sources. Application of FYM improves soil fertility. 2. Farmers have been using cow dung manure since time immemorial and this manure is equally beneficial for all classes of land and for all types of crops. Experiences and experiments show that by using cow dung manure, the production of crops can be increased significantly. 3. By using cow dung manure, not only does the land get nutrients, but it also gets sufficient amount of humus, which plays an important role in the fertility of the land
  6. 6. https://www.google.com/u rl?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2 Fwww.researchgate.net%2 Ffigure%2FFinished-Farm- Yard-Manure- FYM_fig4_330563833&psig= AOvVaw1PkIA8cJgUqxeG_ WIgJAWo&ust=1664655541 527000&source=images&c d=vfe&ved=0CAwQjRxqFw oTCNjHjqirvfoCFQAAAAAd AAAAABAI 4. The waste material of cattle shed consisting of dung and urine soaked in the refuse of the shade is collected daily and placed in trenches about (6-7m) long. ( 1.5 – broad and 1m deep ). 5. Each trench is filled up to the height of about 0.5m above the ground level . The top of the heap is to be made dome shaped and plastered over with cow dung earth slurry. It becomes ready to apply after ( 3-4) months . 6. Manure is an organic matter , mostly derived from animal faeces excep in the case of green Manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture .
  7. 7. COMPOSITION OF MANURE Three types of substances are found in cow dung manure 1.Solid excreta which is called cow dung. 2. Liquid excreta which is called urine. 3. Straw, etc. organic matter used in laying .
  8. 8. ➢ The composition of cow dung depends on the ratio of the above substances used in the compost. But in our country its use is very less. ➢ Therefore, in the manure prepared in our country, in addition to cow dung, the fodder left over from the food of animals or household waste and stove ash has priority. ➢ Animal dung contains that part of the fodder fed to animals which cannot be digested . ➢ Live or dead bacterial cells are also found in this dung. These cells are of great importance from the point of view of manure because half of all nitrogen present in cow dung is obtained from these cells.
  9. 9. The following things have an affect on the amount of nitrogen , phosphate , potash present in cow dung . ➢ Animal Species ➢ Age of animals ➢ Animals feed ➢ Breed of animals It is clear from the following table that poultry manure is the best manure as compared to all animal manures. The urinary excreta of poultry is semi- solid and comes out mixed with solid excreta. Sheep dung comes second in terms of nutrients, but it is low in potash. * In the table, the average amount of nutrients present in the dung of different species of animals has been given as percentage of parent substance.
  10. 10. The percentage of substances present in the dung of different animals S.N Animal name H2O (O.M.) (M,M) N K2O P2O5 CaO (water) (organic) ( matter) 1 Horse 76.5 21.0 3.9 0.47 0.30 0.30 0.17 2 cow/bull 82.4 15.3 3.6 0.30 0.18 0.18 0.36 3 Buffalo 81.1 12.7 5.3 0.26 0.17 0.18 0.46 4 sheep 61.9 33.1 4.7 0.70 0.29 0.51 0.49 5 Pig 80.7 17.0 3.0 0.59 0.43 0.46 0.09 6 Poultry 57.0 29.3 - 1.46 0.62 0.17 - The nutrients present in cow dung are not in such a condition that they become immediately available for the crops. Therefore, before use, this manure needs to be decomposed.
  11. 11. Nutrient content in urine of different animals. ( basic substance as a percentage ) S.N animals Name H20 O.M M.M N P2O5 K2O Ca0 1. Horse 89.6 8.0 8.0 1.29 0.01 1.19 0.45 2. Cow/ Bull 92.6 4.8 2.1 1.21 0.01 1.35 0.01 3. Buffalo 81.0 - - 0.62 - 1.61 - 4. Sheep 86.3 9.1 4.6 1.47 0.05 1.96 0.16 5. Pig 96.6 1.5 1.0 0.38 0.10 0.99 -
  12. 12. Quantity of dung and urine produced by different animals per day S.N Animal name Dung(Kg) Urine(Kg) 1. Horse 16.10 3.63 2. Cow $ Bull 23.59 9.07 3. Lamb 1.23 2.74 4. Pig 2.70 1.58 5. Poultry 0.05 ----- ➢ It is known from the above table that Cows $ Bulls give more dung and urine every day than other animals . ➢ Animal urine – The composition of urine of different animals is given in the table . By looking at this table , it will be known that animal urine contains more nitrogen and potash that cow dung , but the amount of phosphorus is very less in it.
  13. 13. Percentage of nutrients in fresh manure produced by different animals. S.N Animal name Percentage composition Quantity (in Tonnes)of compost produced in a Year . H2O N P2O5 K2O 1. Horse 78.0 0.71 0.24 0.62 9.0 2. Cow 86.0 0.49 0.14 0.48 23.5 3. Pig 85.0 0.38 0.34 0.22 11.3 4. Sheep 68.0 1.03 0.35 0.99 6.3 5. Poultry 55.0 1.01 0.80 0.40 4.3
  14. 14. COMPOST ➢ DECOMPOSED REMNANTS OF ORGANIC MATERIALS USUALLY OF PLANT ORIGIN. ➢ IT IS PREPARED BY DECOMPOSTING PLANT RESIDUES UNDER THE ACTION OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI. ➢ WELL PREPARED COMPOST CONTAINS 0.75 – 1% N , 0.60 – 0.75 % P2O5 AND 1-1.5 % K2O. https://www.google.com/url?sa=i &url=https%3A%2F%2Flandscapeo maha.com%2Fspring%2Fcomposti ng-made- easy%2F&psig=AOvVaw3hkrAerD6 9YOnk5c1GXR6_&ust=16648716149 26000&source=images&cd=vfe&v ed=0CAwQjRxqFwoTCKDrvqHQw_ oCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAE
  15. 15. COMPOST MAKING EQUIPMENT THE FOLLOWING ITEMS CAN BE USED TO PREPARE COMPOST 1. Weeds , weeds . 2. Dry leaves of the orchard leaves of sugarcane. 3. Old thatch . 4. Daily rubbish , ashes etc. at homes 5. Plant stalks and root etc… 6. Black soil of ponds and lakes . 7. Water hyacinth , 8. Animal dung and Urine . 9. The soil of the whole house, animal , feed , etc…. 10.Drain water.. All the above mentioned things are such which farmers can collect without any difficulty. Among these things cow dung and urine or sutra – rich soil are very valuable things for manure.
  16. 16. 1.Select a dry , shady spot near a water source. Ideal size for your compost area in 3 feet tall (1 cubic yard ). You can buy a bin, use chicken wire, or just isolate an area of ground for your compost heap. 2.Add brown and green material in alternate layers. Try and keep the ratio roughly 3 parts browns to 1 part greens . Make sure larger pieces of material are chopped or shredded. HOW TO COMPOST WHAT YOU WILL NEED Brown material to produce carbon: Dead leaves, branches and twigs, sawdust or wood chips, coffee filters, cotton and wool rags, shredded pieces of paper, cardboard or newspaper and shredded nut shells. Green material to produce nitrogen: Grass clippings and leaves, fruit and vegetables scraps, hair, lint, tea and coffee grounds. Water
  17. 17. 3 . Keep the compost moist [ but not too wet]. Moisture helps with the breakdown of organic matter. 4 occasionally turn your compost mixture to provide aeration. This helps speed up the composting process and keeps things airy, which cuts the risk of things getting smelly.
  18. 18. 5. As materials breakdown, the pile will get warm. There might even be steam. Don’t be alarmed . That means it’s working . Now you just have to wait . 6 . All done ! When material is dark with no remnants of food or waste , your compost is ready . Add it to lawns and gardens or anywhere that could benefit from some good soil.
  19. 19. GREEN MANURE Green Manuring of crops results in spectacular increase in crop production . Besides nitrogen , green manure also supplies micro- nutrients and organic matter to the soil . It is the poor Farmer’s manure.
  20. 20. https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fgrocycle.com%2F green-manure%2F&psig=AOvVaw3HpI- t5RYzWHeEXWBssCje&ust=1665308285405000&source=images&cd=vfe&v ed=0CAwQjRxqFwoTCNjJuvmq0PoCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAT https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fhorticulture .co.uk%2Fgreen-manure%2F&psig=AOvVaw3HpI- t5RYzWHeEXWBssCje&ust=1665308285405000&source=images&cd= vfe&ved=0CAwQjRxqFwoTCNjJuvmq0PoCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAc
  21. 21. IMPORTANCE OF GREEN MANURING ➢Green manuring contributes 40 to 80 kg nitrogen per ha . ➢ It prevents loss of nitrogen by leaching and erosion . ➢Vigorous root system of green manure keeps the soli particles bound together . ➢The growth of green manure crops is very fast .
  22. 22. CROPS FOR GREEN MANURING GREEN MANURING IS OF TWO TYPES : 1. Green leaf manuring crops. 2.GREEN MANURING IN SITU CROPS
  23. 23. GREEN LEAF MANURING CROPS https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3 A%2F%2Fagritech.tnau.ac.in%2Forg_farm%2Forgfarm_ green%2520manure.html&psig=AOvVaw3oqtxHOYLJlH Zl6KZ_MLuD&ust=1665312002666000&source=images& cd=vfe&ved=0CAwQjRxqFwoTCMCf3OW40PoCFQAA AAAdAAAAABAJ
  24. 24. GREEN MANURING IN SITU CROPS https://www.google.com/url?sa=i& url=https%3A%2F%2Fagritech.tnau.ac.in %2Forg_farm%2Forgfarm_green%2520m anure.html&psig=AOvVaw3oqtxHOYLJlH Zl6KZ_MLuD&ust=1665312002666000&sou rce=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAwQjRxqF woTCMCf3OW40PoCFQAAAAAdAAAA ABAO

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