3. Bio fuels are liquid
fuel that have been
other materials such
as plants or animal
It is produced from
such as anaerobic
They are considered
as alternate source
4. Biofuels production and consumption ensures
that the natural carbon cycle to be achieved
which completely eliminate the continuous
increase in carbondioxdie rates in the
atmosphere which in turns will have the
greatest effect on the environment and a
way to end global warming.
For ex, A crop of plants used to produce a
barrel of biofuel will absorb exactly the same
amount of carbondioxdie as emitted from the
burning of the barrel produced.
5. Peak oil
Finite fossil fuel
Cleaner from more sustainable fuel source
10. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation,
mostly from carbohydrates present in sugar or
starch crops such as corn or sugarcane.
Cellulosic biomass derived from non food sources
such as trees and grasses, is also being
developed as feedstock for ethanol production.
Used to substitute petrol fuel for road transport.
One of the widely used alternative automotive
fuel in world(Brazil & U.S.A are largest
Much more environment friendly and low toxicity
13. Advantage Disadvantage
Ethanol is renewable
Ethanol burns more
clean in air than
The use of ethanol
Decrease in ozone
Large amount of
engines would require
Cold start difficulties.
14. Transport fuel to replace gasoline.
Fuel for power generation by thermal
Fuels in cogeneration system.
Blending ethanol with small amount of
gasoline is most cost effective.
15. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel, is
made from biological renewable sources such
as vegetable oils and fats.
Similar to petroleum diesel fuel structure
(straight chain ) and number of carbon atoms
(10 to 21).
The biodiesel can be prepared from
18. Advantage Disadvantage
Can be used for pure
Has shorter ignition
It has no sulfur
content, hence there
is no formation of
It has good lubricating
properties than other
It is more expensive
than other diesel.
It release nitrogen
oxide that can form
It has significant
Food shortage can be
19. Railway usage
As a heating oil
Cleaning oil slips
Biodiesel in generators
20. A mixture of CH4 ,CO2 and other gases.
It is used as domestic purpose.
Obtained from cow manure, agriculture
Biogas is produced by the breakdown of
organic waster by bacteria without oxygen
21. Mesophilic process : at temp 25-38 deg c for
14 to 30 days.
Thermophilic process : at temp 50-60 deg c
for 12- 14 days.
23. There are four process occurs in biogas plant
Hydrolysis: complex organic matter is
decomposed into simple soluble organic
molecules using water.
Fermentation: formation of intermediary
products such as short chain fatty
acids,(hydrogen producing and acteogenic
Acetogenesis : acetate production (hydrogen-
producing, hydrogen-consuming organisms.
Methanogenesis : methane production
(methane forming bacteria).
24. Reduce air and water pollution.
More environmentally friendly fertilizers.
Reduced green house gas emissions.
Concerns about waste management in
agriculture and food industries.