MYCOPLASMAS
BY
ASLAM MATANIA
GROUP-3
FACULTY OF MEDICINE
TSMU
INTRODUCTION
• Mycoplasmas are the
smallest free-living
organism in nature
• There are more than
200 known species in
the ...
In humans, four species are of primary
importance-
• Mycoplasma pneumoniae - respiratory
• Mycoplasma hominis – urogenital...
CHARACTERSTICS
• Prokaryotic microbes
• Size of 125-250 nm
• Lack of cell wall i.e
resistance to penicilin
• Sterol-contai...
CULTURING
• Mycoplasma can be
cultured on solid or liquid
medium
• Growth optimally at 35
to 37 degree celcius
• Medium of...
GROWTH CHARACTERSTICS
• Mycoplasmas are unique in microbiology because of
(1) their extremely small size and (2) their gro...
ANTIGENIC STRUCTURE
• The surface antigen
are glycolipids and
proteins
• Glycolipids are
identified by
complement fixation...
MYCOPLASMA FOUND ON SURFACE OF
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
• MOST OFTEN MYCOPLASMA FOUND ON MUCOUS
MEMBRANE
• THEY CAN CAUSE CHRONIC I...
M. hominis & Ureaplasma species
• Most often associated with urogenital tract
infections
• May be isolated from asymptomat...
Pathogenesis
• Many pathogenic mycoplasmas through droplets which
have flasklike or filamentous shapes and have specialize...
• Finally these cause direct cytotoxicity
through generation of hydrogen
peroxide and superoxide radicals,
cytolysis media...
CLINICAL FINDINGS OF PNEUMONIAE
• Generalized ache and pains
• Fevers(102 degree)
• Cough usually
• Sore throat
• Chills b...
• The incubation period varies from 1 to 3 weeks
• The onset is usually insidious
• Other diseases possibly related to M p...
L Forms
• Some bacteria readily give rise spontaneously to
variants that can replicate in the form of small filterable
pro...
L Forms vs Mycoplasma
• contain a rigid cell wall, at least at
one stage of their life cycle
• no sterols in their cytopla...
• Specimens: throat swab, sputum, genital
secretion, etc.
• Microscopy - This is not particularly useful because of the
ab...
• C. Serology-Antibodies develop in humans infected
with mycoplasmas and can be demonstrated by
several methodS
• D. Nucle...
Treatment
•Tetracyclines and
erythromycins are
effective
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Mycoplasma by aslam matania

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Mycoplasma by aslam matania

  1. 1. MYCOPLASMAS BY ASLAM MATANIA GROUP-3 FACULTY OF MEDICINE TSMU
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living organism in nature • There are more than 200 known species in the class of Mollicutes • At least 16 of these species are thought to be of human origin; others have been isolated from animals and plants
  3. 3. In humans, four species are of primary importance- • Mycoplasma pneumoniae - respiratory • Mycoplasma hominis – urogenital;pelvic inflammatory disease, postpartum fever • Mycoplasma urealyticum – urogenital nongonococcal urethritis in men and is associated with lung disease in premature infants • Mycoplasma genitalium is closely related to M pneumoniae and has been associated with urethral and other infection
  4. 4. CHARACTERSTICS • Prokaryotic microbes • Size of 125-250 nm • Lack of cell wall i.e resistance to penicilin • Sterol-containing cell membrane • Fastidious growth • Fried- egg or mulberry colonies on agar
  5. 5. CULTURING • Mycoplasma can be cultured on solid or liquid medium • Growth optimally at 35 to 37 degree celcius • Medium of growth should be enriched with 20% horse and human serum • The colonies appears as fried egg appearance
  6. 6. GROWTH CHARACTERSTICS • Mycoplasmas are unique in microbiology because of (1) their extremely small size and (2) their growth on complex but cellfree media • Mycoplasmas pass through fi lters with 450-nm pore size and thus are comparable to chlamydiae or large viruses • Many mycoplasmas use glucose as a source of energy; ureaplasmas require urea. • Some human mycoplasmas produce peroxides and hemolyze red blood cells
  7. 7. ANTIGENIC STRUCTURE • The surface antigen are glycolipids and proteins • Glycolipids are identified by complement fixation • Protein antigen are detected by ELISA method
  8. 8. MYCOPLASMA FOUND ON SURFACE OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE • MOST OFTEN MYCOPLASMA FOUND ON MUCOUS MEMBRANE • THEY CAN CAUSE CHRONIC INFLAMATORRY DISEASIS OF RESPIRTORY SYSTEM;UROGENITAL TRACT;AND JOINTS • THE MOST COMMON HUMAN ILLNESS CAUSED BY MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE WHICH IS RESPONSIBLE FOR 10-20% OF ALL PNEUMONIES in 5 to 20 years of age
  9. 9. M. hominis & Ureaplasma species • Most often associated with urogenital tract infections • May be isolated from asymptomatic individuals • Can be transmitted to the fetus at delivery • Opportunistic pathogens
  10. 10. Pathogenesis • Many pathogenic mycoplasmas through droplets which have flasklike or filamentous shapes and have specialized polar tip structures that mediate adherence to host cells • These structures are a complex group of interactive proteins, adhesins and adherence-accessory proteins • which influences the protein folding and binding and is important in the adherence to cells • The mycoplasmas attach to the surfaces of ciliated and nonciliated cells, probably through the mucosal cell sialoglycoconjugates and sulfated glycolipids
  11. 11. • Finally these cause direct cytotoxicity through generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals, cytolysis mediated by antigen– antibody reactions or by chemotaxis
  12. 12. CLINICAL FINDINGS OF PNEUMONIAE • Generalized ache and pains • Fevers(102 degree) • Cough usually • Sore throat • Chills but not rigor • Nasal congestion • variety of possible skin lesion • infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to serious pneumonitis, with occasional neurologic and hematologic (ie, hemolytic anemia) involvement
  13. 13. • The incubation period varies from 1 to 3 weeks • The onset is usually insidious • Other diseases possibly related to M pneumoniae include erythema multiforme; central nervous system involvement, including meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and mono- and polyneuritis; myocarditis; pericarditis; arthritis; and pancreatitis
  14. 14. L Forms • Some bacteria readily give rise spontaneously to variants that can replicate in the form of small filterable protoplasmic elements with defective or absent cell walls. • These organisms, called L-forms, can also be formed by many species when cell wall synthesis is impaired by antibiotic treatment or high salt concentration.
  15. 15. L Forms vs Mycoplasma • contain a rigid cell wall, at least at one stage of their life cycle • no sterols in their cytoplasmic membrane.
  16. 16. • Specimens: throat swab, sputum, genital secretion, etc. • Microscopy - This is not particularly useful because of the absence of a cell wall but it can be helpful in eliminating other possible pathogens. • Culture - Sputum (usually scant) or throat washings must be sent to the laboratory in special transport medium. It may take 2 -3 weeks to get a positive identification. Culture is essential for a definitive diagnosis. • Complement fixation test • Cold agglutinins - Approximately 34% - 68% of patients with M. pneumoniae infection develop cold agglutinins. • ELISA - There is a new ELISA for IgM that has been used for diagnosis of acute infection. • PCR Diagnostic Laboratory Tests
  17. 17. • C. Serology-Antibodies develop in humans infected with mycoplasmas and can be demonstrated by several methodS • D. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test-IN THIS primers and probes ARE USED • Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are particularly useful for those organisms that are difficult to cultivate such as M pneumoniae and M genitalium and less useful for the more rapidly growing organisms
  18. 18. Treatment •Tetracyclines and erythromycins are effective

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