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Sensation, Perception and ESP

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Sensation, Perception and ESP

  1. 1. Sensation, Perception & ESP Prepared by: Orlando A. Pistan, MAEd-GC Psychology Instructor
  2. 2. What do you see?
  3. 3. What is Sensation?  The result when any of the sense organs are stimulated.  The body's detection of external or internal stimulation
  4. 4. What is Perception?  The interpretation of sensory information; the detection of sensation.
  5. 5. Keywords to remember:  Stimulus  Receptor  Absolute Threshold
  6. 6. What is a Stimulus?  External factors which influence a physiological and psychological response and activity.  Any factor in the surrounding which are detectable by our five senses.
  7. 7. What is a Receptor?  Specialized cells that respond to stimulus.  Receptors converts physical stimuli into neural processes or nervous impulses.
  8. 8. What is Absolute Threshold?  The minimum amount of stimulus or energy capable of exciting a sensory receptor.
  9. 9. Absolute Threshold  For hearing - is the quietest tone that is detectable by a human's sense of hearing without any other interruptions or other sounds.  For vision - is the smallest amount of light that is seen by the human eye.  For touch - absolute threshold is the point in which a person begins to feel the heat from fire.  For smell - it is the slightest hint of a scent a person is able to detect when in a room.  For taste - the absolute threshold is the minimum level of flavor a person can detect.
  10. 10. Sensation Sense organ Receptor Stimulus Vision Eye Optic nerves Light energy Audition Ear Cochlea Sound waves Olfaction Nose Olfactory bulbs Gaseous particles Gustation Tongue Taste buds Soluble substances in saliva Cutaneous Sensitivity Skin Meissner & Merkel corpuscles, Free nerve endings, Ruffini cylinders, Krause end bulbs Pressure, Pain, Warmth, Cold
  11. 11. Vision
  12. 12. Audition
  13. 13. Olfaction
  14. 14. Gustation
  15. 15. Cutaneous Sensitivity
  16. 16. Question: Are all sensory perceptions real?
  17. 17. Pareidolia / Apophenia A state of mind where a vague or unclear image is perceived to be something recognizable, regardless of whether it's something you expect to see. The term was coined by German neurologist and psychiatrist Klaus Conrad (1905-1961).
  18. 18. Let’s test your Pareidolia:
  19. 19. Let’s test your Pareidolia:
  20. 20. Let’s test your Pareidolia:
  21. 21. What is ESP? Extrasensory Perception is the ability to receive and process information independent of our five senses. It is commonly known as “sixth sense”.
  22. 22. What is Parapsychology? A field of study that investigates the paranormal or “psychic" phenomena that cannot be explained by current scientific knowledge. It is a intriguing field of Psychology as a Science.
  23. 23. Forms of ESP: 1. Telepathy 2. Precognition 3. Retrocognition 4. Psychokinesis 5. Mediumship 6. Near-Death Experiences 7. Apparitions 8. Aura-reading
  24. 24. Telepathy  The ability to know another persons’ thoughts or Mind- reading.  Telepath – a person who is able to communicate with another person by using only their mind.  This is the most popular, and most researched type of ESP.
  25. 25. Clairvoyance  Clairvoyance is the alleged ability to gain information about an object, person, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception. Any person who is claimed to have such ability is said accordingly to be a clairvoyant.  from French words “clair” meaning "clear" and “voyance” meaning "vision“.
  26. 26. Clairvoyance: Precognition  The ability to see into the future.  Allegedly, individuals who possesses this ESP can perceive information about events, people, locations, and scenarios before they actually occur.  “Pre” means “prior to”  “Cognito” means “getting to know”
  27. 27. Nostradamus Michel de Nostredame, usually Latinized as Nostradamus, was a French astrologer, physician and reputed seer, who is best known for his book Les Prophéties, a collection of 942 poetic quatrains allegedly predicting future events. Earthshaking fire from the center of the Earth Will cause tremors around the New City. Two great rocks will war for a long time, Then Arethusa will redden a new river. “September 11, 2001, World Trade Center Twin Tower Attack in New York City, USA”
  28. 28. Clairvoyance: Retrocognition  The opposite of Precognition.  It is the alleged ability to see the past, oftentimes, the distant past.  People with this type of extrasensory perception can recognize people, places, and events of the past that they had nothing to do with.  Commonly associated with “déjà vu”.  “Retro” means “backward”  “Cognito” means “getting to know”
  29. 29. Psychokinesis  The ability of moving an object just by using one’s mind.  Coined by Henry Holt  “Psyche” means “mind”  “Kinesis” means “movement”  Defies the basic law of Physics.
  30. 30. Mediumship  It is the ability to communicate with the dead by channelling their spirits.  It combines retrocognition (seeing the past) and clairaudience (psychic hearing).
  31. 31. Near-Death Experience  Phenomenal claims seeing themselves out of their own physical body, moving through a tunnel, and heading toward a bright light.  Hieronymous Bosch’s painting “Ascent of the Blessed”.  Claimed to be a coping mechanism by the brain, where additional endorphins are released.
  32. 32. Apparitions  The alleged ability to see ghosts.  Talked and recorded for a very long period of time and immortalized in cultural texts.  Documented through almost all forms of media.
  33. 33. Ghost Pareidolia:
  34. 34. Aura-Reading The notion of the aura can be found throughout history; taking the form of the halo in religious art, or the bands of color found on the Buddhist flag – symbolizing the aura said to have surrounded Buddha upon him reaching Enlightenment. In more recent times, the various hues apparent in auras have been designated different qualities. Orange auras occur when the subject is excited, whereas calmer personalities have a blue aura. And according to some, the auras can be cleansed using quartz crystals.
  35. 35. Joseph Banks Rhine An American botanist who founded parapsychology as a branch of psychology. (1930) – the earliest to conduct laboratory study on ESP. His experiment proved that ESP exists. He used mathematical probabilities.
  36. 36. Do you know them?
  37. 37. Criticisms on ESP 1. Failure to replicate instances of ESP 2. Possibility of fraud, especially in media 3. Lack of empirical study and reliable methodology
  38. 38. Sensation, Perception & ESP Thank you for paying attention.

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