Heat: - Heat is a Source of Energy which is obtained by the
combustion of the fuels. This heat is then transferred and
utilized to cook the food.
Fuels: - Fuels are the sources for heat to be generated.
In order to cook the food in the kitchen, this heat needs to be
obtained, and to obtain this heat, an fuel is important. Thus it
is essential for a chef to understand and study these heat
sources with their characteristic.
It is used as a fuel for wood fired pizza ovens. The pizza ovens have LPG firebut
wood is also kept inside to impart a smoky flavor to the food
Cheap and easily available.
Ecological disaster non- renewable source ofenergy.
Large storage space required.
Takes long time to reach the ignition point.
Not suitable for all kinds of cooking equipment e.g. bratt pan, deep fatfryer.
Cheap and easily available.
No question of shortages.
Flames cannot be regulated.
Cleaning operations are required to clean vessels due to the formation ofsoot.
It is hydroscopic [absorbs water].
It takes long time to reach the ignition point.
Labor cost to move fuel.
LPG (Liquid petroleum gas)
It is a generic name for commercial propane and butane composed fuel used in the
kitchens to fuel gas burners.
This gas is supplied in industrial cylinders to hotels It is supplied to the kitchen
LPG cylinders are stored in a separate place, usually known as gas bank and are
usually operated by kitchen stewarding department.
A certain gas pressure is maintained by the stewarding as certain ranges require high
pressure for cooking.
LPG is liquefied under pressure and converts into when the pressure is released
It is almost smokeless & easy to handle
LPG should be handled with at most care as being a transparent gas its leakage is
not easily detectable & it is also highly combustible(flammable)
As per govt. regulations LPG cannot be used in basement kitchens or below the sea
Usage: It is one of the most essential fuels used in the kitchen & is known forits
efficiency. It is used as a fuel for cooking ranges, ovens, & salamanders. Some
tandoors used in Indian cooking are also fired by LPG
It is usable for fast cooking by the controlled increase of the flamepressure.
Equipment and labor saving. It helps to reduce laborcost
There is no pollution in the form of smoke and dirt.
Special utensils not required
Easily controlled with immediate fuel heat and the flames are visible
Highly inflammable [which easily catches fire].
Some heat is lost in the kitchen.
Frequent maintenance and regular cleaning necessary for efficiency.
Requires lots of space.
Gas bank should be at least 150m away from hotel according to by law.
There may be shortages in supply which will cause work stoppages.
Installing can be expensive because piping, valves, regulators are to be
There must be a department to take care of these.
Firefighting equipment has to be purchased.
All pipes have to colored red and warning sign must bekept.
Compressed natural gas is slowly gaining popularity for its fuel efficiency &
environment friendly properties.
Usage: Used in ecofriendly hotels as fuel in many types of equipment's such as
ovens, gas ranges etc.
it is also one of the natural fuel obtained by the fermentation of the animal,human
waste or the garbage.
Also used for various purposes and highly ecofriendlyfuel.
Most of the hotels produce steam, which is used to cook or operate equipment's
Steam is supplied to the kitchen through insulatedpipes.
Usage: Used in the equipment's such as dishwashers & steam jacket kettles.
Also used as fuel to operate many types of equipment.
Care should be taken while ordering such equipment to ensure requirement of
Some of the heavy duty equipment use three phase electric current & some use
only single phase.
Usage: - is generally used to operate most of the equipments in the kitchen. It
is popular because it is easy to control electricequipment
Usages and maintenance is easy and clean.
It is very economical as it can be switched off instantly after use and also does
not require storage space.
Easily controlled and labor saving.
Very little heat is lost.
A good working atmosphere for kitchen staff as no oxygen is required toburn
Thermostatic controlled are available and temperature can be regulated
Utilized for all cooking equipment.
Supply can be easily maintained if a generator is installed.
Time is taken to heat up.Alot of energy is wasted as it lost in to environment.
Installation and maintenance are high.
Special utensils are required.
Electrical hazard such as leakages, fire. Electrocution may occur if proper
precaution are not taken.