LAMC104Lec3(1).ppt

THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE
CHAPTER 3
THE POWER OF LANGUAGE
•Humans are the only animals with complex verbal
language
•What do you need to know in order to understand
language?
THE POWER OF LANGUAGE
• Example: “My boyfriend and I are flying to his mother’s next
week.”
• Distinct sounds
• Each word has a specific meaning
• Different tenses
• Implicit meanings
• Order of the words
THE POWER OF LANGUAGE
• This is linguistic knowledge
• Most of this knowledge is unconscious and learned at a young age
during enculturation
• It is intuitive and understood (most times) immediately
• Words are arbitrary
• Words are combinations of discrete and recombinable sounds
• Language is creative
• It can discuss hypothetical or imaginary things
INTRODUCTION
• To learn a language, you must learn sound production
• Rules for producing any sound in any human language
• You must also learn phonology
• Many sounds in other languages will not be the same as
those in your native language
PHONOLOGY
• The study of sounds in a language
• It focuses on two differences
• 1. phonetics
• Identifies and describes language sounds
• 2. phonemics
• Analyzes the way sounds are arranged in a language
EMIC AND ETIC
• Phonetic study is often etic
• Phonemic study is often emic
LANGUAGE AND SOUND
• In other words,
• Linguists describe and analyze the nature and patterning of
sounds
• These patterns make the phonological system and the study
of this is phonology
• When you speak you do not consciously think of sounds
• The word “debt”
• How many sounds does this have?
• How is this different from “pet”?
PHONOLOGY
• A phonetic chart shows all the sounds of a language and uses
different symbols for different sounds made by the same letter
• The sounds on the chart are called phones
PHONOLOGY
• A phonemic chart shows only the distinctive sounds of a language,
and all sounds made by one letter are grouped together
• The sounds on the chart are called phonemes
PHONOLOGY
• If you grew up speaking one language you will probably use the
phonetic system even when learning new languages
• If you grew up speaking multiple languages, then you can use multiple
phonetic systems
PHONETICS
• Three types:
• 1. Acoustic
• Physical properties of sounds/soundwaves
• Voice recognition, voiceprints
• 2. Auditory
• How sounds are perceived and interpreted
• 3. Articulatory/Descriptive
• How speech sounds are produced
• Catalogue all human language sounds
• Used in fieldwork
ROSETTA STONE
• Egyptian hieroglyphs are not pictures, they are phonemes
• https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/ancient-
medieval/Ancient/v/rosetta-stone--196-b-c-e
ANATOMY
• Three areas of importance:
• 1. Lungs
• Push air out
• 2. Larynx
• Where voice box is located and where vocal cords modify air into sounds
• 3. Supralaryngeal vocal tract
• Above vocal cords
• Where sound waves become recognizable speech sounds
LAMC104Lec3(1).ppt
LARYNX
• As air moves through larynx, it passes through vocal cords
• If cords are relaxed and open, the sound is voiceless
• If cords are closed and vibrating, the sound is voiced
• Touch your throat and say “ssssss” and “zzzzzz”
• Do you feel the difference?
SOUNDS
• Phonemes are the particular sounds that speakers and listeners
recognize as distinct from other sounds
• This gives different sounds different meanings
• Compare:
• /b/ and /p/
• Put your hands on your ears and say these sounds out loud
• /b/ causes vibrations and is called voiced (others: /d/, /z/, /v/, /j/)
• /p/ does not and is called voiceless (others: /t/, /s/, /f/)
ARTICULATION ABOVE LARYNX
• After air moves through larynx, it goes to the nose and mouth, where it
can be modified and articulated
• The position of the tongue and lips can change sounds
• Articulation is
• Place: where the air is being modified
• Manner: how the air is being modified
ARTICULATION ABOVE LARYNX
• Phonetic charts are important in understanding different languages
• There are different spellings and symbols for different sounds in
different languages
• International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was used to have one unique
symbol for each sound
• This was modified to the American Usage System (AUS)
• Both charts are used
VOWELS AND CONSONANTS
• These are shown on every phonetic chart
• Vowels have less constricted air flow and consonants have more
constricted air flow
• Let’s practice pronouncing different ones
VOWELS AND CONSONANTS:
ARTICULATION
• “Bilabial Stop”
• Bilabial (with both lips)
• Stop (stop the air and then let it out)
• “B,” “P”
• Turn to pg. 57-59 and look over articulation places and manners
• Practice:
• Alveolar nasal “N”
• Palatal approximate “J”
• Velar stop (plosive) “K,” “G”
VOWELS AND CONSONANTS:
ARTICULATION
• Be familiar with the terms for place and manner
VOWELS AND CONSONANTS:
ARTICULATION
• Generally, consonants are sounds made by constricting the air stream
and vowels are made by not constricting the air as much or at all
• Phonetic charts are not as helpful for vowels
• We look at ways air streams can be modified
• Height of tongue
• How high tongue is in mouth: “ee” sound tongue is high, “ah” sound is low
• Place of tongue
• How far forward or back tongue is in mouth: “ee” sound tongue is forward, “oo”
sound tongue is back
• Rounding of lips
• Holding lips in rounded or flat position: “oh” sound versus “ee” sound
VOWELS AND CONSONANTS:
ARTICULATION
• These are guidelines
• Different dialects and accents can make these sound differently
BEYOND PHONETIC CHARTS
• Phonetic charts show the basic sounds, or segments, of language
• But language can further modify sounds
• These are called suprasegmentals are have their own special
symbols in a phonetic chart
• Nasalization: sound goes through nasal cavity and not mouth
• Pitch: high or low “notes”
• Clicks: air released inward (symbol is ! In Kung)
• Lengthening: holding sound for longer period of time
ASSIGNMENT
• Article on Click Languages
• Video Log on Click Languages
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c246fZ-7z1w
•
PHONEMICS
• In order to really understand and speak a language, you need to also
know how the sounds are used
• Phonemics/phonology analyzes the way sounds are arranged and
what sounds are important in a language
• Phonemics can give you an insider (emic) view of a language
PHONEMICS
• Phoneme is a sound that functions to distinguish one word from
another
• Example: “t” and “d” are different sounds, and also distinguish the
word “tie” from the word “die”
• This is also a minimal pair, or a pair of words in which one difference
in sound makes a difference in meaning
• This is how to identify phonemes
PHONEMICS
• Allophones are another type of phoneme; they are a group of sounds
that together form a single phoneme
• Each allophone is a separate unit but all together they make up a
phoneme
• Wherever you find allophones in a language, there is a good chance
you will also find a pattern that defines how and where they are used
in a language
• Example:
• [ph] (aspirated p sound) usually occurs at the beginning of words
• [p] (unaspirated p sound) usually occurs in the middle of words
PHONEMICS
• Example:
• [ph] (aspirated p sound) usually occurs at the beginning of words
• [p] (unaspirated p sound) usually occurs in the middle of words
• Aspirated Unaspirated
• Peak Speak
• Pool Spool
• Pend Spend
• Pun Spun
PHONEMICS
• The previous example is one of complementary distribution (the
different variations, or allophones, are distributed between different
words)
• Conditioned variation means variation in allomorphs happens
because of the sounds around them
• Sometimes this can be social
• Men and women can pronounce words differently (example, pg. 69)
• Even if two languages have the same phones, they may not group them into
phonemes and allophones the same way
• How does “ng” sound in our language? Where is it found in a word?
• How do you pronounce ngoma (drum)? Why is this difficult?
PARALANGUAGE
• Paralanguage refers to anything that is communicated alongside
language
• Voice cues
• Intensity
• Penmanship
• Emoticons 
• USING ALL CAPS
• One must learn how to use these properly as well
VOICE QUALITY AND INTONATION
• AKA tone of voice
• Most commonly noticed type of paralanguage
• What does it mean when you whisper?
• What does it mean if you whine?
• How do you talk to a baby?
• Trend of ‘rising intonation’ (began with “Valley Girl”): voice goes up at
the end of a sentence
• How can this be confusing with meaning?
SOUNDS: TONE
• Pitch of voice can also convey meaning
• What are the differences between these:
• She went to class.
• She went to class?
• In tone languages, changing voice pitch changes meaning of the
word
• Example: Nupe (African):
• Bá: high tone = “to be sour”, mid tone = “to cut”, low tone = “to
count”
• Example: Thai:
• Nâa: tone falls on second vowel = “face”
• Nˇaa: tone rises on second vowel = “thick”
1 sur 34

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LAMC104Lec3(1).ppt

  • 1. THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE CHAPTER 3
  • 2. THE POWER OF LANGUAGE •Humans are the only animals with complex verbal language •What do you need to know in order to understand language?
  • 3. THE POWER OF LANGUAGE • Example: “My boyfriend and I are flying to his mother’s next week.” • Distinct sounds • Each word has a specific meaning • Different tenses • Implicit meanings • Order of the words
  • 4. THE POWER OF LANGUAGE • This is linguistic knowledge • Most of this knowledge is unconscious and learned at a young age during enculturation • It is intuitive and understood (most times) immediately • Words are arbitrary • Words are combinations of discrete and recombinable sounds • Language is creative • It can discuss hypothetical or imaginary things
  • 5. INTRODUCTION • To learn a language, you must learn sound production • Rules for producing any sound in any human language • You must also learn phonology • Many sounds in other languages will not be the same as those in your native language
  • 6. PHONOLOGY • The study of sounds in a language • It focuses on two differences • 1. phonetics • Identifies and describes language sounds • 2. phonemics • Analyzes the way sounds are arranged in a language
  • 7. EMIC AND ETIC • Phonetic study is often etic • Phonemic study is often emic
  • 8. LANGUAGE AND SOUND • In other words, • Linguists describe and analyze the nature and patterning of sounds • These patterns make the phonological system and the study of this is phonology • When you speak you do not consciously think of sounds • The word “debt” • How many sounds does this have? • How is this different from “pet”?
  • 9. PHONOLOGY • A phonetic chart shows all the sounds of a language and uses different symbols for different sounds made by the same letter • The sounds on the chart are called phones
  • 10. PHONOLOGY • A phonemic chart shows only the distinctive sounds of a language, and all sounds made by one letter are grouped together • The sounds on the chart are called phonemes
  • 11. PHONOLOGY • If you grew up speaking one language you will probably use the phonetic system even when learning new languages • If you grew up speaking multiple languages, then you can use multiple phonetic systems
  • 12. PHONETICS • Three types: • 1. Acoustic • Physical properties of sounds/soundwaves • Voice recognition, voiceprints • 2. Auditory • How sounds are perceived and interpreted • 3. Articulatory/Descriptive • How speech sounds are produced • Catalogue all human language sounds • Used in fieldwork
  • 13. ROSETTA STONE • Egyptian hieroglyphs are not pictures, they are phonemes • https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/history/ancient- medieval/Ancient/v/rosetta-stone--196-b-c-e
  • 14. ANATOMY • Three areas of importance: • 1. Lungs • Push air out • 2. Larynx • Where voice box is located and where vocal cords modify air into sounds • 3. Supralaryngeal vocal tract • Above vocal cords • Where sound waves become recognizable speech sounds
  • 16. LARYNX • As air moves through larynx, it passes through vocal cords • If cords are relaxed and open, the sound is voiceless • If cords are closed and vibrating, the sound is voiced • Touch your throat and say “ssssss” and “zzzzzz” • Do you feel the difference?
  • 17. SOUNDS • Phonemes are the particular sounds that speakers and listeners recognize as distinct from other sounds • This gives different sounds different meanings • Compare: • /b/ and /p/ • Put your hands on your ears and say these sounds out loud • /b/ causes vibrations and is called voiced (others: /d/, /z/, /v/, /j/) • /p/ does not and is called voiceless (others: /t/, /s/, /f/)
  • 18. ARTICULATION ABOVE LARYNX • After air moves through larynx, it goes to the nose and mouth, where it can be modified and articulated • The position of the tongue and lips can change sounds • Articulation is • Place: where the air is being modified • Manner: how the air is being modified
  • 19. ARTICULATION ABOVE LARYNX • Phonetic charts are important in understanding different languages • There are different spellings and symbols for different sounds in different languages • International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was used to have one unique symbol for each sound • This was modified to the American Usage System (AUS) • Both charts are used
  • 20. VOWELS AND CONSONANTS • These are shown on every phonetic chart • Vowels have less constricted air flow and consonants have more constricted air flow • Let’s practice pronouncing different ones
  • 21. VOWELS AND CONSONANTS: ARTICULATION • “Bilabial Stop” • Bilabial (with both lips) • Stop (stop the air and then let it out) • “B,” “P” • Turn to pg. 57-59 and look over articulation places and manners • Practice: • Alveolar nasal “N” • Palatal approximate “J” • Velar stop (plosive) “K,” “G”
  • 22. VOWELS AND CONSONANTS: ARTICULATION • Be familiar with the terms for place and manner
  • 23. VOWELS AND CONSONANTS: ARTICULATION • Generally, consonants are sounds made by constricting the air stream and vowels are made by not constricting the air as much or at all • Phonetic charts are not as helpful for vowels • We look at ways air streams can be modified • Height of tongue • How high tongue is in mouth: “ee” sound tongue is high, “ah” sound is low • Place of tongue • How far forward or back tongue is in mouth: “ee” sound tongue is forward, “oo” sound tongue is back • Rounding of lips • Holding lips in rounded or flat position: “oh” sound versus “ee” sound
  • 24. VOWELS AND CONSONANTS: ARTICULATION • These are guidelines • Different dialects and accents can make these sound differently
  • 25. BEYOND PHONETIC CHARTS • Phonetic charts show the basic sounds, or segments, of language • But language can further modify sounds • These are called suprasegmentals are have their own special symbols in a phonetic chart • Nasalization: sound goes through nasal cavity and not mouth • Pitch: high or low “notes” • Clicks: air released inward (symbol is ! In Kung) • Lengthening: holding sound for longer period of time
  • 26. ASSIGNMENT • Article on Click Languages • Video Log on Click Languages • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c246fZ-7z1w •
  • 27. PHONEMICS • In order to really understand and speak a language, you need to also know how the sounds are used • Phonemics/phonology analyzes the way sounds are arranged and what sounds are important in a language • Phonemics can give you an insider (emic) view of a language
  • 28. PHONEMICS • Phoneme is a sound that functions to distinguish one word from another • Example: “t” and “d” are different sounds, and also distinguish the word “tie” from the word “die” • This is also a minimal pair, or a pair of words in which one difference in sound makes a difference in meaning • This is how to identify phonemes
  • 29. PHONEMICS • Allophones are another type of phoneme; they are a group of sounds that together form a single phoneme • Each allophone is a separate unit but all together they make up a phoneme • Wherever you find allophones in a language, there is a good chance you will also find a pattern that defines how and where they are used in a language • Example: • [ph] (aspirated p sound) usually occurs at the beginning of words • [p] (unaspirated p sound) usually occurs in the middle of words
  • 30. PHONEMICS • Example: • [ph] (aspirated p sound) usually occurs at the beginning of words • [p] (unaspirated p sound) usually occurs in the middle of words • Aspirated Unaspirated • Peak Speak • Pool Spool • Pend Spend • Pun Spun
  • 31. PHONEMICS • The previous example is one of complementary distribution (the different variations, or allophones, are distributed between different words) • Conditioned variation means variation in allomorphs happens because of the sounds around them • Sometimes this can be social • Men and women can pronounce words differently (example, pg. 69) • Even if two languages have the same phones, they may not group them into phonemes and allophones the same way • How does “ng” sound in our language? Where is it found in a word? • How do you pronounce ngoma (drum)? Why is this difficult?
  • 32. PARALANGUAGE • Paralanguage refers to anything that is communicated alongside language • Voice cues • Intensity • Penmanship • Emoticons  • USING ALL CAPS • One must learn how to use these properly as well
  • 33. VOICE QUALITY AND INTONATION • AKA tone of voice • Most commonly noticed type of paralanguage • What does it mean when you whisper? • What does it mean if you whine? • How do you talk to a baby? • Trend of ‘rising intonation’ (began with “Valley Girl”): voice goes up at the end of a sentence • How can this be confusing with meaning?
  • 34. SOUNDS: TONE • Pitch of voice can also convey meaning • What are the differences between these: • She went to class. • She went to class? • In tone languages, changing voice pitch changes meaning of the word • Example: Nupe (African): • Bá: high tone = “to be sour”, mid tone = “to cut”, low tone = “to count” • Example: Thai: • Nâa: tone falls on second vowel = “face” • Nˇaa: tone rises on second vowel = “thick”