Citizenship is a term donating
membership of a citizen in a
political society, which
membership implies, reciprocally ,
a duty of allegiance on the part of
the member and duty of
protection on the part of the
Citizen is a person having the title
of citizenship. He is the member
of a democratic community who
enjoy full civil and political rights,
and is accorded protection inside
and outside the territory of the
5. DISTINGUISHED FROM
NATIONALITY AND NATIONS
From the point of view of international law,
“citizenship” and “citizen” do not exactly
mean the same as “nationality” and
The national of a state include not only its
citizens who enjoy full civil and political
privileges but also others who are not its
citizens ,but because the owe allegiance to it,
are not regarded as aliens.
While all citizens are nationals of a state , not
all nationals are citizens of a state.
An alien is a citizen of a
country who is residing in or
passing through another
country. He is a popularly
called “foreigner”. He is not
given the full rights to
citizenship but is entitled to
received protection as to his
person or property.
8. 1. BIRTH
There are two practices
which are observed
regarding the acquisition
of citizenship by birth
9. JUS SANGUINIS:
According to this practice , citizenship of parents of the place
of birth .
e.g. child born of Pakistani parents is a Pakistani citizen whether it
is born on Pakistani soil or abroad.
According to this practice , citizenship is
determined by the place of birth and not by
e.g. A child born of English parents in America,
becomes the citizen of America according to the
practice of JUS SOLY.
10. 2- NATURALIZATION:
According to this method, an alien can become
a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions.These
condition vary from state to state. Some are..
A certain period of residence in the state is
essential before an alien can be granted
In england and USA this period is 5 years.
11. 2-OATH OF ALLEGIANCE:
An alien must take an oath of allegiance before
he can become a citizen of another state.
An alien may be given rights of citizenship if he
renders military r civil services in another state.
Women acquire the citizenship of their alien
husbands e.g. an english lady will acquire the
citizenship of pakistan if she marries an pakistani.
12. LOSS OF CITIZENSHIP:
Citizenship may be lost under the following
One may renounce the citizenship of
one’s original state and may become the
citizen of a foreign state by naturalization.
Women lode the citizenship of their
original state if they marry aliens.In
England, there is a move to retain English
citizenship for women marrying foreigners.
13. 3- ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE FROM FOREIGN
We can lose citizenship ,if they accept
service in a foreign state.
In some states,citizens who absent
themsleves from their state for more than ten
years may lose their citizenship.
14. DEMOCRACIES DEPEND UPON CITIZENS
WHO, AMONG OTHER THINGS ARE:
Awareness of their rights and responsibilities
as citizens informed about the social and
Concerned about the welfare of others.
Articulalte in their opinions and arguments.
Capable of having an influence on the world .
Active in their communities.
Resonsible in how they act as citizens.
15. Qualities of a good citizens:
Courage to defend a point of view.
Willingness to listen to, work with and
stand up for others.
A respect for justice , democracy and
the rule of law.
16. Rights of a citizen:
A citizen have various rights .out
of which fundamental rights are: