The process by which sensory information is
actively organized and interpreted by the brain
The process of selecting, organizing, and
interpreting raw sensory data into useful mental
representations of the world.
Subjective factor are related to the perceiver's own
self. There are stated as the internal state or
Some subjective are:
Past experience and Knowledge.
Objective factor are found in the physical
environment know as stimuli. There stimuli are so strong
that an individual is attracted to attend to them and
Social factor are related to need and interest of the
group in society to which an individual belongs. Men is a
social animal. He cant live alone
There are five kinds of perception
Perception of Movement.
Kinds of Perception:
Perception depends on sensory information's. On
the base of these information, different forms and
patterns are perceived.
According to wood worth, perceptual organization
is based on two thinks:
Law of Proximity or Nearness.
Law of Similarity.
Law of Good from or figure.
Law Of Perceptual Organizations:
Proximity means nearness. According to this law,
the things situated nearer to each other; form a figure or
a pattern and are perceived as a whole figure. This
proximity may be in space and time. If different words are
set nearer to each other, they form an organization.
Consequently, we perceive them in a moment. As it is
evident from the following figure
Laws of Nearness or proximity:
Law of similarity or likeness is the perceptual tendency to
group together similar elements. If different objects are similar in
shape, we classify them in a group; and perceive accordingly as
shown in fig:
Law of similarity or Likeness:
In the law of good form, the stimuli having stimuli
having similar ship are grouped together. This group[
may b of five types
Law of Good Form:
The perceptual tendency to see all the parts of a
figure in “one whole” is called the whole good
continuation. It make a picture of the grouping
A symmetrical figure makes a perceptual
organization and perceived sooner.
In the following figures we perceived circles, areas
and lines as a single unit when uniformed and linked.
It is our perceptual tendency to fill the gaps or
closure fills the gaps in perceptual organization to help us
to perceive it as a whole complete form, for example the
following incomplete circle
When the stimuli are presented in a straight line or
a semi-circle form, their grouping in the perceptual
organization is classified in two groups because of their
common direction, for example
Sometimes all the stimuli are include to form a
Due to this inclusiveness in the following lines of similar
Movement or Motion is perceived by following the
progressive change of an object’s position in space with time.
It has two types
Perception of Movement:
The perception of the actual movement of objects
in the world is termed as “real motion/movement
It is movement perceived in the absence of
physical movement of an image across the retina. This
can be produced by a rapid succession of motionless
stimuli that minimize the changes that occur in real
The ability to view the world in three dimensions
and to perceive distance is known as depth perception.
“This ability helps to perceive three dimensional space
and to accurately judge distance”
We perceive time in, seconds, minutes, and hours
which pass into days weeks months and in years and even
in centuries. Time is perceived in terms of Past, Present,
and Future Perception of time is less in children than
elders Several factors influence time perception: Subjective
(age, activity, motivation, intelligence) Objective:
Three types of constancy are explained briefly
Type of Perceptual Constancy:
Size constancy is the tendency to perceive objects
in a consistent manner despite the changing sensations
that are received by our senses. visual constancy plays an
important role in helping us adapt to our environment
When we know that the object is a certain
shape ,we tend to perceive it as the same shape,
regardless of the viewing angle. We have learned
to make corrections in our perception dependent
on the angle from which we observe
Colors of objects tend to remain constant in
perception when we know their true color. Visual
objects also appear constant in their degree of
whiteness, grayness and blackness.
Something that looks or seems different from what
it is something that is false or not real but that seems to
be true or real.
Habit & Familiarity.
Expectancy & Mental Set.
Momentary State of Mind or Mood.
Incomplete analysis of the collective impression.
Arrangement of stimuli.
Causes of Illusion:
There are two type of illusion:
Illusion Of motion.
The Illusion Of forms.
Type of Illusion:
When a stationary stimulus is perceive as moving,
it is named as illusion of motion or movement.
Illusion Of motion.
The Illusion of Phi-phenomenon.
The Illusion of Stroboscope.
The Illusion of Gama phenomenon.
The Illusion of Delta motion.
The Illusion of Auto-Kinetic.
The Illusion of Induced movement.
The Illusion of negative after image of movement.
Types of Illusion of motion:
Form perception is attained in relation to the
figure and ground according to the law of perception
Organization. As the figure is smaller then the ground
according to perceptual.
The Illusion of form:
The illusion of distance occurs when the parallel
lines seem to bend in different directions.
The Illusion of distance:
Psychologists have fail to understand this illusion. It
seem that the curving line behind the spiral have become the
cause of this illusion. The illusion is also known as the false
spiral, or by its original name, the twisted cord illusion.
Spiral circle illusion:
The parallel lines seem to bend to each other
instead of looking straight. The reason of this Illusion is
the smaller diagonal lines cutting the parallel line.
The Zollner Illusion:
If two parallel line are dissected by another
straight line separately, a large straight line seem cutting
the parallel line instead of two partial line.
The Poggindorf’s Illusion:
The Herring illusion can also be induced by a
background of optic flow. It is two horizontal line are
cure by the line of different direction, will not look
parallel. The distance between the two lines looks greater
where the lines assemble from different direction as is
found in fig
A near object is near usually perceived larger and
farther object is perceived smaller but in the moon
illusion, moon is perceived larger on horizon where the
earth and sky seem to meet.
The Illusion of size: