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Research Proposal Writing.pptx

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Research Proposal Writing.pptx

  1. 1. Writing Research Proposals
  2. 2. RESEARCH PROPOSAL/SYNOPSIS OUTLINE Title page • As given in the application form by the funding agency, university or department. • Different organization will have different format for this page, • and even for the proposal.
  3. 3. RESEARCH PROPOSAL/SYNOPSIS OUTLINE Title Page • Follow the style prescribed by the style manual suggested by the university, department or adviser. Title • Should contain key words or phrases to give a clear and concise description of the scope and nature of the report
  4. 4. RESEARCH PROPOSAL/SYNOPSIS OUTLINE Chapter 1 - Introduction • Background and Setting • Provide reader with necessary background and setting to put the problem in proper context. • Statement of the Problem • Characteristics of properly stated problems will be discussed; see notes. Clearly describe the problem to be researched.
  5. 5. RESEARCH PROPOSAL/SYNOPSIS OUTLINE Significance of the Problem • These arguments can be presented in the "Background and Setting” section. Chapter 2 - Review of Literature • Organized and written in reference to the specific objectives of the study • Proposals generally do not include as a complete review as does the report.
  6. 6. RESEARCH PROPOSAL/SYNOPSIS OUTLINE Chapter 3: Procedures (Some writers call this chapter "Methodology”) • REPLICATION is the key word to keep in mind when writing this chapter. • Researchers must provide accurate, detailed descriptions of how the research is to be done.
  7. 7. RESEARCH PROPOSAL/SYNOPSIS OUTLINE Budget estimates • Cost of in different heads with justification. • Yearly or quarterly estimates. • Permanent equipment and running cost (operating cost)separated • Time line for work plan and activities • When to do what.
  8. 8. ASSIGNMENT Look for application forms for grant proposals of the following organization • Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. • Pakistan Science Foundation. • International Foundation for Science
  9. 9. Review of Literature
  10. 10. WHAT IS A LITERATURE REVIEW? • A literature review is an evaluative report of studies found in the literature related to your selected area. • The review should; • describe, • summarize, • evaluate • and clarify this literature.
  11. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW • It should give a theoretical basis for the research and help you determine the nature of your own research. • Select a limited number of works that are central to your area, • rather than trying to collect a large number of works that are not as closely connected to your topic area.
  12. 12. LITERATURE REVIEW A literature review goes beyond the search for information and includes the; identification and articulation of relationships between the literature and your field of research.
  13. 13. LITERATURE REVIEW While the form of the literature review may vary with different types of studies, the basic purposes remain constant: Provide a context for the research Justify the research Ensure the research hasn't been done before (or that it is not just a "replication study") Show where the research fits into the existing body of knowledge
  14. 14. LITERATURE REVIEW • Enable the researcher to learn from previous theory on the subject • Illustrate how the subject has been studied previously • Highlight flaws in previous research • Outline gaps in previous research • Show that the work is adding to the understanding and knowledge of the field • Help refine, refocus or even change the topic
  15. 15. WHO WRITES LITERATURE REVIEW? • Literature reviews are written occasionally in the humanities, • but mostly in the sciences and social sciences; • in experiment and lab reports, they constitute a section of the paper. • Sometimes a literature review is written as a paper in itself.
  16. 16. LITERATURE REVIEW ORGANIZATION Once you have the basic categories in place, then you must consider how you will present the sources themselves within the body of your paper. Create an organizational method to focus this section even further.
  17. 17. LITERATURE REVIEW CHRONOLOGICAL Organizing the materials according to when they were published. The review loses its focus. The final product may loose the cohesion.
  18. 18. LITERATURE REVIEW BY PUBLICATION • Order your sources by publication chronology, • then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. • For instance, you could order a review of literature on Food Technology studies of milk packing, • if the progression revealed a change in packing practices of the researchers who wrote and/or conducted the studies.
  19. 19. LITERATURE REVIEW BY TREND • A better way to organize the above sources chronologically is to examine the sources under another trend, • such as the history of milk packing. • Then your review would have subsections according to eras within this period. • For instance, the review might examine packing from pre-1600-1699, 1700-1799, and 1800-1899 and so on.
  20. 20. LITERATURE REVIEW THEMATIC • Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. • However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. • e. g. Tin packing, paper packing, lined cardboard packing, bottle packing etc. • More authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.
  21. 21. WRITING LITERATURE REVIEW • Once you’ve settled on a general pattern of organization, you’re ready to write each section. • There are a few guidelines you should follow during the writing stage as well. Use evidence • Writers refer to several other sources when making their point. • A literature review in this sense is just like any other academic research paper. • Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence to show that what you are saying is valid.
  22. 22. LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING Be selective • Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. • The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the review’s focus, • whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological.
  23. 23. LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING Use quotes sparingly • Some short quotes here and there are okay, • though, if you want to emphasize a point, • or if what the author said just cannot be rewritten in your own words. • Otherwise, try to avoid.
  24. 24. LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING Summarize and synthesize • Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. • Synthesize it by rephrasing the study’s significance and relating it to their own work.
  25. 25. LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING Keep your own voice • While the literature review presents others’ ideas, • your voice (the writer’s) should remain front and center. • Weave the references to other sources into their own text, • but they still maintain their own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with your own ideas and words. The sources should support what you are saying.
  26. 26. LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING Use caution when paraphrasing • When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, • be sure to represent the author’s information or opinions accurately and in your own words.
  27. 27. LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING Revise, Revise, Revise • Spending a lot of time revising is a wise idea, • So check over your review again to make sure it follows the outline. • Then, rewrite or rework the language of your review, • so that you’ve presented your information in the most concise manner possible.

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